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PROJECT DELAY & EXTENSION ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

* Global Impact Method :


Simplistic and easy to present, represented by a narrative. Often an
inaccurate way to depict the impact of delay causing events. Total
delay is purported as being the sum total of durations. ignoring
concurrency. scheduling errors. and changes to the as-built schedule.
and assumes that all occurrences affected the critical path.

* Net Impact Technique :


Simplistic and easy to present. Bar chart or C'PM schedules
illustrating the planned baseline schedule and asbuilt schedule. The
schedule plot shows all delays. disruptions and suspensions on the
as-built schedule. argues that the only logical conclusion is that
the overwhelming effect has delayed the project. and brills the basis
for a time extension for delay between the planned completion and
actual completion. The schedule analysis ignores concurrent delay
events. claimant errors, scheduling errors. and changes to the as-
built schedule.

* As-Planned CPM Technique :


Common and simplistic technique used to show delay to the as-planned
schedule only. Various delays. disruptions. and suspensions are
presented as events with durations and added to the baseline schedule
including appropriate sequence. The baseline schedule is allowed to
calculate with the delaying events and the claimants time extension
is the duration between the planned completion and the new impacted
planned completion. The technique does not consider the as-built
schedule. status of the schedule when delays occurred. and assumes
that the claimant is not responsible for concurrent delay. The fatal
flaw of this technique is that actual sequence and progress may have
been significantly different from the planned schedule.

* But For Analysis Using As-Planned CPM


Uses same premise as the "As-Planned CPM Technique" but chooses
events for which the claimant is willing to accept responsibility,
and inserts the delaying events into a baseline schedule. The "but
for" technique adjusts the as-planned completion date for delays that
are clearly the claimants responsibility and assumes that the
differences between the adjusted as-planned and actual completions
are responsibility of other palsy, forming the basis of the schedule
delay. The technique is as equally flawed as the "as- planned CPM
technique." and ignores the status of the schedule when the events
occurred and that the actual sequence and progress may have been
significantly different from the planned schedule.

* Collapsed As-Built Method :


Technique is more difficult than the techniques used on baseline
schedules. The method purports to address concurrent delays by
removing delays from the as-built schedule and collapsing it.
Durations of delays are usually arbitrarily established: a process
often manipulated to cover up the effect of a claimant's delay and
does not consider changes to the critical path.

* Impacted As-Built CPM :


Technique is similar to "collapsed as-built method" except that the
as-built schedule progress is removed and the as-built schedule is
developed in C'PM format. Delaying events are identified and depicted
in the as-built schedule as distinct activities. which are then tied
to specific work activities by constraints. The critical path is
determined twice. once in the as-planned schedule and again at the
end of the project. Claimant requests schedule extension for tinie
between the as-planned completion and as-built completion or the
impacted as-built C'P"M completion. If the impacted as-built
completion date is earlier than the planned completion date. the
claimant will claim that it is a result of constructive acceleration.
The technique is flawed to the point that the critical path
calculation is somewhat contrived since the calculation is after the
fact and is calculated only twice.

* Time Impact Analysis (Windows Method):


Notably recognized as the most creditable schedule analysis of all
techniques addressed above and the topic of this article. The method
is time consuming. costly. mad quantifies the impact of delay causing
events through an examination of the project status at certain times.
The goal is to develop a snap shot picture of the project each time
it experiences a major impact to the CPM schedule and accounts for
the dynamic sequence of events and actual project history and
compares impacts between the periodic snap shots. Fragnets (mini-
schedules) are developed to indicate affects of the events not
anticipated by the original schedule. A comprehensive time impact
analysis will likely demonstrate the clay for clay increase to
completion date. consumption of float. concunency with another delay.
recovery of time by acceleration or resequencing and accurately
simulates project history. The goal is to examine the impacts as they
occurred considering the status of the schedule during those times.
The method outlined below is based upon the Windows Method (time
inipact analysis) stated above, and has been modified for use in the
construction industry.