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Tutorial Sheet 1: Flow Kinematics

1. Obtain the expressions for radial and circumferential components of particle acceleration, ar and a✓ in polar coordinates.
! ⇣! ⌘ !
(Hint: Use the coordinate free form ! V + V .r V ; and the fact that partial derivatives of unit vectors, ê and
a = @@t r
ê✓ with respect to circumferential coordinate ✓ exists, i.e. see Learning aid.
2. Many flow phenomena can be understood if one learns to approximately visualize the flow pattern via streamlines of
the flow. An important step in this direction is to represent the kinematics of the flow using streamline coordinates as
shown in fig. 1. The figure shows a streamline in a 2D flow (for simplicity) at a given instant 0 t0 . Any point (say P) on
the streamline can be located with the help of a streamwise distance ‘s’ measured from some reference. Also the local
normal (from concave towards convex side) coordinate at the point along with the corresponding unit vectors, ês and
ên can be readily constructed as shown in fig 1. Let ✓ be the local slope and ‘R’ the local radius of curvature of the
streamline at the point P. ’Show that

(a) @ ês
@t = + @✓ @ ês
@t ên , @s =
ên
R
⇣ ⌘
(b) Acceleration of the particle: !a = @V @t + V
@V
@s ês + V @✓
@t
V2
R ên ; where V is the instantaneous speed of the
fluid particle at point P on the streamline
(c) Simplify the answer obtained in (b) for a steady flow
(d) Simplify the answer obtained in (b) for a steady flow with straight streamlines

x
3. The temperature ‘T’ is known to vary along the length of a long tunnel as T = To ↵e L Sin 2⇡ ⌧t , where To , ↵, ⌧, L
are constants and x is measured from the tunnel entrance. A fluid particle moves in the tunnel at a velocity given as
!
V = U î , where U is a constant. Obtain the general expression for the time rate of change of temperature experienced
by the particle.
4. Show that for a parallel incompressible flow with straight streamlines,
(a) The velocity does not vary along the flow direction (Use continuity)
(b) The convective acceleration in such a flow is zero.
(c) If the flow is steady also, the total acceleration is zero.
!
5. Consider the kinematics of infinitesimal material lines in a general two-dimensional flow i.e V = u (x, y) î + v (x, y) ĵ
Show that,
(a) the maximum and minimum instantaneous rotation
r⇣ rates experienced by infinitesimal material lines at any point
⇣ ⌘ ⌘2 ⇣ ⌘2
in the flow is, !max/min = 12 @x
@v @u 1
@y ± 2
@v @u
@x + @y
@v
+ @y @u
@x Also find the orientation of the material
lines that rotate with these angular velocities.
(b) there exists a unique pair of orthogonal material lines at a given point in the flow domain that rotate at the same
instantaneous angular velocity. Obtain the orientations of these material lines and their angular velocity.
(c) The shear strain rate ˙ ✓,✓+ ⇡ is zero if one of the lines is oriented at an angle 0 ✓0 given by tan 2✓ = ( @v
2
@x + @y )/( @x
@u @u
@y )
@v

(d) The orientations of the material lines at any point that experience the largest / smallest instantaneous linear
strain rates ✏˙✓ are given by, tan 2✓ = ( @v
@x + @y )/( @x
@u @u
@y )
@v

(e) The pair of material lines obtained in (b), (c) and (d) are coincident.
!
6. Consider a steady, incompressible flow with purely circular streamlines, V = v✓ ê✓

(a) Show that v✓ = f (r, z)


(b) If the variations along z are negligible, then show that
i. for an irrotational flow, v✓ = k/r where k = const
ii. for a rotational flow with uniform vorticity, v✓ = (⌦r)/2

1
7. Consider 1 and 2 as two scalar functions, then prove the following
D( 1± 2) D 1 D 2
(a) Dt = Dt ± Dt
D( 2) D 1 D 2
(b) 1
Dt = 2 Dt + 1 Dt