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(50% of this box is green)

(25% of this box is green)

Examples:

100% means all.

Example:

100% of 80 is 100100 × 80 = 80

50% means half.

Example:

50% of 80 is 50100 × 80 = 40

5% means 5/100ths.

Example:

5% of 80 is 5100 × 80 = 4

Using Percent

When 100% =

80

then:

75% = 60

(What is 40% of 80? What is 10% of 200? What is 90% of 10?)

"this should be divided by 100"

So 75% really means 75100

And 100% is 100100, or exactly 1 (100% of any number is just the number,

unchanged)

And 200% is 200100, or exactly 2 (200% of any number is twice the number)

As a percentage: 50%

As a decimal: 0.5

1

As a fraction: /2

Example: Calculate 25% of 80

25% = 25100

And 25100 × 80 = 20

So 25% of 80 is 20

Example: 15% of 200 apples are bad. How many apples are

bad?

15% = 15100

= 15 × 2

= 30 apples

that?

The old price was $120.

Find the new price.

25% = 25100

And 25100 × $120 = $30

Calculation Trick

This little rule can make some calculations easier:

x% of y = y% of x

Example: 8% of 50

And 50% of 8 is 4

So 8% of 50 is also 4

The Word

"Percent" comes from the latin Per Centum. The latin word Centum means 100,

for example a Century is 100 years.

Percent vs Percentage

My Dictionary says "Percentage" is the "result obtained by multiplying a

quantity by a percent". So 10 percent of 50 apples is 5 apples: the 5 apples is

the percentage.

But in practice people use both words the same way.

Percentage Difference

The percentage difference is:

The difference between two values divided by the average of the two values.

Shown as a percentage.

Example continued

Example continued

Difference is 25 − 15 = 10

Average is (25 + 15) / 2 = 20

10 as a percentage of 20 is:

The percentage difference between 25 and 15 is 50%

Example continued

Now let's find out when, why and how to use it ...

Percentage Difference is used when both values mean the same kind of

thing (for example the heights of two people).

But if there is an old value and a new value, we should use Percentage Change

Or if there is an approximate value and an exact value, we should

use Percentage Error

Because there is no obvious way of choosing which value is the "reference"

value.

Example continued

If we use "25" we get 10/25 = 40%

But which one should we use? And if someone else did the calculations which

one would they use?

What if the Difference is Negative?

We can't say which value is more important, so we can't say if the difference is

"up" (positive) or "down" (negative) ... so we simply ignore any minus sign.

Difference = 6 − 9 = −3

But in this case we ignore the minus sign, so we say the difference is simply 3

as Sam and Alex are equally important!)

How to Calculate

Step 1: Calculate the difference (subtract one value form the other) ignore any

negative sign

Step 2: Calculate the average (add the values, then divide by 2)

Step 3: Divide the difference by the average

Step 3: Convert that to a percentage (by multiplying by 100 and adding a "%" sign)

Examples

Example: Juice costs $4 in one shop and $6 in another shop, what is

the percentage difference?

Step 1: The difference is 4 − 6 = −2, but ignore the minus sign: difference=2

Step 2: The average is (4 + 6)/2 = 10/2 = 5

Step 2: Divide: 2/5 = 0.4

Step 3: Convert 0.4 to percentage: 0.4×100 = 40%.

Another Example: There were 160 smarties in one box, and 116 in

another box, what is the percentage difference?

The Formula

You can also put the values into this formula:

100%

(The "|" symbols mean absolute value , so any negatives become positive)

Example: "Best Shoes" gets 200 customers, and "Cheap Shoes" gets

240 customers:

An interesting thing about this formula is that it doesn't matter which is the 1st

or 2nd Value:

Percentage Points

One Percentage Point = 1%, as a simple difference.

Example: Going from 14% to 15% is a rise of 1 Percentage Point

Difference"!

If you simply subtract one percentage from another, use the term

" Percentage Points " when talking about the difference.

This makes it clear that you do not mean a relative change (ie some fraction of

the original value).

Example:

Headline: "Interest Rates Jump From 10% to 12%"

Is 12/10 = 1.2 = 120%, so that is a

that: 20% rise.

O From 10% to 12% which is a 2%

r is that: rise?

two values (the new value divided by the old value).

But people with home loans may think you mean that interest rates went from

10% to 30%, and you don't want them falling over in surprise!

So here are two correct ways to talk about a rise from 10% to 12%:

a rise of 20%

2 Percentage Points today, meaning a 20% increase in interest payments"

Basis Points

In financial markets they often use the term "Basis Points". A Basis Point is one

hundredth of a Percentage Point:

so:

Example:

Decimals, Fractions and Percentages

Decimals, Fractions and Percentages are just different ways of showing

the same value:

As a fraction: 1

/2

0.

As a decimal:

5

5

As a percentage:

0%

As a fraction: 1

/4

0.

As a decimal:

25

2

As a percentage:

5%

2

5%

One Quarter

© 2015

MathsIsFun.com v 0.81

Example Values

Here is a table of commonly used values shown in Percent, Decimal and

Fraction form:

Percen De Fractio

t cimal n

0.0

1% 1

/100

1

0.0

5% 1

/20

5

10% 0.1 1

/10

0.1

12½% 1

/8

25

20% 0.2 1

/5

0.2

25% 1

/4

5

0.3

331/3% 1

/3

33...

50% 0.5 1

/2

0.7

75% 3

/4

5

80% 0.8 4

/5

90% 0.9 9

/10

0.9

99% 99

/100

9

100% 1

1.2

125% 5

/4

5

150% 1.5 3

/2

200% 2

Conversions

To convert from percent to decimal : divide by 100, and remove the "%" sign.

The easiest way to divide by 100 is to move the decimal point 2 places to

the left:

From To

Percent Decimal

the "%" sign.

To convert from decimal to percent : multiply by 100, and add a "%" sign.

The easiest way to multiply by 100 is to move the decimal point 2 places to

the right:

From To

Decimal Percent

the "%" sign.

FROM FRACTION TO DECIMAL

The easiest way to convert a fraction to a decimal is to divide the top number

by the bottom number (divide the numerator by the denominator in

mathematical language)

Example: Convert 2

/5 to a decimal

Divide 2 by 5: 2 ÷ 5 = 0.4

Steps Example

0

First, write down the decimal "over" the number 1 .75

1

0.

Multiply top and bottom by 10 for every number after the 75 × 100

decimal point (10 for 1 number, 100 for 2 numbers, etc) 1

× 100

7

5

(This makes a correctly formed fraction)

1

00

3

Then Simplify the fraction

4

FROM FRACTION TO PERCENTAGE

number by the bottom number. then multiply the result by 100, and add the

"%" sign.

Example: Convert 3

/8 to a percentage

Then multiply by 100: 0.375 x 100 = 37.5

Add the "%" sign: 37.5%

100), then use the steps for converting decimal to fractions (like above).

Steps Example

Convert 80% to a decimal (=80/100): 0.8

0

Write down the decimal "over" the number 1 .8

1

0

Multiply top and bottom by 10 for every number after the .8 × 10

decimal point (10 for 1 number, 100 for 2 numbers, etc) 1

× 10

8

(This makes a correctly formed fraction) 1

0

4

Then Simplify the fraction

5

Converting Between

Decimals, Fractions, and

Percents

Percent to DecimalPercent to FractionDecimal to FractionDecimal to PercentFraction to

DecimalFraction to PercentEquivalents

Purplemath

Percentages refer to fractions of a whole; that is, whatever you're looking at, the percentage is how

much of the whole thing you have. For instance, "50%" means "\frac{1}{2}21"; "25%" means

"\frac{1}{4}41"; "40%" means "\frac{2}{5}52"; et cetera.

Often you will need to figure out what percentage of something another thing is. For instance, if a

class has 26 students, and 14 are female, what percentage of the students are female? It is 14 out

of 26, or \frac{14}{26}2614 = 0.538461538462..., which is about 54%. (For more information on

MathHelp.com

"Percent" is actually "per cent", meaning "out of a hundred". (It comes from the Latin per centum for

"thoroughly hundred".) You can use this "out of a hundred" meaning, along with the fact

that fractions are division, to convertbetween fractions, percents, and decimals.

Percent to Decimal

Percent-to-decimal conversions are easy; you mostly just move the decimal point two places. The

way I keep it straight is to remember that 50%, or one-half, of a dollar is $0.50. In other words, I have

to move the decimal point two places to the left when I convert from a percent (50%) to

a decimal (0.50). To do any other percent-to-decimal conversion, I move the decimalpoint the same

number of places in the same direction, and drop the "%" character.

27% = 0.27

I dropped the "%" character and moved the decimal point two places to the left.

104% = 1.04

This percentage had three digits, so moving the decimal point two places to the left still left a digit on

the other side of the decimal point. You should expect this result from time to time.

0.5% = 0.005

This percentage already had a decimal place, which meant that the decimal form would have three.

Don't assume that your decimal forms will always have two decimal places; they can have many, or

even none. It'll depend on the percentage.

You can use the Mathway widget below to practice converting a percentage to a decimal. Try the

entered exercise, or type in your own exercise. Then click the button to compare your answer to

Mathway's. (Or skip the widget and continue with the lesson.)

Percent to Fraction

Percent-to-fraction conversions aren't too bad. This is where you use the fact that "percent" means

"out of a hundred". First you convert the percent to a decimal, and then you convert the decimal to

an out-of-a-hundred fraction. Then you simplify, if possible. For instance:

First I dropped the "%" character and moved the decimal point two places to the left. Then

I converted the decimalto an out-of-a-hundred fraction. Now I can reduce the fraction:

Most of these conversions are simple like the one above, but some require a little extra care. The

reason I converted to a decimal first is that the number of decimal places tells me how many zeroes

to have underneath. Notice that "0.40" can also be written as "0.4". Then 0.4 = \frac{4}{10} =

\frac{2}{5}104=52, which is the same answer as before. It works out because "0.4" has

one decimal place and "10" has one zero. This concept (matching the number of decimalplaces with

the number of zeroes) helps in more complicated problems:

Note that this percentage had a decimal place. This is what required the decimal to

have three decimal places. Don't just assume that all percentages will convert to two decimal places.

Pay attention to what you're doing!

\dfrac{\left(\frac{100}{3}\right)}{\left(\frac{100}{1}\right)} = \dfrac{1}{3}3331%=0.3331

=1003331=(1100)(3100)=31

Note here that the fraction is carried right along. Yes, the decimal point is moved two places to the

left, but the fraction doesn't budge. Then the resulting mixed number is placed over a hundred: two

zeroes for the two decimal places in the decimal form. The fraction does not count toward

the decimal places in your fractional form.

12\, \frac{1}{2}\% = 12.5\% = 0.125 = \dfrac{125}{1000} = \dfrac{1}{8}1221

%=12.5%=0.125=1000125=81

Because ½ is a terminating decimal (namely, 0.5), this percentage is simpler to convert than was the

previous one. Since the decimal form had three decimal places, the conversion fraction had three

zeroes in the denominator.

If you plan to take a business-math class, you should expect to need to work with percentages which

contain fractions. It's a good idea to understand how to do this stuff anyway, but I've only ever seen

it come up in business classes.

If you have a graphing calculator, you can probably have the calculator do this conversion for you.

Check your manual.

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