Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

TOPIC: POST COMMISSIONING AND STABILIZATION ISSUES OF NEW PLANT

CONDENSER COOLING WATER PUMP DISCHARGE DUCT


FAILURE AT M/s HINDUJA NATIONAL POWER PLANT, VIZAG-----A
CASE STUDY
Mr. RAMVARMA DATLA, Manager- BOP, SOMC
Mr. SOORAJ S S, Senior Engineer- TMD, SOMC
Steag O&M Company Pvt Ltd, Vizag.

ABSTRACT:

Stringent government policies towards cleaner environment and investor’s keenness to invest in cost
economic projects push designers to put effort in designing higher capacity Thermal power plants.
Also to reduce the overall Project Cost, the trend is to split the total project into small packages and
award these packages on EPC basis to different vendors. In such cases system integration plays a
vital role. Large capacity units require enormous amount of cooling water. This necessitates
installation of large capacity pumps and bigger size CW ducts. The designs for such large capacity
pumps and bigger size ducts demand inclusive approach for supports and other allied systems. In this
paper an attempt is made to share an experience of operating such a system, wherein severe duct &
duct support failure was experienced during the first trial operation of CW pump. The detailed analysis
by the design experts has pointed out that prima facie, this is related to inadequacy in design mainly
due to system integration related issues. After implementation of necessary modification in the design
on the support structure and duct as suggested by the expert team, the system is now rigid for various
transient loads and is running normal.

Such kind of massive and non-conventional hydraulic systems demands more stringent analysis of
steady and transient conditions. The objective of this paper is to create awareness among the
professionals on the criticality of such analysis before finalizing the design of various equipment in the
system.

This paper covers the type of CW system installed, specifications of major equipment in CW system,
various process related parameters, details of the incident and the observations of various agencies
involved in the failure study.

Key words:

CW Pump, CW duct, duct support, surge, DKAV, surge analysis.

Introduction:

M/s Hinduja National Power Corporation has installed two (2) nos of 520 MW Coal Fired Thermal
Power Plant Units at Viaskhapatnam in Andhra Pradesh. It is located on the coast of Bay of Bengal,
at distance of about 700 m from the coast. M/s HNPCL has awarded a Turnkey Project to M/s BHEL
for Engineering, Supply, Erection and Commissioning of this project. The contract for Sea Water
system was awarded to M/s Gammon India for Jetty and pipe support structures, M/s MEIL for
hydraulics &piping (EPC), M/S KBL for Pump and discharge valve, M/S TCE for surge analysis, M/s
Sanfield for Saddle Support bearing (EPC) and M/S Mott (Owners Engineer for HNPCL) for system
engineering. Sea Water is used for Condenser cooling, Ash Handling System and as an input to
Desalination Plant of 12.5 MLD capacity. About 1, 82,000 Cu.M /Hour of sea water is drawn from the
Intake wells known as caisson, one caisson is installed for each unit, located at 650mtrs from the
coastline. From the caisson, seawater is pumped to each unit to meet the requirement of Condenser
cooling, Ash Handling and Desalination Plant through intake pipes and the hot water from the
condenser is sent back to the diffuser tank on the jetty through outfall pipes. The hot water from the
diffuser tank is diffused to sea through diffuser piping.

Circulating Water System Description:

COOLING WATER PUMP DISCHARGE PIPE SUPPORT STRUCTURE FAILURE DUE TO SURGE DURING
CW PUMP FIRST TRIAL RUN-----A CASE STUDY
TOPIC: POST COMMISSIONING AND STABILIZATION ISSUES OF NEW PLANT

The circulating water system for 2 X 520 MW HNPCL Vizag TPP is an open cycle (once through) sea
water system. CW system for each 520 MW Unit comprises of Two Vertical Turbine Pumps each of
capacity 45500Cum/hr. and TDH of 27 m. There are total 4 numbers of CW Pumps for both the units
without any standby. Two pumps of each unit are connected to pipe header of 3600 Dia MS (cement
mortar lined). Two 3600 Dia CW Intake pipes are interconnected with 2100 Dia pipe inside the plant
boundary.

HNPCL Cooling Water System consists of

 Two (2) Nos CW Pump house, one pump house dedicated to meet the water requirement for
one unit
 Two (2) Nos CW Intake pipe line, 3600 dia MS (inside and outside cement mortar lined) from
CW Pump house to condenser inlet, each pipe dedicated to meet the water requirement for
one unit
 Two (2) Nos CW Outfall pipe line, 3600 dia. MS & GRP pipe from Condenser to Seal pit to
diffuser tank on jetty, each pipe dedicated to discharge the water of one unit
 One (1) Nos Common RCC Seal pit inside Plant boundary
 One (1) Nos Common Out fall Diffuser tank on the jetty
 Outfall Diffuser system with 6 pipes of 1600 dia. arranged in angular pattern to discharge
water in the Sea
 Interconnection Valve joining two 3600 dia. pipeline inside Plant boundary to facilitate
interchanging of pumps between units.
 Hydro-Mechanical system like Bulk Gate, Trash Rack, Travelling Water Screen, etc., at the
suction of each pump
 Sealing & Cooling water system for CW Pumps
 NaOCl dosing system
 Each discharge pipe has 10 number of Air release valves (DKAV’s) as surge protection
device.

Aerial view of CW System of HNPCL:

Intake Pipe Outfall Pipe


CW PH & Jetty
super structure Valve Pit (tapping for
Desalination plant Seal Pit
and EC plant).
FIG - 1

COOLING WATER PUMP DISCHARGE PIPE SUPPORT STRUCTURE FAILURE DUE TO SURGE DURING
CW PUMP FIRST TRIAL RUN-----A CASE STUDY
TOPIC: POST COMMISSIONING AND STABILIZATION ISSUES OF NEW PLANT

Description of the Incident:

During the first trial operation of the CW pump, after completion of all the commissioning activities like
Protections & Interlocks checking, initial filling of the duct, discharge valve testing, etc., pump was
started from the local PLC. Pump was kept in operation for about two (2) hrs. During this two-hour trial
operation, all operational parameters related to the pump, like motor current, discharge pressure,
bearing & winding temperatures, vibrations, sealing and cooling water flow, etc. were noted and found
to be normal.

After stabilization of all parameters, it was decided to stop the pump. For stopping the pump, first
pump discharge valve was to be closed as envisaged in the pump operational manual. Accordingly
close command was given from the hydraulic panel, but before the discharge valve could close fully,
pump tripped on motor bearing temperature high protection. It was observed that after giving close
command to the discharge valve, when the valve closed by 70%, motor non-driving end bearing
temperature shot up to 1450C from 630C, thereby causing tripping of CW pump. It was later confirmed
that the motor NDE bearing temperature RTD malfunctioned which caused tripping of the pump.

The hydraulic operated discharge valve closing time was set at 45sec from open to close by M/s KBL.

Observations:

After tripping of the pump, deformation was noticed in the pump discharge pipe support structures
and the buckling of the intake pipe. Major deformation of the supports on jetty was observed on the
portion of pipe adjacent to the expansion bellow in the pipe and on both sides of the expansion
bellow.

Fig-2

COOLING WATER PUMP DISCHARGE PIPE SUPPORT STRUCTURE FAILURE DUE TO SURGE DURING
CW PUMP FIRST TRIAL RUN-----A CASE STUDY
TOPIC: POST COMMISSIONING AND STABILIZATION ISSUES OF NEW PLANT

ANALYSIS:

Physical inspection of the discharge pipe support structure were carried out by all the agencies
involved in the design of the system

Post inspection, following points emerged as preliminary analysis.

 PTFE bearing surfaces on which the pipe support saddles are resting is found with grit and
concrete debris, which might have restricted free movement. The insert plate on which the
PTFE bearing is resting is deformed (bow) and the point of contact is not full, affecting the
bearing loading.

 Bearing surface used for the application has not been adequately designed for taking up the
surge loads of the kind experienced during the failure. On further analysis, the bearing
supplier has informed that the bearing was designed for taking vertical loads and sliding
forces of the pipe only. It was also revealed that the entire structure has not considered for
taking the surge loads during transients, as these force were not thought of during the
conceptual stage of the design.

Finally, all the EPC agencies involved in the engineering of piping have concluded that the forces
considered in the design are incorrect and the design is insufficient to take care of any transient
forces during the CW system operation.

Surge and water hammer:

When the velocity of a fluid in a pipe changes, such as when a pumps stops or starts there is a
change in the fluid momentum. In accordance with Newton’s second law, if there is a change in fluid
momentum the fluid must be subject to an external force. In a pipeline, this external force is provided
by a change in pressure or a pressure transient.

For steady state flow calculations it is usual to assume the fluid is incompressible however, for
unsteady flow this assumption is not so valid, particularly if the change in fluid velocity is very rapid.
This compressibility means it takes a finite amount of time for a velocity change in one part of the pipe
to propagate along it. A velocity change propagates along the pipeline as a wave at the sonic
speed. Alongside this velocity wave, there is also a pressure wave, which forces the fluid velocity
(momentum) to change. The movement of these pressure and velocity waves along a pipeline can
lead very high and low pressure transients.

Transient analysis report

On review of the transient analysis report (prepared by TCE) it was noted that the system will be
subjected to the transient conditions during operation and during these conditions, the entire piping
system will be subjected to heavy surges that can damage the system, if not addressed in the design.

The analysis has iterated for various critical operating conditions such as pumps start/stop, operating
pumps tripping and pumps tripping on total power failure.

The report summarized that the minimum closure period of 90 sec has been recommended for the
closure of the valve in case of normal and emergency operations of sequential shut down and power
failure. Based on this recommendation of valve closure time, of more than 90 secs, the number and
location of ARVs were recommended in the report.

COOLING WATER PUMP DISCHARGE PIPE SUPPORT STRUCTURE FAILURE DUE TO SURGE DURING
CW PUMP FIRST TRIAL RUN-----A CASE STUDY
TOPIC: POST COMMISSIONING AND STABILIZATION ISSUES OF NEW PLANT

MITIGATION MEASURES:

Option # 1:

The EPC agencies have suggested that the entire forces acting on the structure need to recalculated,
in view of the transient operating conditions of the system. Subsequent to the revised loads, the
structures has to be strengthened.

However, this is a massive job and would delay the project schedule further.

Option # 2:

Since the root of the problem is the surge (formation of pressure wave disturbance in the piping
system), it was decided to mitigate the disturbance during surges. The disturbance in the piping
system occurred because of the closure of the valve in a very short span of time compared to the
recommended value in the transient analysis, thereby not allowing sufficient time for dissipation of the
pressure wave disturbance.

In general, these disturbances are common in any closed piping system. These disturbances travel at
very high velocities in a very short span of time and will not be released from the closed system,
unless the systems are suitably designed taking into consideration of the transient analysis
recommendations. At times, these transient disturbances can be catastrophic.

The surge wave can be dissipated without affecting the structure in a normal condition from the duct,
if enough time and suitable passage is made available for its release from the pipe header. In the
case under consideration, the discharge valve has closed in 45 sec of time and during this short span,
the wave could not find the path for its release, as ARV’s installed in the piping system were designed
for a discharge closure time of 90 secs. This resulted in exertion of additional forces on the structures
and caused their deformation.

ACTION TAKEN:

The piping systems was redesigned to take care of such disturbances by carrying out the following
modifications

 Additional number air release valves (07 Nos) were installed at the header on jetty
 Discharge valve closure period adjusted. I.e., closing time increased from 45 sec to 90sec.
 The saddle curvature was increased from 120degree to 180degree.
 Cleaned the surfaces of PTFE bearings and ensured the required contact area.

Fig-3 Fig-4

COOLING WATER PUMP DISCHARGE PIPE SUPPORT STRUCTURE FAILURE DUE TO SURGE DURING
CW PUMP FIRST TRIAL RUN-----A CASE STUDY
TOPIC: POST COMMISSIONING AND STABILIZATION ISSUES OF NEW PLANT

CONCLUSION:

The contemporary India demands water intensive industries to be located in coastal areas so that
they can utilize seawater to meet their water requirements. Such plants erect massive civil super
structures like jetty, large size ducts, duct support pedestals, pumps etc. While designing the
structures of such large magnitude, special emphasis must be given for proper identification of all the
operating scenarios and the forces induced in the system during these transient conditions. The aim
should be to avoid the conditions that cause the surge wave to propagate and not dissipate properly.

It should be the endeavor of the engineering team to ensure a seamless integration of all the
packages. During such integration, the terminal points should be clearly defined and it should be the
responsibility of the system integrator to ensure that design input data to various vendors is correctly
furnished.

REFERENCE:

M/s TCE reports on Gammon structural engineering


M/s Gammon India reports and drawings for Jetty and structures support to pipe,
M/s MEIL reports and drawings for hydraulics & piping (EPC),
M/s KBL write ups and O&M manual for Pump and discharge valve,
M/s TCE reports for surge analysis,
M/s Sanfield reports and drawings for bearing (EPC)
.

*************************************

COOLING WATER PUMP DISCHARGE PIPE SUPPORT STRUCTURE FAILURE DUE TO SURGE DURING
CW PUMP FIRST TRIAL RUN-----A CASE STUDY