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temperature, which will be connected to the temperature indicator-controller (TIC) to let it control

the power output of the air heating system.

Fire alarm: The fire alarm will be installed on the convection oven as well, to prevent negative

influences to the whole process by the fire incidentally caused by the oven.

Fire alarm: This unit is the only unit using the actual fire across the process. Hence, it will have a

relatively higher possibility of causing fire hazard. Therefore, the fire alarm will be installed on the

vessel, which can inform operators if the emergency situations happened.

Fail close valve: This valve is connected to the fire alarm, in the emergency cases, the valve will

receive information from the alarm and close the valve, so that the gas supply can be ceased.

Temperature control: The temperature would be one of the crucial factor for the cooling system. Thus,

the temperature has to be monitored by the thermocouples installed inside of the cooler, which are

connected with the temperature indicator-controller (TIC). The TIC can control the speed of fans to

minimise the temperature variations.

Conveyor speed control: The controller of conveyor speed would be provided to get the flexibility of

the production line.

Conveyor speed control: The control system for the conveyor speed will be installed on the

packaging unit to gain the flexibility for the production rates.

9. Cost Economics

Preliminary cost estimation is very useful for the initial feasibility studies and to seek alternatives for

more economic solutions. Since it is usually based on the limited data of cost data, ±30% of errors

would often happen. (Coulson and Richardson, 1996) A series of cost estimation will be conducted in

this chapter to give a preliminary cost estimation of the node 4 in the whole process.

Purchase Cost of Major Equipment (PCE) is the total cost of purchasing the all equipment needed for

the process. The cost can be used as the basis of the factorial method of cost estimation, which can

predict the other costs, such as fixed capital costs (FCC) and the physical plant cost (PPC).

The following table is showing the approximate PCE of each equipment in the node 4.

Table 17 Purchase cost of equipment (2004 and 2017 mixed)

(Richardson,

£17657.8 (2004 Sinnott and

Conveyor belt C402 1

Hot plate basis) Coulson,

oven 1993)

£323946.7 (2017 (Triton

Hot plate - 1

basis) Alloys, 2017)

(Richardson,

Jet

£16154 (2004 Sinnott and

Impingement Conveyor belt C401 1

basis) Coulson,

Oven

1993)

58

ID: 1381993 Derui Zhu Detailed Individual Design Report

(Tyco Fire

£ 67023 (2017

Orifice nozzle - 484 Production,

basis)

2017)

(Richardson,

£52747.8 (2004 Sinnott and

Gas heater B401 1

basis) Coulson,

1993)

(Richardson,

PU401,

Heating £31765 (2004 Sinnott and

Centrifugal Pump PU402- 9

Vessel basis) Coulson,

PU409

1993)

(Richardson,

Sinnott and

Vessel HV401 1 £3331 (2004 basis)

Coulson,

1993)

(Richardson,

£27603.6 (2004 Sinnott and

Conveyor belt C404 1

Crumpet basis) Coulson,

Cooler 1993)

£249263 (2017 (Matches',

Fans - 254

basis) 2017)

(Richardson,

£10245.4 (2004 Sinnott and

Conveyor Belt C403 1

Teacake basis) Coulson,

Cooler 1993)

£113837 (2017 (Matches',

Fans - 116

basis) 2017)

Crumpet

£4355.6 (2017 (Alibaba,

Packaging Packaging Unit P402 1

basis) 2017)

Unit

Teacake

£4355.6 (2017 (Alibaba,

Packaging Packaging Unit P401 1

basis) 2017)

Unit

The cost of some miscellaneous equipment can be estimated by the coefficients and the equation

provided by Richardson, Sinnott and Coulson (1993). The equation and the coefficients are shown

below,

Table 18 The coefficients for cost estimation (Richardson, Sinnott and Coulson, 1993)

Conveyor belt (0.5m wide) 1200 0.75

Conveyor belt (1.0m wide) 1800 0.75

Furnaces (Box) 340 0.77

Tank 1450 0.6

Centrifugal Pump 1160 0.8

The cost of the conveyor belts in the hot plate oven and in the crumpet cooler, C402, C404, are

calculated based on the coefficients of 1m wide conveyor belt, and the conveyor belts of jet

59

ID: 1381993 Derui Zhu Detailed Individual Design Report

impingement oven and the teacake cooler, C401, C403, are calculated based on the coefficients of

0.5m wide conveyor belt.

The gas heater, B401, in the heating vessel, HV401, is considered as same as the boxed furnace,

when estimating the cost. The heating vessel, HV401, is assumed as same as a vertical tank when

estimating the cost.

The cost of the hot plate is calculated by obtaining its weight. Since the surface of the hot plate can

be calculated from the dimensions of the hotplate oven, the volume of the hotplate can be

estimated by assuming its thickness is 1cm. The material of the plate is hastelloy C22, using its

density, 8690kgm-3, (HighTempMetals, 2017) the total weight can be estimated. Triton Alloys (2017)

provides that the price of hastelloy C22 is $80 per kg, the total cost of the hotplate can be obtained.

As some of the cost is based on 2004 prices, it is necessary to convert them to the prices in 2017 by

taking inflations into account. The chemical engineering index will be used for the method of

conversion. The equation below is used for the inflation calculation.

𝐶ℎ𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑛𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑖𝑛 2017

Cost in 2017 = Cost in 2004×

𝐶ℎ𝑒𝑚𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝐸𝑛𝑔𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝐼𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑥 𝑖𝑛 2004

… … (76)(𝑅𝑖𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑑𝑠𝑜𝑛, 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑜𝑡𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐶𝑜𝑢𝑙𝑠𝑜𝑛, 1993)

The chemical engineering index of 2004 is mentioned in the work by Richardson, Sinnott and

Coulson (1993) which is 154. The index of 2016 is increased up to 556.8. (Chemical Engineering

Online, 2017) By using the equation (76), the cost of equipment can be estimated and shown in the

table below,

Table 19 Purchase cost of equipment with inflation considerations

C401 £58406

C402 £63843.2

C403 £37043

C404 £99803.1

B401 £190714

HV401 £12044

P401, P402 – P409 £114849

The total cost of equipment in the node 4 in 2017 is £1,339,483.2. As PCE is obtained, other cost can

be calculated by the factorial method, which will be demonstrated in following section.

The fixed capital is the cost of the bakery ready for start-up. It includes following costs of:

All equipment with the installation fees

Piping, instrumentation and process control system

Building

Land and civil engineering work

This cost can be calculated with the total physical plant cost (PPC). The total plant cost includes not

only the major equipment in the process, but also includes the additional cost on piping, electrical

wiring and utilities. These cost can be predicted by using the factors listed below,

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ID: 1381993 Derui Zhu Detailed Individual Design Report

Equipment erection F1 0.4

Piping F2 0.7

Instrumentation F3 0.2

Electrical F4 0.1

Buildings, process F5 0.15

Utilities F6 0.5

Storages F7 0.15

Site development F8 0.05

Ancillary buildings F9 0.15

𝑃𝑃𝐶 = 𝑃𝐶𝐸×(1 + 𝐹1 + 𝐹2 + 𝐹3 … + 𝐹9 … … (77)(𝑅𝑖𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑑𝑠𝑜𝑛, 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑜𝑡𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐶𝑜𝑢𝑙𝑠𝑜𝑛, 1993)

Therefore, PPC is £4,554,242.9. After the PPC is obtained, the FCC can be estimated by these factors,

Design and Engineering F10 0.3

Contractor’s fee F11 0.05

Contingency F12 0.1

FCC = PPC×(1 + F10 + 𝐹11 + 𝐹12 ) … … (78)(𝑅𝑖𝑐ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑑𝑠𝑜𝑛, 𝑆𝑖𝑛𝑛𝑜𝑡𝑡 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐶𝑜𝑢𝑙𝑠𝑜𝑛, 1993)

Hence the Fixed Capital Cost of the node 4 is £6,603,652.2.

Another important consideration in the cost estimation is that the operating cost. Estimating the

costs for running the plant is critical for the evaluation of the economic feasibility of the plant. There

are two main costs to consider when conducting the study of the operating cost, the variable

operating cost and the fixed operating cost. The variable operating cost is the cost of the material

which will tend to change over the time, such as the cost of electricity, and the cost of gas. The fixed

operating cost includes the costs keep constant over time, it is including the insurance, taxes,

licensing fees.

Firstly, the fixed operating cost (FOC) will be calculated. According to Coulson and Richardson (1993),

the FOC can be predicted by using the factors for FCC, which will be listed in the table below,

Maintenance costs 10% of FCC £660365.2

Operating labour (OL) 20 labours, each £30000 £600000

Lab costs 20% of OL £120000

Supervision 20% of OL £120000

Plant overheads 50% of OL £300000

Capital charges 10% of FCC £660365.2

Insurance 1% of FCC £66036.5

Taxes 2% of FCC £132073

Royalties 1% of FCC £66036.5

Total - £2724876.4

Therefore, the FOC for the node 4 can be estimated £2724876.4 annually.

The variable cost should be calculated based on the amount of the resources used by the node 4.

The main resources used in the node 4 are electricity and the gas.

61

ID: 1381993 Derui Zhu Detailed Individual Design Report

The power requirement for the hotplate oven O402 is 29.4kW, the process will be running

21hours a day, 340days a year, thus, the total electricity used by O402 is 209916kWh

annually.

The power requirement for the crumpet cooler conveyor C404 is 0.21kW, the total annual

electricity is 1500kWh.

The power requirement for the teacake cooler conveyor C403 is 0.064kW, the total annual

electricity is 457kWh.

The pump PU401 has 22.46W, so that the electricity consumption is 160kWh, and the

PU402-PU409 have the same power requirement of 128.4W, so each pump will consume

916.8kWh. There are eight same pumps, thus, the total annual electricity consumption is

7334.2kWh.

Other than electricity, the heating vessel for the jet impingement oven would use gas. It will

need 700kW, which means it would consume 4998000kWh of gas energy annually. This

means it would need 307234kg of methane will be consumed in the heating vessel in a year.

The amount of nitrogen and carbon dioxide consumed by the packing machines is

64533.57kg per year and 152114.9kg per year, respectively. According to Richardson,

Sinnott and Coulson (1993), the price of nitrogen in 2004 was 6 US cents per m3. Since the

US producer price index of nitrogen in 2004 was 104.1 and became 164.7 in 2016, the price

in 2004 can be converted to price in 2017 by the equation (76). Therefore, the price of

nitrogen in 2016 was 9.5 US cents per m3, which is 8 pence per m3. BOC (2017) claims that

the price of CO2 is 4 pence per m3.

Based on the given data of energy consumption, the variable operating cost can be calculated.

The energy prices for industrial usage is provided by the UK government (2016).

Electricity 10.843 pence per kWh 219367.2kWh £23786

Gas 2.533 pence per kWh 4998000kWh £12660

3 3

Nitrogen 8 pence per m 55393.6m £4431.5

Carbon dioxide 4 pence per m3 82581.4m3 £3303.3

Total £44180.5

Therefore, the annual variable operating cost for node 4 can be determined as £2769056.9.

10. Conclusions

The purpose of this section is to provide an overall review for the methods and the considerations

have been adapted in the process of designing the node 4 of the bakery. It can evaluate the reliability

and the validity of the designs.

Throughout the equipment design process, the calculations were all based on the parameters

provided from the revised mass and energy balance, which has been succeeded in enhancing the

reliability of the mass and energy balance in the scheme report by adapting several additional

references. Birmingham Food Consultancy does not use the method of detailed mass transfer in order

to calculate the mass balance, this is due to lack of several crucial parameters, such as the surface

vapour concentrations and the diffusivity coefficients, which should be obtained by sophisticated

experiments and simulations.

The specific heat capacity is another important parameter that has huge influence with the whole

design calculations. Hence, it is assumed very carefully to minimise the error. The specific heat

62

ID: 1381993 Derui Zhu Detailed Individual Design Report

capacity of the crumpet is assumed higher than that of teacakes, because the crumpets likely contain

more moisture than the teacakes do.

During the calculation of the coolers, the cooling time is determined with the calculations of heat loss

due to three main heat transfer mechanisms. The assumption made for this calculation is all the heat

loss from the hot baked products is used for evaporating the water. Based on this assumption, it was

possible to estimate the cooling time of crumpets and teacakes as 5.56 minutes and 2.87 minutes,

respectively. Due to the assumption made in this section, the cooling time maybe altering in the real

units.

The jet speed is an assumption made for the calculation of the heat transfer in the jet impingement

oven. This is because it would be necessary to know the maximum wind load that the teacake dough

can withstand in order to know the optimum wind speed for the jet stream. Unfortunately, it is

impossible to measure it without a practical experiment, thus, the slowest jet speed was chosen for

the calculations. It is clear that if the faster jet speed can be used for the oven, which would increase

the heat transfer coefficient. Therefore, the baking time of the teacake might be shorter in the real

situations.

There is a heating vessel for supplying hot air for the jet impingement oven, which will generate 700kJs-

1

of heat would be generated. In design report, it is assumed that this amount of heat will be only used

for the jet impingement oven, but it might be a possibility to consider the heat integration with other

nodes to provide more efficient way to treat the heat in the further design improvements.

A HAZOP for the node 4 has been conducted, which improved P&ID controlling system across the

process for minimising the possibility of hazard so that P&ID for the ode 4 on this report has been

carefully considered and achieved the best quality.

The cost estimation for the node 4 shows that the fixed capital cost of £4772175 and the total

operating cost of £2321768.1 each year. The FCC is probably relatively high because the alloys

employed in this bakery is relatively expensive, which can withstand several extreme environments,

such as high temperature, highly corrosive situations.

To conclude this report, the process has been designed with care of food safety, durability and

economic feasibility. The more detailed economic analysis will be discussed in the final report.

Therefore, it is able to say that the design of the node 4 in the bakery is economically viable with the

ability to produce the high-quality food products.

11. References

12. AFC Finishing Systems, (2017). Industrial Ovens Operation & Maintenance Manual. 1st

Oven-OM.pdf [Accessed 11 Mar. 2017].

13. American Osteopathic College of Dermatology, (2016). Nickel allergy - American

Osteopathic college of Dermatology (AOCD). [online] Available at:

http://www.aocd.org/?page=NickelAllergy [Accessed 28 Feb. 2017].

14. Anilkumar, P. and Sureshkumar, M. (2015). Engineering Chemistry-I (Anna University).

15. Arakawa Co Ltd., (2017). THERMOZONE [Vertical air Impingement Type] PRODUCTS.

[online] Available at: http://www.arakawa-

mfg.co.jp/english/products_thermozone_ai.html [Accessed 3 Mar. 2017].

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