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2.1 Review of Related Literature and Studies

This part introduces the related literature and studies after the in-depth search done

by the researchers. This will also present the synthesis of the art, theoretical and

conceptual framework to completely understand the research to be done and finally the

definition of terms for better comprehension of the study.

Foreign Literature

According to the statement in the study entitled “Use of Maize Cob for Production of

Particle Board”, “Agricultural residues are materials

generated in large quantities … can accumulate to such extent as to cause environmental

problems. Among agricultural residues, maize cob is one worthy of notice, and an

alternative use for maize cob would be to produce particleboard panels in association

with wood particles.”

Rice husk is described at the research article “Recycling of Rice Husk into a Locally-

Made Water-Resistant Particle Board”,


0316-1000164.php?aid=57170: “Rice husk is the by-product in rice milling operation

with an approximately 20 percent of the total weight of the paddy grain being processed.

Only a little portion of the rice husk produced is utilized in a meaningful way, the

remaining part is burnt into ashes or dumped as a solid waste with little being used in

animal feed formulation.. The reasons behind the use of rice husk in the construction
industry are its high availability, low bulk density, toughness, abrasive in nature,

resistance to weathering unique composition. The main components in rice husk are

silica, cellulose lignin. According to Omoniyi, rice husk contains high concentration of

silica in amorphous crystalline (quartz) forms. The presence of amorphous silica

determines the pozzolanic effect of Rice husk. Pozzolanic effect exhibits cementitious

properties that increase the rate at which the material gains strength.”

Local Literature

In an article entitled, “Husk to Home: Building Houses From Rice in the Philippines”, A team

of engineers is set to start building houses in the Philippines using materials from an

unexpected source – the country’s abundant supply of rice. Husk to Home have

developed boards made from discarded husks and are to start using them to create long-

lasting, sustainable, and eco-friendly homes. There are plenty of alternative construction

materials out there already, from a whole village made of plastic bottles in Panama, to

blocks made from plastic and rubber waste in Colombia and bricks grown from sand and

bacteria. But this team wanted to come up with a whole new idea, one that would use the

resources already available in the country itself. They spent several years experimenting

with different materials and adhesives, before hitting on rice husks (a waste product

produced from milling rice grains) as a possible option. As the eighth biggest rice

producer in the world, in the Philippines their husks are in no short supply. Now fittingly

named Husk to Home, they came up with a composite that was everything they wanted -

by replacing woodchips with husks the boards are robust, termite-resistant, eco-friendly
and made using easily available natural materials. And the adhesive binding the mixture

together is recycled too, from another product readily found in the Philippines, high

density polyethylene (HDPE) - the plastic used in plastic bags, bottles and other


2.2 Research Framework

Conceptual Framework

This study’s conceptual framework is about the effectiveness of the Bio-Loop

Thermal Insulation Panel Board as a power-saving, cost-efficient and sustainable

alternative material. The Bio-Loop Thermal Insulation Panel Board will deliver solutions

to decrease the use of non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels, natural gas and coal.

Among the other agricultural products corn cob has an additional advantage when

thought in terms of possible application for alternative processed products because it does

not collide with the worldwide food stock and it is generally considered as agricultural

waste. Recent research works like “Corn’s cob as a potential ecological thermal

insulation material” and “A contribution to the thermal insulation performance

characterization of corn cob particleboards” have given particular emphasis to the

application of corn cob in the industry.

The study will help future researchers that will need reference of information which

has to be reliable, functional and unbiased. It also relates to the significance of

sustainability not simply the process but rather also with the context of the panel. The

improvement of the future innovations has its boundaries however but to be able to stand

with a sustainable innovations is boundless.

2.2.1 Research Paradigm

In this part of the study, a presentation of conceptual framework is introduced to help aid

a better view and understanding to the ideas of the project.

INPUT Effectivity of Panel, Sustainability Solutions

PROCESS Collection of Data, Having the Research Feasible

OUTPUT Producing Eco-Friendly Thermal Insulation Board

2.3 Research Hypothesis


Relational Casual

Non- Will the Bio-Loop Panel be Casual hypotheses must be directional.

directional effective?

Directional Will the Bio-Loop Panel be an Does the Bio-Loop Panel have

effective alternative solution to the increased its potential to be

problem? administered as a sustainable solution to

the problem?

Relational Casual

Non- The researchers predict that the Casual hypotheses must be directional

directional Bio-Loop Panel will be effective

Directional The researchers predict that the The researchers predict that the Bio-

Bio-Loop Panel will be an Loop Panel will lead to a feasible

effective alternative solution to the material as a solution to the problem.


2.4 Definition of Terms

Bio-Loop Concept - “Nature becomes an endless source of feedstock for the built


Sustainable - Conserving an ecological balance by avoiding depletion of natural


Non-Renewable Resources - A resource of economic value that cannot be readily

replaced by natural means on a level equal to its consumption.

Renewable Resources - Resource which can be used repeatedly and replaced naturally.

Examples include oxygen, fresh water, solar energy and biomass.

Agricultural Wastes - Waste produced as a result of various agricultural operations. It

includes manure and other wastes from farms, poultry houses and slaughterhouses;

harvest waste; fertilizer run- off from fields; pesticides that enter into water, air or soils;

and salt and silt drained from fields.

Natural Fibers - Are fibers that are produced by plants, animals, and geological

processes. They can be used as a component of composite materials, where the

orientation of fibers impacts the properties.

Boards - A long, thin, flat piece of wood or other hard material, used for floors or other

building purposes.