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YEAST AND MOLDS IN FOOD The large and diverse group of microscopic foodborne yeasts and
YEAST AND MOLDS IN FOOD The large and diverse group of microscopic foodborne yeasts and
YEAST AND MOLDS IN FOOD The large and diverse group of microscopic foodborne yeasts and
YEAST AND MOLDS IN FOOD The large and diverse group of microscopic foodborne yeasts and
YEAST AND MOLDS IN FOOD The large and diverse group of microscopic foodborne yeasts and
YEAST AND MOLDS IN FOOD The large and diverse group of microscopic foodborne yeasts and
YEAST AND MOLDS IN FOOD The large and diverse group of microscopic foodborne yeasts and
YEAST AND MOLDS IN FOOD The large and diverse group of microscopic foodborne yeasts and
YEAST AND MOLDS IN FOOD The large and diverse group of microscopic foodborne yeasts and
YEAST AND MOLDS IN FOOD The large and diverse group of microscopic foodborne yeasts and
YEAST AND MOLDS IN FOOD The large and diverse group of microscopic foodborne yeasts and
YEAST AND MOLDS IN FOOD The large and diverse group of microscopic foodborne yeasts and
YEAST AND MOLDS IN FOOD The large and diverse group of microscopic foodborne yeasts and
YEAST AND MOLDS IN FOOD
YEAST AND MOLDS IN FOOD

The large and diverse group of microscopic foodborne yeasts and molds (fungi) includes several hundred species. The ability of these organisms to attack many foods is due in large part to their relatively versatile environmental requirements. Yeasts tend to grow within food and drink matrices in planktonic form and they tend to ferment sugars, growing well under anaerobic conditions. Molds, on the other hand, tend to grow on the surface of objects in the shape of a visible ‘mycelium’ made up of many cells.

Both yeasts and molds cause various degrees of deterioration and decomposition of foods. They can invade and grow on virtually any type of food at any time. They invade crops such as grains, nuts, beans, and fruits in fields before harvesting and during storage. They also grow on processed foods and food mixtures.

Several foodborne molds, and possibly yeasts, may also be hazardous to human or animal health because of their ability to produce toxic metabolites known as mycotoxins. Even though the generating organisms may not survive food preparation, the preformed toxin may still be present. Certain foodborne molds and yeasts may also elicit allergic reactions or may cause infections. Although most foodborne fungi are not infectious, some species can cause infection, especially in immunocompromised populations, such as the aged and debilitated, HIV-infected individuals, and persons receiving chemotherapy or antibiotic treatment.

This is particularly problematic in plants producing high sugar/low water activity/low pH products. Factories producing fruit products, baked goods, confectionary, and fermented dairy products can be at real risk from yeast and mold contamination.

Some Important Food Spoilage Yeast and Mold Species

YEASTS

Species

Foods affected

Brettanomyces bruxellensisBeer and wine, fruit yoghurts

Beer and wine, fruit yoghurts

Debaryomyces hanseniiCured meats and brined products

Cured meats and brined products

Saccharomyces cerevisiaeSoft drinks and fruit juices

Soft drinks and fruit juices

Zygosaccharomyces bailiiSoft drinks, sauces, fruit juice, wine, ciders and syrups

Soft drinks, sauces, fruit juice, wine, ciders and syrups

Zygosaccharomyces rouxiiConfectionery, fruit concentrates

Confectionery, fruit concentrates

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Some Important Food Spoilage Yeast and Mold Species

MOLDS

Species

Foods affected

Aspergillus flavusNuts and oilseeds (mycotoxin producer – aflatoxins)

Nuts and oilseeds (mycotoxin producer – aflatoxins)

Aspergillus nigerFresh fruit and vegetables, nuts and seeds, dried foods

Fresh fruit and vegetables, nuts and seeds, dried foods

Aspergillus ochraceusDried and stored foods (mycotoxin producer – ochratoxin)

Dried and stored foods (mycotoxin producer – ochratoxin)

Byssoclamys fulvaCanned fruits

Canned fruits

Eurotium chevalieriCereals and a wide range of processed and stored foods

Cereals and a wide range of processed and stored foods

Fusrium culmorumInfects cereals, especially barley, in the field (mycotoxin producer – DON and others)

Infects cereals, especially barley, in the field (mycotoxin producer – DON and others)

Penicillium aurantiogriseumStored fruits and vegetables

Stored fruits and vegetables

Penicillium communeCheese

Cheese

Penicillium digitatumCitrus fruits

Citrus fruits

Rhizopus stoloniferFruits, tomatoes and peppers

Fruits, tomatoes and peppers

Wallemia sebiDried and salted fish and other dried foods

Dried and salted fish and other dried foods

YEAST

Yeast have long been considered the organism of choice for the production of alcoholic beverages, bread, and a large variety of industrial products.

bread, and a large variety of industrial products. All of these products are currently making a

All of these products are currently making a huge impact in the agriculture and food industry. Traditionally, yeasts have been very important in the food industry and nowadays it would be almost impossible to imagine a world devoid of fermented products such as wine, beer or cheese. Nevertheless, given their ability to grow at low pH levels, low water activity and even in the presence of some chemical preservatives, they have become a classic food contaminant causing huge losses to the food industry as well as illnesses to consumers. Yeasts are slow growing organisms when compared to bacteria. If yeasts and bacteria were placed in the same optimum environment and both could grow, it is most likely that the faster growing bacteria would quickly outgrow and outcompete the slower growing yeast, becoming the dominant flora. However, if we move outside the ‘optimum’ growth conditions of most bacteria, into environments that are acidic, or of low water activity (high in sugar), then the yeasts have advantage and would rapidly overtake the growth of bacteria. It is in these specialist food niches that the yeast spoilage has become a problem.

MOLDS

niches that the yeast spoilage has become a problem. MOLDS Molds have both positive and negative

Molds have both positive and negative effects on the food industry the same way that yeasts do. Some molds are perfectly safe to eat and, in some cases, even desirable (the classic example would be cheese made with mold, such as blue, Brie, Camembert, and Gorgonzola). Other molds can be quite toxic and may produce allergic reactions and respiratory problems, or produce poisonous substances called mycotoxins. Aspergillus mold, for instance, which is most often found on meat and poultry (as well as environmentally), can cause an infection called aspergillosis, which is actually a group of illnesses ranging from mild to severe lung infections, or even whole-body infections. One of the greatest concerns regarding mold in food is the mycotoxins that some varieties produce. One of the most researched mycotoxins is aflatoxin, a cancer-causing poison.

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28850 - Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid - SPAIN

Tel. +34 91 761 02 00

Fax +34 91 656 82 28

ISO 21527-1

There are a number of ISO horizontal methods for the enumeration of yeasts and molds in foods and animal feed. ISO 21527:2008 is published in two parts. Part 1 relates to food and feed samples with water activity of >0.95, while part 2 specifically applies to dried and processed foods with reduced water activity of <0.95.

These methods typically employ a surface plating technique, where a known quantity of the sample, or the initial suspension, is spread over the surface of a suitable selective agar medium. ISO 21527-1 recommends Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol Agar (DRBC) (Cat. 1160). Other media used include Oxytetracycline Glucose Yeast Extract Agar (OGYE) (Cat. 1527) and Yeast Extract

Dextrose Chloramphenicol Agar (YGC) (Cat. 1301). Selective agars for yeasts and molds usually contain antibiotics to help suppress bacterial growth. Plates are typically incubated at 25 ºC for 5 to 7 days and then examined for the presence of yeast and mold colonies.

Individual yeast and mold species can be isolated from selective agars by subculturing onto a non-selective agar such as Malt Extract Agar (Cat .1038) or Potato Dextrose agar (Cat. 1022). Although it may be possible to recognise some molds at the genus level simply by colony morphology and the appearance of conidia and other features under the microscope, identification at the species level is very difficult and requires specialised skills and experience.

Rose Bengal Agar + Chloramphenicol + Dichloran (DRBC Agar) (Cat.1160) (Peptone /Glucose / Monopotassium Phosphate
Rose Bengal Agar + Chloramphenicol +
Dichloran (DRBC Agar) (Cat.1160)
(Peptone /Glucose / Monopotassium
Phosphate Magnesium Sulfate /
Chloramphenicol / Rose Bengal / Dichloran
/ Bacteriological Agar)

Rose Bengal inhibits growth of bacteria and limits the size and height of faster-growing ones molds

Dichloran prevents the fast spreading of mucoraceous fungi and restricts size of the colonies of other

Chloramphenicol is a wide spectrum antibiotic

Incubation at 25ºC±1 and observed after 3,4 and 7 days

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Valerie Tournas, Michael E. Stack, Philip B. Mislivec, Herbert A. Koch and Ruth Bandler. BAM: Yeasts, Molds and Mycotoxins. U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Barnett, H.L. 1960. Illustrated Genera of Imperfect Fungi, 2nd ed. Burgess, Minneapolis.

Lodder, J. 1970. The Yeasts, a Taxonomic Study, 2nd ed. North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

YeastBook. (2011) A comprehensive compendium of reviews that presents the current state of knowledge of the molecular biology, cellular biology, and genetics of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Genetics

Molds on food: Are they dangerous? U.S. Department of Agriculture http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Molds_On_Food/i ndex.asp. Accessed June 30, 2012.

www.condalab.com . tech.export@condalab.com

C/ La Forja, 9

28850 - Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid - SPAIN

Tel. +34 91 761 02 00

Fax +34 91 656 82 28