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# EE-211 Linear Circuit Analysis

Ghulam Ishaq Khan Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, TOPI 23460

## December 27, 2017

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 14 Resources December 27, 2017 1 / 24
Overview

## 1 AC steady state analysis

Phase lag in AC circuits
Some common functions
Example
Sinusoidal and complex forcing function
Example 8.3
Complex forcing functions
Phasors
Example

Example 8.9

## Assessment problem 8.10

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A sinusoidal function is a time varying function that can be represented as
sine or cos. For example in Fig. shown the waveform can be expressed as
x (t ) = X sinωt
m (1)

## This equation reveals some important parameters about the waveform.

Here,
X is the peak amplitude
m

## ω is the angular frequency = 2π f

ω t is the argument of sine function
This
Ahmed repeats itself
Sher (FEE, GIKI) after
Week every 2π radians.December 27, 2017
14 Resources 3 / 24
The same function can also be plotted in terms of the time as shown in
Fig. below.

The function repeats itself every T seconds. The number of cycles per
second is called Hertz and is called frequency.
1
f = (2)
T
Because ω T=2π then,
ω = 2π f (3)
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Phase lag in AC circuits

## A sinusoidal function can be expressed generally as

x (t ) = X sin(ωt + θ)
M (4)
In this case θ is called the phase angle. With a positive sign, the θ means
This means that (4) leads the (1) by θ radians. In other words (1) lags the

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Phase lag in AC circuits

## In a general situation, if two signals have the following equations

x (t ) = X sin(ωt + θ)
1 M1 (5)
x (t ) = X sin(ωt + φ)
2 M2 (6)
Here, x (t ) leads x (t ) by θ − φ radians or x (t ) lags x (t ) by θ − φ radians.
1 2 2 1

## If θ = φ then the waveforms are said to be in phase.

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Some common functions

## The same can be applied to cosine

function as well

π
 sin(α ± β) = sinαcos β ± cos αsinβ
cos ωt = sin ωt + (7) (11)
2
cos (α ± β) = sinαcos β ∓ cos αsinβ

π

(12)
sinωt = sin ωt − (8)
2
The phase angle determination
requires these relations as well
− cos (ω t ) = cos (ω t ± 180◦ ) (9)
− sin(ω t ) = sin(ω t ± 180◦ ) (10)

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Example 8.1
Plot the following functions
v (t ) = 1cos (ωt + 45◦ ) (13)
v (t ) = 1cos (ωt + 225◦ ) (14)
v (t ) = 1cos (ωt − 315◦ ) (15)
Fig. shows the waveform for the above functions. Note that
v (t ) = 1cos (ωt + 225◦ )=v (t ) = 1cos (ωt + 45◦ + 180◦ ). Therefore, it is
negative of rst function. The last function can be calculated as
v (t ) = 1cos (ωt − 315◦ )=v (t ) = 1cos (ωt − 315◦ + 360◦ ) making it
equivalent to rst function.

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Sinusoidal and complex forcing function

## A sinusoidal forcing function will cause sinusoidal voltage and current in a

linear network.
This means if the current or voltage in one branch has f frequency then the
current or voltage in other branch also has f frequency.
For a linear circuit if the input voltage is v(t)=A sin (ω t + θ) and the
current is of the form i(t)=B sin (ω t + φ) then the solution involves
determining the parameter B and φ.

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 14 Resources December 27, 2017 9 / 24
Example 8.3
For the circuit shown derive the expression for the current

## Applying KVL equation

di (t )
L + Ri (t ) = V cos ω t (16)
dt M

We assume that the current is also a cosine function like the voltage
therefore,
i (t ) = Acos (ωt + φ) (17)
using (12) this can be rewritten as
i (t ) = Acos φcos ωt − Asinφsinωt (18)
i (t ) = A cos ωt + A sinωt
1 2 (19)
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Example 8.3
using (19) in (16)
d
L (A cos ω t + A sinω t ) + R (A cos ω t + A sinω t ) = V cos ω t (20)
dt 1 2 1 2 M

## After the derivative,

− A1 ω Lsinω t + A2 ω Lcos ω t + RA1 cos ω t + RA2 sinω t = VM cos ω t (21)
Equating the coecients of cosine and sine functions,
−A1 ω L + A2 R = 0
(22)
A R + A ωL = V
1 2 M

## Using (22) to solve for A and A 1 2

RV
A = M

R +ω L 1
2 2 2
(23)
ω LV
A = M

R +ω L 2
2 2 2

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Example 8.3

## Therefore, (19) can be rewritten as

RV ω LVM
   
i (t ) = M
cos ωt + (24)
R 2
+ ω 2 L2 R + ω2 L2
2

## using (12) this can be written as

i (t ) = Acos (ωt + φ) (25)
Where,
RV
Acos φ = M

R
+ ω 2 L2 2
(26)
ω LV
Asinφ = 2 M2 2
R +ω L

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 14 Resources December 27, 2017 12 / 24
Example 8.3
Hence,
Asinφ −ωL
tanφ = = (27)
Acos φ R
using (27) this can be written as
ωL
φ = −tan−1 (28)
R
and since,
(Acos φ)2 + (Asinφ)2 = A2 (cos 2 φ + sin2 φ) = A2 (29)
so (26) becomes
RV2 2
(ω L)2 VM 2

A 2
= M
+
(R 2 + ω 2 L2 )2 (R 2 + ω 2 L2 )2
V 2
M (30)
=
R 2
+ ω 2 L2
V
A= √ M

R 2
+ ω 2 L2
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Example 8.3

Hence,
V L
 
−1 ω
i (t ) = √ M
cos ω t − tan (31)
R 2
+ ω 2 L2 R
Eq.(31 indicates that φ is zero if circuit is purely resistive and hence i(t) is
said to be in phase with v(t). If R=0 and the circuit has only inductance
then φ=-90◦ , the current lags the voltage by 90◦ . If the circuit is a
combination of R and L then the φ will vary between 0◦ and 90◦ .
One drawback of this circuit solving method is the complicated and lengthy
calculations, therefore, a more systematic method is required which is the
use of sinusoidal functions and complex numbers.

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 14 Resources December 27, 2017 14 / 24
Complex forcing functions
Use of complex functions make ease in calculating the response of ac
circuits. For this, consider the Euler's equation
eω j t
= cos ω t + jsinω t (32)
This complex function has real and imaginary part
Re (e ω j t
= cos ω t
(33)
Im(e ω j t
= sinω t

## Let a linear circuit is supplied a complex forcing function v(t)

v (t ) = V e ω
m
j t
= Vm cos ω t + jVm sinω t (34)
Using superposition theorem, the resultant current consist of both the
cosine and sine function.
i (t ) = I cos (ωt + φ) + jI sin(ωt + φ)
m m (35)
Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 14 Resources December 27, 2017 15 / 24
Complex forcing functions

## Using Euler's equation

i (t ) = I e (ω +φ)
m
j t
(36)
This method converts the dierential equation to an algebraic equation
that is easier to solve. This complex function has real and imaginary part.
Suppose that the complex forcing function is applied to Fig.10. Then i(t)
will be of the form (36) only I and φ are unknown. Applying KVL
m

di
V eω j t
=L + Ri (t ) (37)
m
dt
d (I e (ω +φ) ) j t

V eω j t
=L + RI e (ω +φ)
m j t
(38)
m
dt m

## V e ω = j ωLI e (ω +φ) + RI e (ω +φ)

m
j t
m
j t
m
j t
(39)
V = RI e φ + j ωLI e φ
m m
j
m
j
(40)
This an algebraic equation with complex coecients
Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 14 Resources December 27, 2017 16 / 24
Complex forcing functions

V
I eφ= j m
(41)
m
R + j ωL
Therefore, converting right hand side of (41) to polar form.
V −1 ( ω L ))
I eφ=√ j m
e (−
j tan
R (42)
R L
m
2 2 2

This gives the same result as the time domain analysis.
V
I =√
m
(43)
R
+ ω 2 L2
m
2

ωL
θ = −tan−1 ( ) (44)
R
Now, because the actual forcing function was a complex number so actual
response is given as
V ωL
 
i (t ) = I cos (ωt + φ) = √ m
cos ω t − tan −1
( ) (45)
m
R 2
+ ω 2 L2 R
Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 14 Resources December 27, 2017 17 / 24
Phasors

Let,
v (t ) = V e ωm
j t
(46)
then,
i (t ) = I e ω +φm
j t
(47)
v (t ) = V cos (ωt + θ) = Re [V e (ω +θ) ]
m m
j t
(48)
v (t ) = Re (V ∠θe ω ) m
j t
(49)
For a complex forcing function we deal only eith V ∠θ, in general m

v (t ) = V cos (ωt + θ)
m (50)
then,
V = Vm ∠θ (51)

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 14 Resources December 27, 2017 18 / 24
Phasors
To convert a time dependent signal into a phasor the procedure is
simple.Let,
v (t ) = V cos (ωt + θ)
m (52)
then, in phasor form it can be written as
V = Vm ∠θ (53)
The equation in (53) is in polar form. This can be converted to rectangular
form using either a scientic calculator or by using the following expressions.
a + jb = V = A∠θ (54)

## a = Acos (θ) b = Asin(θ) A= a +b

p
2 2

b
 
θ = tan− a>0
1

(55)
a
b
 
θ = 180 − tan
◦ − 1
a<0
−a
Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 14 Resources December 27, 2017 19 / 24
Example

## Convert the following from polar to

rectangular and rectangular to polar
Convert the following rectangular
system.
system to polar system.
V 1 = 4.25∠115◦ (56)
V = −4 + j 3 (57)
2

## using (55) a=-1.79 and b=3.85,

Using (55) A=5 and θ=143◦ .
therefore, the end result in
rectangular form is -1.79+j3.85

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 14 Resources December 27, 2017 20 / 24
Inductance and Capacitance in phasors

Using the expression for voltage From ohm's law the voltage is
across inductance current times the resistance. Here
the resistance is j ω L and is called
d
V e ω +θv
t
= L (I e (ω +θi )j
) (58) inductive reactance. In polar form it
t
m
dt m
is ω L∠90◦ .
V e θv = j ωLI e θi
j
(59) Similarly, for capacitor the capacitive
j

## reactance is ω and in polar form

m m 1

V = j ωLI
C
(60) − ω ∠90◦ . 1
C

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 14 Resources December 27, 2017 21 / 24
Example 8.9

eq

## Also nd i(t). The negative term shows that the

circuit is a capacitively dominant
circuit. Now, I can be calculated
using the ohm's law.
V 50∠30◦
I = = = 0.96∠91.22◦
Z t25 − j 45.51
(61)
The impedance of R=25 ohm, the Lastly, this value in phasor is
X =j7.5 and X =-j53.05. The
L C
converted into time domain
impedance adds up like resistor such
that real part is added with real part i (t ) = 0.96cos (377t + 91.22◦ )A
and imaginary part is added with (62)
imaginary part.So Z =25-j45.51 ohm
t

Dr. Hadeed Ahmed Sher (FEE, GIKI) Week 14 Resources December 27, 2017 22 / 24
Assessment problem 8.8

eq

## Several conversions from polar to

rectangular is required because it is
always easier to do multiplication and
division in polar form and subtraction
The impedance of R=20 ohm, the and addition in rectangular form. So
X =j15.08 and X =-j53.05. The
L C
Z =30.95∠9.22Ω. Using ohm's law
t

## impedance in parallel adds up like the current is 3.87∠ − 39.22◦ .

resistor. So Z =-j53.05 and
i (t ) = 3.87cos (377t − 39.22◦ ) (64)
1

Z =20+j15.08.
2

ZZ
Z =
1 2
(63)
t
Z 1 + Z2

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Assessment problem 8.10
Find the Z . T

## The total impedance is then the sum

of 2 ohm resistance with the
From the gure Z =4+j2 this makes equivalent of Z and Z .
2 1 2

## their equivalent is Z = 3.37 + j 1.08Ω (66)

T

(4 + j 2)(2 + j 2)
4 + j2 + 2 + j2
8 + 8j + 4j + j 4 2
12.64∠71.56
= =
6 + j4 7.21∠33.69
(65)
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