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Chemistry Project on Study of Rate of Fermentation of
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INDEX
CCE Projects
S.No. CONTENTS Page No.
1. Objective 4 Top Contributors
Abhisek De​
2. Introduction 5
Abhyodaya siddhartha
3. Theory 6
Garima Bhardw aj
4. Experiment 1 8 Saurabh​
5. Experiment 2 9 Sw athi
6. Observation 11
C BSE
7. Result 12
8. Bibliography 13

OBJECTIVE
The Objective of this project is to study the rates of fermentation of the follow ing fruit or
vegetable juices.
1. i. Apple juice
2. ii. Carrot juice

(1)
INTRODUCTION
Fermentation is the slow decomposition of complex organic compound into simpler compounds
by the action of enzymes. Enzymes are complex organic compounds, generally proteins.
Examples of fermentation are: souring of milk or curd, bread making, w ine making and
brew ing.
The w ord Fermentation has been derived from Latin (Ferver w hich means to ‘boil’).As during
fermentation there is lot of frothing of the liquid due to the evolution of carbon dioxide, it gives
the appearance as if it is boiling.
Sugars like glucose and sucrose w hen fermented in the presence of yeast cells are converted

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to ethyl alcohol. During fermentation of starch, starch is first hydrolysed to maltose by the
action of enzyme diastase. The enzyme diastase is obtained from germinated barley seeds.
Fermentation is carried out at a temperature of 4–16 °C (40–60 °F). This is low for most kinds
of fermentation, but is beneficial for cider as it leads to slow er fermentation w ith less loss of
delicate aromas. Apple based juices w ith cranberry also make fine ciders; and many other fruit
purées or flavorings can be used, such as grape, cherry, and raspberry. The cider is ready to
drink after a three month fermentation period, though more often it is matured in the vats for
up to tw o or three years.
THEORY
Louis Pasteur in 1860 demonstrated that fermentation is a purely physiological process carried
out by living micro-organism like yeast. This view w as abandoned in 1897 w hen Buchner
demonstrated that yeast extract could bring about alcoholic fermentation in the absence of
any yeast cells. He proposed that fermenting activity of yeast is due to active catalysts of
biochemical origin. These biochemical catalyst are called enzymes. Enzymes are highly specific.
A given enzyme acts on a specific compound or a closely related group of compounds.
Fermentation has been utilized for many years in the preparation of beverages. Materials from
Egyptian tombs demonstrate the procedures used in making beer and leavened bread. The
history of fermentation, w hereby sugar is converted to ethanol by action of yeast, is also a
history of chemistry. Van Helmont coined the w ord iogaslt in 1610 to describe the bubbles
produced in fermentation. Leeuw enhoek observed and described the cells of yeast w ith his
new ly invented microscope in 1680.
The fruit and vegetable juices contain sugar such as sucrose, glucose and fructose. These
sugars on fermentation in the presence of the enzymes invertase and zymase give w ith the
evolution of carbon dioxide. Maltose is converted to glucose by enzyme maltose. Glucose is
converted to ethanol by another enzyme zymase
Invertase
C 12 H22 O 11 + H2 O C 6 H12 O 6 + C 6 H12 O 6

Sucrose Glucose Fructose


Zymase
C 6 H12 O 6 + C 6 H12 O 6 2C 2 H5 OH + 2CO 2

Glucose Fructose Ethanol


Diastase
2(C 6 H10 0 5 )n + nH2 0 nC 12 H22 O 11

Starch Maltose
Maltose
C 12 H22 O 11 + H2 O 2C 6 H12 O 6

Maltose Glucose
Zymase
C 6 H12 O 6 2C 2 H5 OH + 2CO 2

Glucose Ethyl alcohol


Glucose is a reducing sugar and gives red coloured precipitates w ith Fehling’s solution, w hen
w armed. W hen the fermentation is complete, the reaction mixture stops giving any red colour
or precipitate w ith Fehling solution.
EXPERIMENT-1
REQUIREMENTS
Conical flasks (250 ml), test tubes and w ater bath, Apple juice and Fehling’s solution.
PROCEDURE
1. Take 5.0 ml of apple juice in a clean 250 ml conical flask and dilute it w ith 50 ml of distilled
w ater.
2. Add 2.0 gram of Baker’s yeast and 5.0 ml of solution of Pasteur’s salts to the above conical
flask.
3. Shake w ell the contents of the flask and maintain the temperature of the reaction mixture
betw een 35-40°C.
4. After 10minutes take 5 drops of the reaction mixture from the flask and add to a test tube
containing 2 ml of Fehling reagent. Place the test tube in the boiling w ater bath for about 2
minutes and note the colour of the solution or precipitate.
5. Repeat the step 4 after every 10 minutes w hen the reaction mixture stops giving any red
colour or precipitate.

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6. Note the time taken for completion of fermentation
EXPERIMENT-2
REQUIREMENTS
Conical flasks (250 ml), test tubes and w ater bath, Carrot juice and Fehling’s solution.
PROCEDURE
1. Take 5.0 ml of carrot juice in a clean 250 ml conical flask and dilute it w ith 50 ml of distilled
w ater.
2. Add 2.0 gram of Baker’s yeast and 5.0 ml of solution of Pasteur’s salts to the above conical
flask.
3. Shake w ell the contents of the flask and maintain the temperature of the reaction mixture
betw een 35-40°C.
4. After 10minutes take 5 drops of the reaction mixture from the flask and add to a test tube
containing 2 ml of Fehling reagent. Place the test tube in the boiling w ater bath for about 2
minutes and note the colour of the solution or precipitate.
5. Repeat the step 4 after every 10 minutes w hen the reaction mixture stops giving any red
colour or precipitate.
6. Note the time taken for completion of fermentation.
Pasteur’s Salt Solution – Pasteur salt solution is prepared by dissolving ammonium tartrate
10.0g; potassium phosphate 2.0 g; calcium phosphate 0.2g, and magnesium sulphate 0.2 g
dissolved in 860ml of w ater
OBSERVATION
Volume of fruit juice taken = 5.0 ml
Volume of distilled w ater added = 50.0 ml
W eight of Baker’s yeast added = 2.0 g
Volume of solution of Pasteur’s salts = 5.0 ml

Time Colour of reaction mixture on reaction w ith Fehling Solution


in case of
(in minutes)

10
20
30
40
60

RESULTS
The rate of fermentation of apple juice is ………… than the rate of fermentation of carrot juice.

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