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Web course in : Energy Utilisation

This is a jointly course between the following 6 Swedish


Universities:
The Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), The University of
Linköping, The University of Uppsala, The University of
Karlstad, The University of Umeå, and The University of
Gävle.

Subject area: Energy Technology


Course ID: ME529C
Instructor: Taghi Karimipanah
Department of Building, Energy and Environmental
Engineering
University of Gävle

Lecture 1

Energy Utilisation
Blackboard homepage:
http://lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Dr Taghi Karimipanah
E-mail:
tkh@hig.se
Tel: 073-280 75 47

1
Text Books Used
1. Enno Abel och Arne Elmroth Buildings and Energy - a systematic
approach. Formas, ISBN:978-91-540-5997-3.
2. Per Erik Nilsson (editor), Achieving the Desired Indoor Climate –Energy
Efficiency Aspects of System Design, 2003, Studentlitteratur, ISBN 91-44-
03235-8, Printed in Denmark by Narayana Press,
www.studentlitteratur.se.
3. Fay C. McQuiston and Jerald D. Parker, Heating, Ventilating, and Air
Conditioning – Analysis and Design, 1994, Fourth Edition, Printed in
Singapore 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 (CIP 93-28394), John Wiley & Sons, Ic., New
York.
4. Hugo Hens, Building Physics – Heat, Air and Moisture, 2007 Ernst & Sons
Verlag, ISBN 978-3-433-01841-5, Germany. http://dnb.d-nb.de.
5. Carl-Eric Hagentoft, Introduction to Building Physics, 2001,
Studentlitteratur, ISBN 91-44-01896-7, Sweden, www.studentlitteratur.se.

Why Energy Utilisation? I


Energy has become a major concern in all countries as
finite resources become depleted and our demands for
more energy become greater.
Energy is also vital to the functioning of modern
societies.
The highly sophisticated modes of transportation,
techniques for communication, automated production
processes, and our desire for comfortable temperatures
and time-saving devices have put a significant burden
on energy sources.

2
Why Energy Utilisation? II
As energy consciousness has increased, we have
begun to focus on alternative energy sources,
conservation techniques, as well as research and
development in order to address needs.
The technology involved in converting, storing, and
conserving energy is the emphasis of the Energy
Utilization Technology.

Why Energy Utilisation? III


 The Energy utilization provides the means for
adapting, modifying and updating materials through
the use of the four distinct areas:
1. Resources
2. Technical processes
3. Industrial application
4. Technological impact.
 The selection of these areas is based on the definition
of a "system" That is an activity that includes input
process- output as well as the results of this
sequence of events.

3
Why Energy Utilisation? IV
 Ambitious energy-conservation efforts are therefore a central
element in an energy strategy that takes long-term challenges
seriously.
 In our lectures, intensifying energy conservation efforts focuses
particularly on energy consumption in buildings.
 Climate problems, and entry into force of the Kyoto commitments
necessitate major global reductions in emissions of greenhouse
gases, especially CO2, caused by energy use.
 The huge global need to reduce emissions of CO2 from energy use
in particular, as part of the stabilisation of greenhouse gas
concentrations, requires a significant increase in energy efficiency
in energy production and end use as well as increasing use of
renewable energy sources.

Why Energy Utilisation V

 In developed countries, nearly 40% of energy consumption is


in buildings.
 New buildings will be standing for the next 50-100 years. It is
therefore important that, from the start, they are as energy-
efficient as is technically and economically sound.
 The world energy consumption is estimated to rise
considerably over the next decades and in the same period
the energy consumption in the European Union will increase
by almost a similar amount.

4
Brief History of Energy Usage

 The major advances in human civilization have been


accompanied by increases in the rate of energy
consumption.
 The energy consumption is related to:
1. The level of living of the populace
2. The degree of industrialization of the country.

 In many countries the availability of low-cost energy


led to the inefficient utilization of the energy and
sometimes to disastrous ecological effects.
 Fortunately, the people of energy-dependent
countries are aware of the energy conversion and
the need for development of new energy sources.

Brief History of Energy Usage

" Gatherers" - Early Humans


Provided by food they could gather.
Energy Usage: 2000 kCal/person and day = Basal
Metabolism: Energy intake to keep yourself alive.
2000 kCal = 8.2 MJ.

"Hunters - Gatherers“ (about 1 million years ago)


Provided by food they could gather.
Controlled use of fire
 Developed hunting methods  Colonisation of less
hospitable regions
 Energy Usage: 4000 kCal/person and day
4000 kCal = 16.4 MJ
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Brief History of Energy Usage

"Settlers“ (about 4000 BC in Middle east)


Need for more material for building houses and
running farms.
Energy Usage: 50 MJ/person and day
There are people today that live at this level!

"More Developed Societies“ (about 1500 AD)


More specialised trades
Service sector
Use of metals and glass (energy consuming to
produce!)
Energy Usage: 90 MJ/person and day

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Brief History of Energy Usage

"Industrialisation" (1750-1850)
Steam engines
Factories
Energy Usage: 380 MJ/person and day.

"Modern Societies“ (Data for Europe, Japan, USA,


Canada, Australia)
Energy Usage: ? MJ/person and day

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6
Exercise

In Sweden the energy usage for year 1999 was 615
TWh, what is the per capita energy use per day in MJ
if the population in Sweden is 9 million? Hint: 1 Wh =
3600 J

 Energy usage per year= 6151012[Wh/year]  3600


[J/Wh] =2.214  1018[J/year] =2.214  1012 [MJ/year]
 Energy usage per day= 2.214  1012 [MJ/year]/365
[days/year] = 6.066  109 [MJ/day]
 Energy usage per capita and day= 6.066  109
[MJ/day]/9  106 [persons]=674 [MJ/capita/day]

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Exercise

How much energy is 1 TWh?

 1 TWh is equivalent to having one (1) 60 W light bulb


running for approximately two million years!

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7
Keeping tabs on Energy Efficiency I

Lighting:

Make good use of daylight.


Light to appropriate levels but not more.
Use efficient electric lighting and provide good
controls.

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Keeping tabs on Energy Efficiency II

Cooling:

Minimise cooling loads by shading.


Consider design strategies that avoid the need for
mechanical cooling.
If this is not possible, use low-energy cooling
systems.

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Keeping tabs on Energy Efficiency III

Heating:

Provide optimum building insulation.


Specify efficient equipment.
Provide effective controls.

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Keeping tabs on Energy Efficiency IV

Ventilation:

Consider natural ventilation or low-energy


mechanical ventilation first..
Keep duct air velocities low.
Provide effective controls and choose efficient
fans.

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9
Various Forms of Energy I

Definition of Energy: Energy is the ability to do


work and work is the transfer of energy from one
form to another.
Energy can also be defined as "the ability to do
work."

 There are two types of energy:


1) potential energy
2) kinetic energy

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Various Forms of Energy II

Potential Energy - Potential energy is stored energy and the


energy of position (gravitational).
 Potential energy exists in various forms:
 Chemical energy - is the energy stored in the bonds of atoms and
molecules. Biomass, petroleum, natural gas, propane and coal are
examples of stored chemical energy.
 Nuclear energy - is the energy stored in the nucleus of an atom -
the energy that holds the nucleus together. The nucleus of a
uranium atom is an example of nuclear energy.
 Stored mechanical energy - is energy stored in objects by the
application of a force. Compressed springs and stretched rubber
bands are examples of stored mechanical energy.
 Gravitational energy - is the energy of place or position. Water in
a reservoir behind a hydropower dam is an example of
gravitational energy. When the water is released to spin the
turbines, it becomes motion energy.
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Various Forms of Energy III
Kinetic energy is energy in motion- the motion of waves,
electrons, atoms, molecules and substances.
 Kinetic energy exists in various forms:
 Radiant energy - is electromagnetic energy that travels in
transverse waves. Radiant energy includes visible light, x-rays,
gamma rays and radio waves. Solar energy is an example of radiant
energy.
 Thermal energy (or heat) - is the internal energy in substances- the
vibration and movement of atoms and molecules within substances.
Geothermal energy is an example of thermal energy.
 Motion - the movement of objects or substances from one place to
another is motion. Wind and hydropower are examples of motion.
 Sound - is the movement of energy through substances in
longitudinal (compression/rarefaction) waves.
 Electrical energy - is the movement of electrons. Lightning and
electricity are examples of electrical energy.
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Environmental Perspective

“Using energy in today’s ways leads to more


environmental damage than any other peaceful
human activity.”
The Economist, 1990.

“Is There Still Time to Avoid Dangerous


Anthropogenic Interference with Global Climate?”
Hansen, J., American Geophysical Union, 2005.

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Warming Fastest at Pole

“Changing Climate”, Stephen Schneider, Scientific American, 10/1989


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Environmental Effects of Energy


Consumption I
 The combination of fossil fuels create a number of pollutant
gases.
 The gases are:
 Carbon dioxide (CO2), on of the main contributors to global
warming.
 Sulphur dioxide (SO2), which contributes to the problem of acid
rain.
 Nitrous oxides (NOx), which is a collective term for the oxides of
nitrogen, mostly nitric oxide (NO) ( a cause of ozone depletion)
and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) which is a lung irritant and therefore
reduces air quality.
 The quality emitted depends on the amount and type of fuel
being burned.

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Environmental Effects of Energy
Consumption II

The following table shows carbon dioxide emission


factors:
Carbon Dioxide Emission Factors
Fuel Type Kg CO2 / kWh

Electricity 0.44

Oil 0.26

Natural Gas 0.19

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Environmental Effects of Energy


Consumption III

Global warming:
 Heat from the sun can easily pass through the atmosphere to
warm the Earth’s surface.
 Te heat radiated from this surface is trapped by gases in the
atmosphere, such as CO2.
 This causes the atmosphere to be warmed (global warming).
 Some global warming is essential for the life on the earth.
 Recent decades have seen an increase in the concentration of
CO2 in the atmosphere as a result of fossil fuel burning.
 Scientists now generally agree that increased heating of the
atmosphere will occur due to the effects of global warming,
leading to a climate change.
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Environmental Effects of Energy
Consumption IV

Acid rain:
 Some of the particulates and gases produced during
combustion are acidic and combine with the rain to create
acid rain.
 This damages the environment in three ways:
1. It harms trees – many European forests are showing signs of leaf
damage due to acid rain.
2. It collects in fresh water lakes and rivers, increasing the acidity
which endangers freshwater life.
3. It erodes stone buildings and statues, degrading the beauty of
historic buildings.

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Environmental Effects of Energy


Consumption V

The role of the building professionals:

 The first stage in reducing the problems of acid rain is to


minimise the consumption of fossil fuels while maintaining
acceptable standards of comfort.
 As example, energy use in buildings accounts for
approximately 45% of the UK CO2 output. The Swedish
output which is somewhat lower, will briefly be described
later on.

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Lecture 2

Energy Utilisation
Blackboard homepage:
lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Taghi Karimipanah
E-mail:
tkh@hig.se
Tel: 073-280 75 47

The Impact of Sustainability vision on


Energy Utilisation I
 Sustainability indicates economic activities which could continue
without long-term damage to the natural environment or general
human well-being.
 Sustainable means capable of being maintained indefinitely within
limits whilst development implies the pursuit of continuous
growth.
 This appears contradictory, as development tends to destroy the
ability to sustain.
 As long as development is sustained, economic growth will
continue and environmental issues will be dealt with through
technology.
 In summary, the concept of sustainable development must consist
of the examination of economic, social and environmental aspects
of a development.
 In addition, sustainable development may not be viewed as one-
dimensional, but consists of multiple fact of issues that concern 2
people today and in the future.

1
The Impact of Sustainability vision on
Energy Utilisation II
 The climate has a great impact both on the energy and
environmental performance of the building and also on the
occupants themselves.
 Climate affects buildings, and subsequently the comfort of
the occupants in many ways:
 Solar Radiation – affects heating, overheating and daylighting;
 Wind velocity and direction – affects infiltration, ventilation,
pollution levels and energy consumption;
 Temperature – affects energy consumption, heating and cooling
requirements;
 Rain – affects building materials and the energy performance of
the building; wet building materials degrade quickly and wet
insulation conducts heat.

The Impact of Sustainability vision on


Energy Utilisation III
 What do we mean with the term ”Sustainable” in
the context of Energy Utilisation?

 Keep our energy systems productive


 More renewable and natural energy sources
 Scalable, adjustable and cost-efficient energy solutions
 Redistribution of electricity
 Adapt amount of usage to ”energy production”
 Decentralised
 Intelligent use of energy and decreasing waste.
 Work forever without destroying the planet

2
The Impact of Sustainability vision on
Energy Utilisation IV
 How much energy do we really need to heat or cool our
houses?
 Zero
 Depends on:
 Insulation
 Climate
 Location
 Size
 Comfort
 Habits
 Type of house/Architecture
 Direction/orientation
 Number of inhabitants
 Type of energy source
 Efficiency of systems
5

The Impact of Sustainability vision on


Energy Utilisation V
Development successes:
 Energy consumption has increased constantly to meet human
needs!

Source: www.svision.se

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Sweden’s Energy Balance 2005 I

Continued in
next page

Sweden’s Energy Balance 2005 II

Continued

4
Sweden’s Energy Balance 2005

Sweden’s Energy Balance 2005

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Sweden’s Energy Balance 2005

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Energy Use in Sweden 2005

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Energy Use in Sweden 2005

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Energy Use in Sweden 2005

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Energy Use in Sweden 2005

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Energy Use in Sweden 2005

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Energy Use in Sweden 2005

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Energy Markets 2005

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Energy Markets 2005

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Energy Markets 2005

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Energy Markets 2005

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Energy Markets 2005

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Energy Markets 2005

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Energy Markets 2005

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Energy Markets

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Energy Markets

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Energy Markets

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Energy Markets

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Energy Markets

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Energy Markets

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Energy Markets

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Energy Markets

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Energy Markets

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Energy Markets

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An International Perspective

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An International Perspective

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An International Perspective

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An International Perspective

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An International Perspective

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An International Perspective

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An International Perspective

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An International Perspective

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The Environmental Situation

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The Environmental Situation

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The Environmental Situation

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The Environmental Situation

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Comparison between a traditional electricity generation
with combined heat and power systems

Combined Heat and Power (CHP)

CHP systems make use of waste heat from the


production of electricity and so the efficiency of a CHP
system is typically 70-90% compared to conventional
power stations, which have and efficiency of 30-50%.
In conventional power systems the waste heat is
dumped to the environment (see figure in next page).
The size of CHP systems can vary enormously: from
large industrial schemes producing many megawatts of
electricity and heat to small micro CHP units which can
be installed in domestic dwellings and have an electrical
output of less than 1kW.
CHP systems are based on steam power cycles, gas
turbines or combustion engines.

47

Comparison between a traditional electricity generation


with combined heat and power systems

Source: Scottish Energy Environment Issues 48

24
Comparison between a traditional electricity generation
with combined heat and power systems
CHP and Environment
CHP uses 10-35% less primary energy than the equivalent heat
and power produced by a heat-only boiler and power station.
The reduction in primary energy requirements reduces both fuel
costs and emissions.
Each GW of installed CHP capacity will save between 0.5-1.0
million tonnes of carbon per annum.
CHP forms an important component of the governments strategy
to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
CHP is expected to save millions of tonnes CO 2 of emissions per
annum in coming 10 years in EU member states.
the exact amount of carbon saved depends upon the efficiencies
and fuel sources of the grid electricity and heat-only boilers
displaced by the CHP.

49

Comparison between a traditional electricity generation


with combined heat and power systems
Zero Emissions Technologies (ZET)
 The Zero Emissions concept can be applied to each of the fossil energy
industries.
 This concept applies, for example, when carbon dioxide from energy
conversion processes is used for enhanced recovery of oil and gas.
 It also applies to power generation from any fossil fuel by using new energy
conversion cycles that are closed loop for pollutants rather than the open
loop cycles used in traditional combustion- based systems.

Zero Emissions Technology gives for fossil fuel are vital to


simultaneously:
 Provide affordable, clean power to meet expanding energy demand;
 Solve critical environmental problems (reduce carbon dioxide and other
pollutant emissions);
 Address energy security issues by supporting the use of diverse fossil
fuels; and
 Ease the economic costs of sustainable development.

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25
Comparison between a traditional electricity generation
with combined heat and power systems

51

Factors in Low Energy Design I

 For a building to consume the minimum amount of energy


while maintaining acceptable levels of thermal comfort it must
be designed holistically.
 All of the elements that have an impact on a building’s energy
consumption must be considered.
 When considered holistically, passive solar strategies can
provide approximately 10% of the space heating energy use of
a typical dwelling.
 In commercial properties, such as offices, where heat gains
occur from lighting, occupants and office equipment, care
needs to be taken to avoid overheating especially during
summer months.
 Effective use of day-lighting can greatly reduce electric
lighting bills.
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Factors in Low Energy Design II

 The following table shows factors in low-energy design:


Element Design issue
Siting Exposed sites, Solar/daylight access
Form Surface area, volume, internal layout, orientation
Fabric Insulation levels, sealing, workmanship
Ventilation Uncontrolled infiltration, mechanical ventilation, heat recovery
Daylight Window design, distribution, orientation, internal surfaces
Artificial light Lighting design, efficiency of lamps/luminaries, control
Passive solar heat Collection systems, thermal mass, distribution of heat
Mechanical heating System selection, efficiency of components, control
Cooling Passive cooling, system selection, efficiency of components, control
Services Fans, pumps, lifts, renewables, etc
Post-occupancy Monitoring and targeting, energy management

Source: CARBON TRUST 53

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Lecture 3

Energy Utilisation
Blackboard homepage:
Lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Taghi Karimipanah
E-mail:
tkh@hig.se
Tel: 073-280 75 47

Introduction to indoor air quality I


 People spend more than 90% of their life indoor.
 A good indoor climate cannot be created (other than by
coincidence) if the technical systems are selected and
designed before the following three questions have been
answered:
1) What is the desired environment?
2) Which parameters should be considered ?
3) What levels of disturbance can be accepted?
 Furthermore, the answers are likely to vary for different
buildings. They definitely vary between building types, e,g.
residential, office. school, hospital laboratory and industrial
buildings.

1
Introduction to indoor air quality II
 Studies of human exposure to air pollutants indicate that
indoor air levels of many pollutants may be 2-5 times, and
occasionally, more than 100 times higher than outdoor levels.
 IAQ is not constant - it depends on several time-varying
factors: building operation, occupant activity, outdoor
climate.
 Over the past several decades, our exposure to indoor air
pollutants is believed to have increased due to a variety of
factors, including:
 the construction of more tightly sealed buildings
 reduced ventilation rates to save energy
 the use of synthetic building materials and furnishings
 the use of chemically formulated personal hygiene products,
pesticides, and household cleaners

Introduction to indoor air quality III

Fresh air contains 21% oxygen and 0.03% carbon


dioxide.
Expired air is typically 16% oxygen and 4% carbon
dioxide.
Health standards are usually less strict in
requirements than comfort standards, except for
toxic gases that have no smell:
 CO2 levels > 5% (50000 ppm)  acute danger to health
(also if O2 < 12%)
 CO2 levels > 0.35% (3500 ppm)  long term health
implications
 CO2 levels > 0.1% (1000 ppm)  poor comfort

2
Introduction to indoor air quality IV

The wide spectrum of possible indoor


environmental problems have been shown to
influence:
 Human comfort.
 Human health,
 Productivity, and
 Product and processes.

Introduction to indoor air quality V

Allergies. irritation (e.g. in mucus membranes or


skin), toxic reactions, cancer and effects on
reproduction are examples of health effects that
can be related to indoor air pollutants.
A general categorisation of health effects, related
not only to indoor air quality but also to other
indoor factors, includes:
 clinically diagnosed non-allergy diseases with known
causes, known as ,specific building-related health effects,
other than allergy;
 self-reported symptoms of illness, or unknown causes.
termed non-specific building related illness.
 building related allergy.

3
Factors Affecting Indoor Air Quality

a) Source: there is a source of contamination or discomfort


indoors, outdoors, or within the mechanical systems of the
building.
b) HVAC: the HVAC system is not able to control existing air
contaminants and ensure thermal comfort (temperature and
humidity conditions that are comfortable for most
occupants).
c) Pathways: one or more pollutant pathways connect the
pollutant source to the occupants and a driving force exists
to move pollutants along the pathway(s).
d) Occupants: building occupants are present and are affected
enough to raise indoor air quality concerns.

Common outdoor air pollution forms


a) Grit and dust: these are heavy enough to settle out of the air.
b) Smoke: this consists of very fine solid or liquid particles
produced by the incomplete combustion of fuels. Particle
size is typically less than 1 m; the average is 0.1-0.3m
c) Fogs: these are fine airborne droplets usually formed by
condensation of vapour; mists are slightly larger droplets
that are ordinarily liquid at normal temperature and
pressure..
d) Pollutant gases: these include sulphur dioxide, carbon
dioxide, carbon monoxide and ozone.

4
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) I
After ventilation, VOCs are usually the first
concern when diagnosing an IAQ problem.
VOCs include chlorinated hydrocarbons, alcohols,
benzene and esters.
VOCs are emitted from a large variety of sources,
some continuous (e.g. building materials), others
intermittent (e.g. from carpet shampoos).
Other sources are combustion products from gas
stoves, paint, printers, spray cans, cosmetics,
paint strippers etc. Formaldehyde, from
compressed wood products, is an important VOC.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) II


In new office buildings, the total VOC at initial
occupancy can be 50 to 100 times that of the
outside air; levels decrease with time (<5 times
after 4 or 5 months).
Normally, 50 to 300 different VOCs are found in air
samples from non-industrial environments.
Potential adverse health effects are:
 irritant effects: including unpleasant odours;
 systemic effects, e.g. fatigue, poor concentration;
 toxic chronic effects, e.g. carcinogenicity.

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Quantification of Air Pollution Perceived
by Humans I
In 1988, Fanger introduced the concepts of an olf
unit to quantify a pollution source, and the decipol
unit to quantify the concentration of air pollution as
perceived by humans.
In industrial situations, chemical analysis of the air
can identify individual pollutant sources, and there
are resulting threshold limits for exposure of
workers.
However, in non-industrial buildings, there may be
several thousand compounds at low concentrations
that are difficult to measure, but which, in
combination, can cause complaints (e.g. “sick
building syndrome”)
11

Quantification of Air Pollution Perceived


by Humans II
 An olf is the emission rate of air pollutants (bio-effluents) from
a standard person.
 Any other pollution source is expressed in terms of the
equivalent source strength, defined as the number of standard
persons (olfs) required to cause the same dissatisfaction as
the actual pollution source.
 As with thermal comfort (PMV, PPD), the units are derived from
experiments with large groups of people.
 From experiments, the following equation gives the
percentage of dissatisfied persons (PD) caused by one
standard person (1 olf) when ventilated by unpolluted
ventilation air at different ventilation rates (q):

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6
Quantification of Air Pollution Perceived
by Humans III

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Quantification of Air Pollution Perceived


by Humans IV
 There are large variations in individual responses - some
people are extremely sensitive and require high ventilation
rates; others are more tolerant, judging even very low
ventilation rates as acceptable.
 A decipol is the pollution caused by one standard person (one
olf) ventilated by 10 l/s of unpolluted air. It is a measure of
dissatisfaction, not health risk.
 The percentage dissatisfied as a function of perceived air
pollution is given by:

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Quantification of Air Pollution Perceived
by Humans V

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Quantification of Air Pollution Perceived


by Humans VI
In many well-ventilated buildings with low pollution
sources, the perceived air pollution is below 1
decipol or 15% dissatisfied.
Spaces with low ventilation and high pollution
sources may have a perceived air pollution above 10
decipol or 60% dissatisfied.
Air qualities around 0.1 decipol or 1% dissatisfied
are hard to establish in indoor environments.
The unit of perceived air pollution can also be used
in cars and aeroplanes or for quantifying outdoor
pollution.
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Quantification of Air Pollution Perceived
by Humans VII
In one study of 15 offices in Copenhagen, it was
found that for each occupant there were on average
6-7 olfs from other pollution sources (1-2 olfs from
materials in the space, 3 from the ventilation system
and 2 olfs caused by tobacco smoking), ie. only 13%
of the perceived pollution was from the occupants.
The ventilation rate was 25l/s per person (higher
than usual rates), but due to the extensive pollutant
sources, this was only equivalent to 4l/s.olf. This
explains why more than 30% of occupants found air
quality in the offices unacceptable.

17

Quantification of Air Pollution Perceived


by Humans VIII
 The results from Copenhagen were in contrast to ventilation
standards throughout the world which assume that human
beings are the principal polluters in offices and similar spaces.
 Large variations in pollutants were found form one office to
another.
 Systematic removal or reduction of pollutant sources will
improve air quality, decrease required ventilation rates and
thereby decrease energy consumption, and diminish the risk
of draught.
 The development of such metrics opens the possibility of
moving away from prescriptive measures to control air quality
(e.g. 8 l/s per person) to a performance-based criterion based
on perceived pollutant levels.

18

9
Control of IAQ

Source control:
 removal/replacement of source
 isolation of source
 local ventilation of source
Application of general ventilation

19

Sick building syndrome (SBS) I


 People now spend about 80-90% of their time inside
buildings and as a result the number of illnesses and
complaints arising from exposure to indoor climate are
increasing.
 Sick building syndrome (SBS) is an ill-defined term covering
a large number of symptoms of ill health with no readily
identifiable cause. A “sick building” has a higher incidence
of these symptoms than would occur normally.
 Note the subtle difference between sick building syndrome
and a building-related illness:
 A building related illness has a definite cause, which is linked to
buildings. An example would be legionnaires’ disease. The
legionella bacteria which cause this disease are often spread via
aerosols emitted from cooling towers at the top of buildings.

20

10
Sick building syndrome (SBS) II
Symptoms of sick building syndrome
include:
Eye, nose and throat irritation;
Dryness of throat, nose and skin;
Breathing problems;
Headaches;
Fatigue;
Rashes.

21

Sick building syndrome (SBS) III


 The World Health Organisation identified a number of features
common to sick buildings:
 They often have forced ventilation (including air conditioning systems).
 They are often of light construction
 Indoor surfaces are often covered in textiles (carpets , furnishing fabrics
etc).
 They are energy efficient, kept relatively warm and have a homogeneous
thermal environment
 They are airtight, i.e. windows etc cannot be opened.
 However, sick building syndrome does not occur in all buildings
with these features.
 Typically larger office buildings seem to suffer from SBS and so
large numbers of occupants could also characterise a risky
building. More symptoms are found in buildings where occupants
have little perceived control over the environment.

22

11
Sick building syndrome (SBS) IV

 The main causes of SBS can be classified


under three general categories:
1) Physical (and psychological) factors
2) Chemical Pollutants
3) Micro-organisms.

23

Sick building syndrome (SBS) V

Physical (and psychological) factors:


 Uncomfortable temperatures
 Low humidity
 Low air movement and ventilation rates
 Poor lighting quality and surface colouring (artificial
environments)
 Poor daylight availability
 Poor seating
 Noise
 No control over surrounding environment
 Low morale and job satisfaction.
24

12
Sick building syndrome (SBS) VI

Chemical factors:
 Cigarette smoke
 Formaldehyde vapours from insulation and furniture
 VOCs from adhesives, paint and cleaners
 Radon decay products from granite bedrock, and
building materials
 Ozone from photocopiers, printers and other
sources.

25

Sick building syndrome (SBS) VII

Micro-organisms:
 Spores and micro-toxins from moulds in ventilation
system and wall surfaces.
 Dust mites and micro-organisms in carpets, fabrics
and plants
 Organisms in drinking water and vending machines

 As there is no one single cause there is also no one


single cure for SBS. However energy efficient
design can impact directly upon causes and cures
for SBS.

26

13
Sick building syndrome (SBS) VIII

Fresh Air Provision and Air Quality:


 The increased air tightness of many buildings and use of
controlled mechanical ventilation in buildings has led to a
reduction in the provision of fresh air for the building occupants,
resulting in increases in concentrations of chemical and
microbial pollutants (from air-conditioning systems).
 Reductions in indoor air movement and exposure to noise may
also exacerbate the problem.
 Reducing air infiltration within a building to improve energy
consumption may therefore exacerbate or trigger a problem with
SBS.
 Conversely adequate provision of fresh air through natural
ventilation (where this does not lead to an influx of external
pollutants) will help negate many of the causes of SBS
described above.
27

Sick building syndrome (SBS) IX

HVAC maintenance:
 Maintenance and cleaning of HVAC plant, an integral
part of an energy efficiency drive, can also improve
indoor air quality.
 Reduced build up of micro-organisms in ventilation
and water supply.
 Better temperature control.
 Reduced noise from AC systems.

28

14
Sick building syndrome (SBS) X

Lighting and daylighting:


 Provision of natural light, rather than artificial light
also reduces problems relating to “artificial
environments” and headaches caused by flicker
from fluorescent lighting.
 Higher frequency lighting helps reduce this effect
and is more efficient.
 Open-able windows for natural ventilation give the
occupants a feeling of control over their internal
environment.

29

Sick building syndrome (SBS) XI

Better insulation:
 Use of internal and cavity wall insulation needs to
be carefully thought through, as formaldehyde
emissions and airborne fibres from insulation
materials can be particularly detrimental to the
health of the building occupants.
 The previous paragraphs indicate the linkage
between the environmental design of a building and
the well-being of the occupants.

30

15
Air quality in an occupied room I

Indoor air quality in occupied rooms as a


concept implies consideration of:
 How the air is perceived by humans?
 What effect the pollutants may have on human
health?
 What effect the pollutants may have on products
and processes Indoors?

31

Air quality in an occupied room II

Examples of various groups of indoor air


pollutants:
 Particles and gases
 Organic and inorganic compounds
 Natural and synthetic compounds
 Pollutants formed by combustion and such formed by
mechanical processes
 Odorous, allergenic, toxic and carcinogenic
compounds

32

16
Air quality in an occupied room III

The content of polluting gases and particles in


indoor air is strongly influenced by the cleanliness
of the air supplied to the building by ventilation.
During transport through the air handling system
and ductwork, there is an opportunity to clean The
air if necessary; under unfavourable
circumstances, there is a risk of deterioration of
the air quality.

33

Air quality in an occupied room IV

Many of the contaminants present in indoor air are


being generated indoors like the emissions of
odorous compound from the human body and of
volatile compounds from building products.
In this context, moisture damaged building
materials are of special concern.
The situation is not the same for non-induslrial
building such as residential buildings, school and
office buildings, as it is for industrial buildings.
Occupational safety and health guidelines in the
form of threshold limit values (TLVs) exist for the
latter but not for the former types of buildings.
34

17
What is Thermal Comfort? I

 One of the important objectives of design for the buildings we live


and work in and the transport we travel in is the thermal comfort of
the occupants.
Definition (ISO 7730):
 That condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the
thermal environment.
ASHRAE definition:
 “…that condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with
the thermal environment”
 Thermal Comfort is a matter of many parameters
 not only the air temperature.
 We spend about 95% of our time indoor.
 Thus the indoor thermal environment is of vital importance.
35

What is Thermal Comfort? II


More definitions:
 Thermal comfort is a condition of mind which expresses
satisfaction with the thermal environment, but there can be
significant individual variation in responses to the thermal
environment.
 Alternatively, it is the state where the person is entirely unaware
of their surroundings neither considering whether the space is
too hot or too cold.
 It is not the same concept as sensation of temperature, although
this is clearly an important factor.
 Dissatisfaction with the thermal environment may be caused by
the body as a whole being too hot or cold, or by unwanted
heating or cooling of a particular part of the body (local
discomfort).

36

18
Why do we need Thermal Comfort? I
To regulate our body temperature.

Body Temperature:
The normal body core temperature is 37 oC.
We have separate heat and cold sensors.
Heat sensors are located in the skin. Signals when
temperature is higher than 37 oC.
Cold sensors are located in the skin. They send
o
signals when skin temperature is below 34 C.
There are more cold sensors that warm sensors.

37

Why do we need Thermal Comfort? II

To help our Heating- and Cooling Mechanism.

Heating mechanism:
 Reduced blood flow.
 Shivering.

Cooling mechanism:
 Increased blood flow.
 Sweating (Evaporation).

38

19
Perception of Thermal Environment
 Heat sensors sends
impulses to the
hypothalamus when
temperature exceeds 37 oC.
 Cold sensors sends
impulses to the
hypothalamus when skin
temperature below 34 oC.
 The bigger temperature
difference, the more
impulses.
 If impulses are of same
magnitude, you feel
Warm Cold thermally neutral
Activity
impulses impulses  If not, you feel cold or warm.

Source: 39
INNOVA

The Energy Balance I


 Thermal Comfort can only be maintained when heat produced by
metabolism equals the heat lost from body.

Heat Heat
Produ- Lost
ced

40
Source: INNOVA

20
The Energy Balance II
 The dry heat loss (R+C)
represents ~70% at low Clo-
values and ~60% at higher Clo-
values.

 The evaporative heat loss (E)


represents ~25% at moderate
activities

 Heat Loss by Conduction (K) and


Respiration (RES) are normally
insignificant compared to the total
heat exchange.

 Man is a poor machine. The


efficiency is less than 20% even for
Parameters influencing the heat
well-trained athletes. Normally set to
loss from a person
zero in the comfort equation.
41
Source: INNOVA

Comfort and the Body’s Heat Balance I

The following environmental parameters


are important for the heat balance of a
human:
Air temperature,
Mean radiant temperature of surrounding
surfaces,
Relative air velocity, and
Water vapour pressure in ambient air.

42

21
Comfort and the Body’s Heat Balance II

43

Comfort and the Body’s Heat Balance III


 Humans exchange heat with the environment in several ways,
such as: by convective and radiant heat transfer from the skin, by
forced convection while breathing and by vaporizing water in the
airways and sweat secretion on the skin.
 Heat is transported from the human body by the following seven
mechanisms:
1. Diffusion of water through the skin followed by evaporation,
2. Evaporation from airways,
3. Convection in airways,
4. Evaporation of actively secreted sweat,
5. Conduction through clothing,
6. Thermal radiation, and
7. Convection from outer surfaces

44

22
Comfort and the Body’s Heat Balance IV

Figure 3.1 The relative importance of the mechanisms of heat loss calculated
for a seated person in a homogeneous comfortable environment. The
metabolism generates 102 W of heat under the stated conditions.
45

Heat Gain and Heat Losses

46

23
Effect of Air Temperature and Heat Loss

47

What is WBGT?

 WBGT means Wet Bulb Globe Temperature, and states that the
index is based on measurements of wet bulb and globe
temperature.
 Recommended highest values of WBGT, in order to avoid
dangerous heat load, for different activity classes and degree
of heat training (acclimatisation).
 Time weighted averages of WBGT are made with this formula:

WBGT=(t1 WBGT1 +t 2 WBGT2 +...t n WBGTn )/(t1 +t 2 +...t n )

 where tn states the working period's length, WBGT n the value


during the period and n the number periods.

48

24
Calculation of WBGT

 WBGT is calculated according to some of following formula:

1). Indoors: WBGT=0.7 Tnwb +0.3 Tg

2). Outdoors sun: WBGT=0.7 Tnwb +0.2 Tg  0.1 Ta

 where Tnwb is natural wet bulb temperature, Tg is globe


temperature and Ta is ambient temperature.
 Relation 2 is used outdoors i direct sunshine.

49

Recommended Limit values for WBGT


 Recommended reference values according to ISO 7243 and
regulation from the Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety
and Health:
Metabolic rate M Reference value of WBGT
(W.m2)
Person acclimatized heat Person not acclimatized heat
(ºC) (ºC)

0. Resting < 65 33 32 0: Resting


1. 65<M< 130 30 29 1: Light
2. 130<M< 200 28 26 2: Moderate

Air movement Air movement 3: Very heavy

No sensible Sensible No sensible Sensible

3. 200<M< 260 25 26 22 23

4. M> 260 23 25 18 20
50

25
Conditions for Thermal Comfort
o
C.
 Two conditions must be fulfilled to
maintain Thermal Comfort: 34
1. Heat produced must equal heat 33
lost.
2. Signals from Heat and Cold 32
sensors must neutralise each 3
other. 30
1
29
 Mean Skin Temp. and Sweat Loss are 0 1 2 3 4
the only physiological parameters Metabolic Rate
which influence the heat balance at a W/m2
given Metabolic Rate
100

Sweat prod.
 The sweat production is used instead
of body core temperature, as measure 80
of the amount of warm impulses. 60
 Relation between the parameters 40
found empirically in experiments. 20
 No difference between sex, age, race
or geographic origin. 0 1 2 3 4
Metabolic Rate

51
Source: INNOVA

The Comfort Equation

H (Dry Heat Loss)


Ec Evaporative heat exchange at the skin
Cres Respiratory convective heat exchange
Eres Respiratory evaporative heat exchange
W Effective mechanical power, w/m2
M Metabolic rate, w/m2

52
Source: INNOVA

26
Predicted Mean Vote Scale

The PMV index is used to quantify the degree of


discomfort

53
Source: INNOVA

The Comfort PMV equation

54

27
PMV and PPD

PMV=  0.303  e-0.036M +0.028  (M-W)-H-E c -Cres -E res 


PPD=100-95  e-(0.03353PMV +0.2179PMV2 )
4

 Where:
M – metabolic rate, W/m²
W – effective mechanical power, W/m²
H – dry heat loss, heat loss from the body surface through
convection, radiation and conduction, W/m²
Ec – evaporative heat exchange at the skin, when the person
experiences a sensation of thermal neutrality, W/m²
Cres – respiratory convective heat exchange, W/m²
Eres – respiratory evaporative heat exchange, W/m²
55

PMV And PPD

 PMV-index (Predicted Mean Vote) predicts the subjective


ratings of the environment in a group of people.
 PPD-index predicts the number of dissatisfied people.

Parameters to estimate and calculate are:


Met Estimation of Metabolic Rate
Clo Calculation of Clo value
56
Source: INNOVA

28
Metabolic Rate
0.8 Met
 Energy released by metabolism
depends on muscular activity.

 Metabolism is measured in Met


(1 Met=58.15 W/m2 body surface).
8 Met
 Body surface for normal adult is
1 Met 1.7 m2.

 A sitting person in thermal


comfort will have a heat loss of
100 W.

4 Met  Average activity level for the last


hour should be used when
evaluating metabolic rate, due to
body’s heat capacity.

1
Source: INNOVA

Metabolism I

1
Metabolism II
New unit – met
1 met refers to the metabolic rate of a sendentary
person (seated, quiet) - Equals 58.2 W/m².

Body surface area –DuBois area:

AD =0.202  Mass0.425  Height 0.725

Met Value Table

Activity Metabolic Rates [M]


Reclining 46 W/m2 0.8 Met
Seated relaxed 58 W/m2 1.0 Met
Clock and watch repairer 65 W/m2 1.1 Met
Standing relaxed 70 W/m2 1.2 Met
Car driving 80 W/m2 1.4 Met
Standing, light activity (shopping) 93 W/m2 1.6 Met
Walking on the level, 2 km/h 110 W/m2 1.9 Met
Standing, medium activity (domestic work) 116 W/m2 2.0 Met
Washing dishes standing 145 W/m2 2.5 Met
Walking on the level, 5 km/h 200 W/m2 3.4 Met
Building industry 275 W/m2 4.7 Met
Sports - running at 15 km/h 550 W/m2 9.5 Met

4
Source: INNOVA

2
Met Value Examples

5
Source: INNOVA

Calculation of Insulation in Clothing

0,15 Clo
0.5 Clo
1.2 Clo

1.0 Clo

 1 Clo = Insulation value of 0,155 m2 oC/W

6
Source: INNOVA

3
Clothing  Insulation value
1 CLO = 0.88 (hr-ft2-ºF/Btu), typical 3-piece suit or
1 CLO = Insulation value of 0,155 m2 ºC/W

0.2 clo 0.8 clo 1.0 clo 3.0 clo

Clo Values Table


Garment description Iclu Clo Iclu m2 C/W

Underwear Pantyhose 0.02 0.003


Briefs 0.04 0.006
Pants long legs 0.10 0.016
Underwear, Bra 0.01 0.002
shirts T-shirt 0.09 0.014
Half-slip, nylon 0.14 0.022
Shirts Tube top 0.06 0.009
Short sleeves 0.09 0.029
Normal, long sleeves 0.25 0.039
Trousers Shorts 0.06 0.009
Normal trousers 0.25 0.039
Overalls 0.28 0.043
Insulated Multi-component filling 1.03 0.160
coveralls Fibre-pelt 1.13 0.175
Sweaters Thin sweater 0.20 0.031
Normal sweater 0.28 0.043
Thick sweater 0.35 0.054

8
Source: INNOVA

4
Clo Values Table /cont.
Garment description Iclu Clo Iclu m2 C/W

Jackets Vest 0.13 0.020


Jacket 0.35 0.054
Coats over- Coat 0.60 0.093
trousers Parka 0.70 0.109
Overalls 0.52 0.081
Sundries Socks 0.02 0.003
Shoes (thin soled) 0.02 0.003
Boots 0.10 0.016
Gloves 0.05 0.008
Skirt, Light skirt, 15cm above knee 0.10 0.016
dresses Heavy skirt, knee-length 0.25 0.039
Winter dress, long sleeves 0.40 0.062
Sleepwear Shorts 0.10 0.016
Long pyjamas 0.50 0.078
Body sleep with feet 0.72 0.112
Chairs Wooden or metal 0.00 0.000
Fabric-covered, cushioned 0.10 0.016
Armchair 0.20 0.032

9
Source: INNOVA

Calculation of Clo Value (Clo)

10
Source: INNOVA

5
Comfort Temperature

What is Comfort Temperature?

11
Source: INNOVA

Comfort Temperature

1,7 CLO 0,8 CLO 0,5 CLO


2,5 MET 2,2 MET 1,2 MET
RH=50% RH=50% RH=50%
tco=6oC. tco=18oC. tco=24,5oC.

12
Source: INNOVA

6
Acclimatisation!

When the air condition


system fails you can
adapt by adjusting your
CLO value

13
Source: INNOVA

Adjustment of Clo Value


PPD (Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied)

1.2 met

1.0 Clo 0.5 Clo

Operative Temperature
14
Source: INNOVA

7
What Should Be Measured?

Parameters to measure are:

- ta Air Temperature
- tr Mean Radiant Temperature
- va Air Velocity
- pa Humidity

15
Source: INNOVA

Mean Radiant Temperature

Actual room Imaginary room


t4
tr R’
R
t1
Heat
exchange by
radiation:
R=R’
t t3
2

 The Mean Radiant Temperature is that uniform temperature of an


imaginary black enclosure resulting in same heat loss by radiation from
the person, as the actual enclosure.
 Measuring all surface temperatures and calculation of angle factors is
time consuming. Therefore use of Mean Radiant Temperature is avoided
when possible.
16
Source: INNOVA

8
Operative Temperature
 Operative temperature combines air and mean radiant temp.

17

Optimal Operative Temperature

Icl
Figure 3.3 The optimal operative temperature for
different to a person's surface area while nude
clothing and activity levels (ISO 7730, 1994).
18

9
Operative And Equivalent Temperature
Where the enclosure
Operative surface (mean radiant
temperature temperature) and air
combines air temperatures are equal,
and mean this temperature is also
radiant temp. the equivalent
temperature.
Operative temperature
Equivalent temperature

19
Source: INNOVA

Operative And Equivalent Temperature

Operative temperature Equivalent temperature

20
Source: INNOVA

10
New Methods for Equivalent
Temperature (Teq)
 The equivalent temperature describes the effect of climatic
impact in one value.

Action Influence
Increased air speed   Lower teq
Decreased air temperature   Lower te
Decreased mean radiant temperature   Lower teq
Decreased air speed   Higher teq
Increased air temperature   Higher teq
Increased mean radiant temperature   Higher teq

21

Time Constant
teq °C
Heated Sensor - Equivalent Temperature
30 Unheated Sensor - Operative Temperature

Black Globe

25
Δt

0,63 * Δt

20
0 5 10 15 20 25 Min.

22
Source: INNOVA

11
Operative Temperature

 The Operative Temperature to integrates the effect of ta and tr.

 An Operative Temperature transducer must have same heat


exchange properties as an unheated mannequin dummy.

23
Source: INNOVA

Dry Heat Loss

 Dry Heat Loss or Equivalent Temperature can be measured


directly, using a heated Operative Temperature shaped transducer.

 The Equivalent Temperature teq integrates the effect of ta, tr and va .

 The Dry Heat Loss transducer is heated to the same temperature


as the surface temperature of a person’s clothing.

24
Source: INNOVA

12
Calculation of PMV And PPD
Parameter Input
100,00
Clo value 1
Met value 1
Teq 24
80,00
RH 70

PPD value (%)


Calculate PMV 60,00

PMV 0,41 -2
PPD 9 9,19
40,00
0,406369 0,406369
9,19 0,00
20,00

0,00
-2 -1,5 -1 -0,5 0 0,5 1 1,5 2
PMV value

25
Source: INNOVA

Local Thermal Discomfort

 Draught  Radiation
Asymmetry

 Vertical Air
Temperature  Floor
Differences Temperature

26
Source: INNOVA

13
Draught I
Velocity
m/s
 Draught is the most
common complaint
indoors.

 What is felt is Heat


Time Loss.

Velocity  Heat Loss is depending


m/s on average Air Velocity,
Temperature and
Turbulence.

 High Turbulence is more


uncomfortable, even
Time with the same Heat
Loss.

27
Source: INNOVA

Draught II

 Recommendation for air draught:


 In ISO 7730 can the percentage of people predicted to be
dissatisfied because of air draught be calculated using this
equation:
DR=(34-t a )  (va -0.05)0.62 (37  SD+3.14)

 Where: DR is Draught Rating [%], ta is air Temperature [ºC], Va is


local mean air velocity [m/s], SD is Standard Deviation of air
velocity [m/s] .
 To Describe fluctuations in the air velocity, we often use the term
“Turbulence Intensity” which is de fined as:

Tu =100  SD/va [%]

28
Source: INNOVA

14
Draught III

 The sensation of
Draught depends on the
air temperature.

 At lower air
temperatures a higher
number will be
dissatisfied.

Mean Air Velocity

29
Source: INNOVA

Evaluating Draught Rate

 Fluctuations in Air Velocity is


described by Turbulence Intensity
(Tu).
 Draught Rate equation is based on
studies of 150 people, and stated in
ISO 7730.

Tu = 100*( SD / va)

SD:Standard Deviation of Air Velocity


va: Local Mean Air Velocity

30
Source: INNOVA

15
Radiation Asymmetry

 Radiant Temperature Asymmetry is perceived


uncomfortable.
 Warm ceilings and cold walls causes greatest
discomfort.
31
Source: INNOVA

Vertical Air Temperature Difference


25 oC
Dissatisfied

Vertical Air Temperature Difference


o
19 C

 Vertical Air Temperature


Difference is the difference
between Air Temperature at
ankle and neck level.

32
Source: INNOVA

16
Floor Temperature I

Dissatisfied
Floor Temperature

 Acceptable floor temperatures


ranging from 19 to 29 oC.
 The graph is made on the
assumption that people wear
“normal indoor footwear”.

33
Source: INNOVA

Floor Temperature II
 Depends on the thermal
conductivity and specific heat
of the floor material.
 Depends on footwear.
Temperature of floor

Material of floor

34
Source: INNOVA

17
Workplace Measurements

- 1.7 m
- 1.1 m

- 1.1 m
- 0.6 m

- 0.1 m
- 0.1 m

 Measurements of Vertical Temp. difference and Draught at ankle and neck.


 Other measurements should be performed at persons centre of gravity.

35
Source: INNOVA

Problems with existing standards


 Reality check: Laboratory ≠ Real buildings
 One-size-fits all: Universally applied to all climates, cultures, and
building types
 Energy intensive: Broad application of narrow set-points
exaggerates the “need” for air-conditioning.

36

18
Comfort Model for Naked Persons I

 At what ambient temperature does a naked person experience


thermal comfort?
 The comfort equation which is based on the heat balance for the
body:

 Which may be rewritten as:

37

Comfort Model for Naked Persons II

 If Ssk, Sc, and W are 0, then the equation can be rewritten:

M=R+C+E
For experience we can assume that E=0.25  (R+C)
M=R+C+0.25  (R+C)=1.25  (R+C)
where
R=A r  H r  (ts  tr )
C  A c  H c  (ts  ta )

38

19
Comfort Model for Naked Persons III

 If we assume that

t a =t r =t o Ar =0.8 Ac hr hc 4.5 W/(m2 K)

 Then we can write

M=1.25  (R+C D )=1.25  A c  (0.8  h r +h c )  (t s -t o )  10  A D  (t s -t o )


where
A D =0.202  Mass0.425  Height 0.725

39

Comfort Model for Naked Persons IV

 The heat conduction through the skin can be expressed as:

M tc  t s

AD rs

 Where: rs thermal resistance of the skin. Usually varies between


0.05 and 0.08 m2·K/W.

40

20
Comfort Model for Naked Persons V

 A heat balance for the skin surface can be written:


tc  t s M t c  10  rs  t o
  10  (ts  to )  ts =
rs AD 10  rs  1
M  t  10  rs  t 
 10  (ts  to )  10   c  to  
AD  10  rs  1 
 t t 
 10   c o  
 10  rs  1 
M 1 
to  tc     rs 
AD  10 

41

Comfort Model for Naked Persons VI


Example:
A naked person is in a room with an air temperature of 26 °C. She is sitting
down reading. Assume AD = 2 m². Is the person comfortable or not?
Assume M = 115 W, rs varies between 0.05 and 0.08.

The person will be comfortable in ambient temperatures given by:

M 1 
to  tc     rs 
AD  10 

For rs = 0.05, to = 28 °C.


For rs = 0.08, to = 27 °C.
The person probably feels a little bit cold!

42

21
Comfort Model – person with clothes I
 A similar reasoning lead to:
M 1 
to  tc     rcl 
A D  f cl  10 
 Which is valid for indoor conditions. fcl is the clothing area factor
(ratio between clothed area and total area). rcl is the heat
resistance of the clothes.
 For conditions where the air velocity is higher, this expression
can be used instead:
M  0.8 
to  tc    rcl 
A D  f cl  h c +0.8  h r 
 Where hc and hr are the convective and radiative heat transfer
coefficients.

43

Comfort Model – person with clothes II


Example:
 Calculate your comfort temperature!
 Your body area can be calculated by:

AD =0.202  Mass0.425  Height 0.725

 The heat resistance for your clothes is


calculated by adding the heat resistance
for each piece of clothing (tables of heat
resistance of clothes can be found in
the book).

44

22
Comfort Model – person with clothes III
Example (continued):
 The comfort equation:

M 1 
to  tc     rcl 
A D  f cl  10 
 Assume fcl = 0.8, AD = 2 m2, Metabolism =
115 W. rcl is the heat resistance of the
clothes.
 According to the figure, rcl = 0.91
clo = 0.141 K·m²/W.
tc = 37 °C.
to= 19.7 °C

45

Wind Chill Effect

46

23
Adaptive Model I
 The “Adaptive” Thermal Comfort is a new approach:
 Based on field data
 Satisfaction influenced by expectations & context
 3 types of adaptation:
1. Physiological
2. Behavioral
3. Psychological
 Outdoor climate is an important influence.

47

Adaptive Model II

.

 Tn is Neutrality temp. and Tm


Is Mean outdoor temperature
 Results from adaptive model,
see table

48

24
Adaptive Model III
 Observed vs. predicted comfort in centralized HVAC buildings

49

Adaptive Model IV
 Observed vs. predicted comfort in naturally ventilated buildings

50

25
Adaptive Model V

Why do observations ≠ predictions


in naturally ventilated buildings?
 Errors in estimating personal inputs
(clothing and metabolic rate) ? NO
 Physiological adaptation? NO
 Psychological adaptation? Yes

Hypothesis –
 Expectations shift due to:
1. personal control
2. variable thermal history

51

Design strategy Models I

Olgyay model
Givoni Model
Mahoney Model

52

26
Comparison I

 Figure shows that Fanger


and adaptive models, as
they design for, are very
good for defining comfort
zone, also Mahoney model
is the best for design
advices, in regard to its not
very complete comfort zone
definition. Givoni and
Olgyay models are working
with pictures rather than
charts so more easily could
be used by architects
although they have very
rough comfort zone.

53

Comparison II

 Looking to the models together indicates that there may be a


combination of comfort zone definition models. The new
climatic design model will need more flexible comfort
conditions with different clothing and activity level together with
improved number of design advices to cover more parts of
architectural design process.
 To allow architects think about open and semi-open spaces in
their buildings, also the model needs to have look to outdoor
comfort as well.
 Because in many examples before industrial revolution not only
indoor climate, but also outdoor climate with shading,
vegetation and water surfaces has been controlled. But now
there is an assumption for designers, that life is happening only
indoor!!!

54

27
Basis for conventional thermal
comfort standards
 Laboratory experiments, no
personal control
 Heat-balance model of the
human body
 People are passive recipients
of stimuli
 Comfort zone to be applied
uniformly across space and
time
 Seasonal differences
accounted for only by
clothing changes

55

Adaptive Comfort Standard (ACS) in


ASHRAE Std. 55-2004

56

28
ACS - compare to PMV-based
comfort zones

57

Adaptive Comfort Standard (ACS) -


limited scope of applicability
 Occupant-controlled, naturally
conditioned spaces only (thermal
conditions of the space are regulated
primarily by the occupants through
opening and closing of windows)
 Space cannot have any mechanical
cooling
 Mechanical heating o.k., but does not
apply when heating system is in
operation
 Mechanical ventilation o.k., but
windows must be primary regulatory
mechanism
 Occupants w/ 1-1.3 met & free to adapt
clothing
58

29
How to use the Adaptive Comfort
Standard?
Design
(will natural ventilation be acceptable?)
Operation
(how to control a mixed-mode building?)
Evaluation
(are existing conditions acceptable?)
Energy Analysis
(how much energy might be saved?)

59

Design recommendations for


determining acceptable comfort

60

30
Will natural ventilation work?

61

Thermal comfort conditions

62

31
New directions in thermal comfort

 Thermal monotony or thermal


delight?

 The role of control?

 Mixed-mode: the best of both


worlds?

63

Requirements for thermal climate I

A thorough understanding of thermal comfort and


indoor climate is often more complicated than a
question temperature alone.
The environmental parameters are important for
the heat balance of the human body.
Thermal climate environmental parameters are:
 Air temperature
 Surrounding surface radiant temperature
 Air velocity
 Water vapour pressure

64

32
Requirements for thermal climate II
 How can we ensure that buildings will be thermally
comfortable for their occupants? The obvious answer is to
provide the "right" temperature for comfort.
 One problem with this is that the "right" temperature will vary
from person to person and from time to time depending on
people's thermal experience.
 Another problem is that other things effect how hot or cold
we feel, in particular the humidity and the air movement in the
space, how much clothing people are wearing and their
metabolic rate (how hard they are working).

65

Requirements for thermal climate III

The thermal climate is one of the better developed


aspects of indoor climate research.
The research effort accelerated in the 1920s, when
some of the first air conditioned buildings were
studied, in significant contributions from Yaglou
and collaborators (Yaglou and Miller 1924).
Since then. a number of standards and guidelines
have been published.

66

33
Requirements for thermal climate IV

Standards:
The most important international standards and
guidelines are mentioned in the following:
 ISO 7730. (1994): Moderate thermal environments, Determination of the
PMV and PPD indices and specification of the conditions for thermal
comfort. International Standard. 1st edition.
 ISO 7243. (1982): Estimation of the heat stress on working man, based on
the WBGT index (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature). International Standard
ISO 7243. 1st edition.
 ISOIDIS 9920. (1995): Ergonomics of the thermal environment -Estimation
of the thermal insulation and evaporative resistance of clothing
ensembles.
 ISO 8996. (1990): Ergonomics -Determination of metabolic heat
production.

67

Problems for thermal comfort

Please note that I prepared some problems with


solutions for this part and it is available on the
blackboard/ Course Documents/ Problems.
We begin with lecture 4 very soon.

Have a nice Time

68

34
Lecture 4

Energy Utilisation

Part I

Blackboard homepage:
lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Taghi Karimipanah
E-mail:
tkh@hig.se
Tel: 073-280 75 47

Heat Transfer in Buildings 1

Temperature Scales

 Temperature

Heat Transfer in Buildings 2

1
Heat Transfer in Buildings

What is heat?

First Law of Thermodynamics:


Change in energy = heat put in system + work done on system.
Attributed to Joule and Clausius in mid-1800s-overturned “caloric” theory.
Heat transfer: energy in transit due to a temperature
difference.
Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics:
If A is in thermal equilibrium with B and C, then B & C are in
equilibrium and all are at the same temperature.
Definition of temperature is arbitrary! One is that the
mean kinetic energy of ideal gas particles proportional
to T.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 3

Overview dimensionless numbers

 Nusselt number: Nu  hL / k f . Ratio between total heat transfer in a


convection dominated system and the estimated conductive heat
transfer.
 Grashof number: Gr  L g /  w . Ratio between buoyancy forces and
3 2

viscous forces.
 Prandtl number: Pr   c p / k . Ratio between momentum diffusivity and
thermal diffusivity. Typical values are Pr = 0.01 for liquid metals; Pr =
0.7 for most gases; Pr = 6 for water at room temperature.

 Rayleigh number: Ra  Gr Pr  L  g c p T /  k  L gT /  


3 2 3

The Rayleigh number governs natural convection phenomena.

 Reynolds number: Re  UL / . Ratio between inertial and viscous


forces.
Heat Transfer in Buildings 4

2
Modes of Heat Transfer I
Three Modes of Heat Transfer: 1. Conduction, 2. Convection, 3. Radiation

Heat Transfer in Buildings 5

Modes of Heat Transfer II

 Conduction: Heat transfer in a solid or a stationary fluid (gas or


liquid) due to the random motion of its constituent atoms,
molecules and /or electrons.
 Convection: Heat transfer due to the combined influence of bulk
and random motion for fluid flow over a surface.
 Radiation: Energy that is emitted by matter due to changes in the
electron configurations of its atoms or molecules and is transported
as electromagnetic waves (or photons).
 Conduction and convection require the presence of temperature
variations in a material medium.
 Although radiation originates from matter, its transport does not
require a material medium and occurs most efficiently in a vacuum

Heat Transfer in Buildings 6

3
Conduction Heat Transfer I
Definition:
Transfer of energy from more energetic to
less energetic particles of a substance due
to interactions between particles.
Gas: T= molecular motion, direct particle
collisions equilibrate energy.
Liquid: same as gas, but molecular interactions
are stronger and more frequent.
Solid: lattice vibrations.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 7

Conduction Heat Transfer II


Conduction in “one dimensional heat flow”:
 The simplest conduction heat transfer
can be described as “one dimensional
heat flow” depicted in Figure below.
 the heat flows into one face of the
object and out the opposite face with
no heat loss (flow) out the sides of the
object.
 The surfaces 1 and 2 are held at
constant temperature.
 Clearly, “in one dimensional heat
flow,” the temperature of an object is a
function of only one variable, namely
the distance from either face of the
object (face 1 or 2). Heat Transfer in Buildings 8

4
Fourier’s Law of Conduction I
 The heat flux is proportional to the temperature gradient:
Q dT
q T grad
A dx
where (x,y,z,T) is the thermal conductivity [Watts/ (m . K)], T = 
=temperature (K) and q = heat flux vector (Watts/m2).
 The equation state that conductive heat flow rate at a point in a solid,
a liquid or a gas is proportional to the temperature gradient at that
point.
temperature
profile
dT
hot wall dx cold wall

x
Heat Transfer in Buildings 9

Fourier’s Law of Conduction II


The minus symbol in the heat flux equation
indicates that heat flow rate and temperature
gradient oppose each other.
In most practical situations conduction,
convection, and radiation appear in combination.
Also for convection, the heat transfer coefficient
is important, because a flow can only carry heat
away from a wall when that wall is conducting.
For all porous material, thermal conductivity (-
value) is a function of temperature and moisture
content.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 10

5
Thermal conductivity of different materials

Table for thermal conductivity of different materials in next slide

Heat Transfer in Buildings 11

Thermal conductivity of different materials

Table 3.1: Approximate values for thermal conductivity, heat capacity and thermal
diffusivity for a set of materials at room temperature.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 12

6
 in our
definitions

Heat Transfer in Buildings 13

Generalized heat diffusion equation

If we perform a heat balance on a small volume of


material….
heat conduction T heat conduction

q
in out

heat generation

T 2
c T q
… we get: t
rate of change heat cond. heat
of temperature in/out generation

thermal diffusivity
c
Heat Transfer in Buildings 14

7
Fourier’s law at steady state

dT
q q"
dx Fourier’s Law

Tout Tin At steady state


q
L
i=V/ R

Tout Tin T = Voltage (V)


q L/ = Resistance (R)
q = current (i)
L/
Heat Transfer in Buildings 15

Convection
Energy transfer by bulk or macroscopic fluid motion;
large numbers of molecules are moving in aggregate.
Forced convection: fan inside your computer.
Natural convection: hot air rises.

q"  h(Tplate  Tair )

h = convection coefficient Watts/m2


(function of everything)

Heat Transfer in Buildings 16

8
Thermal Resistance Circuits I

There is an electrical analogy with conduction heat


transfer that can be exploited in problem solving.
The analogue of is current, and the analogue of the
temperature difference, T1 - T2, is voltage difference.
From this perspective the slab is a pure resistance to
heat transfer and we can define
Q T1 T2 T1 T2 T1 T2
q or Q Q
A L/ L / ( A) R

 where R = L/A, the thermal resistance. The thermal


resistance R increases as L increases, but it
decreases as A decreases, and as k decreases.
Heat Transfer in Buildings 17

Thermal Resistance Circuits II


 The concept of a thermal resistance
circuit allows ready analysis of
problems such as a composite slab
(composite planar heat transfer
surface).
 In the composite slab shown in
Figure, the heat flux is constant with
x.
 The resistances are in series and
sum to R = R1 + R2.
 If TL is the temperature at the left,
and TR is the temperature at the right,
the heat transfer rate is given by Heat transfer across a
composite slab (series
thermal resistance)

Heat Transfer in Buildings 18

9
Thermal Resistance Circuits III
 The heat transfer resistances are in parallel.
 An Example is a wall with a dissimilar material such as a bolt in
an insulating layer
 The figure shows the physical configuration, the heat transfer
paths and the thermal resistance circuit.
 For this situation, the total heat flux is made up of the heat flux
in the two parallel paths: with the total resistance
given by:

Heat Transfer in Buildings 19


Here K is 

Combined modes
Thot
Thot

Hot air flow


R=1/hhot

T2
T2
R=L/
T1
Cold air flow T1

R=1/hcold
Tcold

T Tcold

Heat Transfer in Buildings 20

10
Solution

Thot

Thot  Tcold
q" 
1/ hhot  1/ hcold  L /  R=1/hhot

T2
T T
q "  1 cold (solve for T1)
R=L/
1/ hcold
T1

T2  Tcold R=1/hcold
q"  (solve for T2)
1/ hcold  L / 
Tcold
Heat Transfer in Buildings 21

Heat transfer through an insulated wall I


 This is more complex configuration, for example, a brick
wall with insulation on both sides.

 The overall thermal resistance is given by


L1 L2 L3
R R1 R2 R3
1 A1 2 A2 3 A3
Heat Transfer in Buildings 22

11
Heat transfer through an insulated wall II
 Some representative values for the brick and insulation thermal
conductivity are:
λ brick =λ 2 =0.7 W/m-K
λinsulation =λ1 =λ3 =0.07 W/m-K
 Using these values and noting that A1=A2=A3=A, we obtain:

L1 0.03 m
AR1 =AR 3 = = =0.42 m 2 K/W
λ1 0.07 W/m K
L3 0.1 m
AR 2 = = =0.14 m 2 K/W
λ 2 0.7 W/m K

Heat Transfer in Buildings 23

Heat transfer through an insulated wall III


 This is a series circuit so

 Temperature distribution through an insulated wall is as in figure

Heat Transfer in Buildings 24

12
Heat transfer through an insulated wall IV
.

.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 25

Surface resistances I

 The heat transfer from a construction surface to the surroundings with a


given temperature is taking place by radiation to surrounding surfaces
and due to heat conduction and air movements close to the surface as
will be treated in coming lectures. The coefficient of surface heat
transfer hs , W/m2K, is defined as

In practical applications, these complicated processes are often


approximated by a fictive material layer between the surface, Ts, and an
ambient temperature, Ta, which is often chosen as the air temperature.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 26

13
Surface resistances II

 For simplified calculations in normal building applications these


fictive resistances can be chosen on the inside towards a heated
room with normal indoor climate

and on the outside towards average external temperature and


wind conditions

In reality however, the surface resistances vary greatly, due to


miscellaneous factors, which will be further discussed in the
lectures on radiation and convection in buildings.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 27

Definition of the U-value

 The thermal transmittance or U-value, W/m2K, for a construction is


defined as the ratio between the density of heat flow rate q, W/m 2,
through the construction and the temperature difference between
the ambient temperatures on both sides

For a construction with n layers the U-value then becomes

Heat Transfer in Buildings 28

14
Steady state heat flow and temperature
distribution in a multilayer (composite) wall
with no internal heat sources I
 From the steady state condition it follows that the heat flow is
constant through the construction.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 29

Steady state heat flow and temperature


distribution in a multilayer (composite) wall
with no internal heat sources II
Suppose the temperature is S1 on wall surface 1 and S2 on wall surface
2. If the thermal conductivity i of the materials and the thickness d, of all
layers arc known, then we may write per layer
(S1 < S2 ):  
For layer 1: q=1 1 s1

d1
1   2
For layer 2: q=2
d2
.............
 n 1   n  2
For layer n-1: q=n-1
d n 1
 s 2   n 1
For layer n: q=n
Heat Transfer in Buildings dn 30

15
Steady state heat flow and temperature
distribution in a multilayer (composite) wall
with no internal heat sources III

total thermal resistance

Heat Transfer in Buildings 31

Steady state heat flow and temperature


distribution in a multilayer (composite) wall
with no internal heat sources IV

The electrical analogy. V is voltage and R is thermal resistance

Rearrangement of the equation gives temperatures

Heat Transfer in Buildings 32

16
Steady state heat flow and temperature
distribution in a multilayer (composite) wall
with no internal heat sources V
And for other temperatures

i
The equation θi =θs1 +(θs2 -θs1 ) R i /R T can be rewitten as:  x =s1 +q  R sx1
i=1

where R sx1 is the thermal resistance between surface s1 and the interface x in the wall.
Heat Transfer in Buildings 33

Steady state heat flow and temperature


distribution in a multilayer (composite) wall
with no internal heat sources VI
Graphical construction of the temperature line in a composite wall.
Source: Building Physics, Hugo Hens

Heat Transfer in Buildings 34

17
Single-layered Wall with Variable
Thermal Conductivity
Each time we have a temperature difference over, or a
moisture content profile in a wall, thermal conductivity ()
becomes a function of temperature () or the ordinate (x).
If moisture is distributed in such way that thermal
conductivity increases proportional to x
(= 0+ a x) then :

Wet wall. Illustrative profile turns thermal


conductivity into a function of the ordinate x.
Source: Hugo Hens, Building Physics.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 35

Composite Wall with Local Heat Source or Sink I


 If condensate is
deposited in the
interface between two
layers in a wall, heat of
evaporation is released
there.
 Drying of that
condensate causes the
same heat of
evaporation to be
absorbed again.
 As a result, a local heat
source and sink is
activated.
 Assume that q' W/m2
heat is released and that
surface temperature S1 Local Heat Source.
is higher than surface Source: Hugo Hens, Building Physics.
temperature S2 as in
figure
Heat Transfer in Buildings 36

18
Composite Wall with Local Heat Source or Sink II
 The temperature line in the wall is then found by writing a steady state
heat balance at the interface x which contains the source or sink. Heat
is supposed to flow from the environment to x.
 Hence, according to conservation of energy, the sum of all heat flow
rates in x should be zero.
 As heat flow rates we have:
 Conduction between surface S1 and x:

 Conduction between surface S2 and x:

 Dissipated heal q' in x. In Case of drying, q' is negative. in case


condensate is deposited. q' is positive.
 In the two equations. x, is the unknown temperature in the
interface x, Sum zero gives:

Heat Transfer in Buildings 37

Composite Wall with Local Heat Source or Sink III


 We obtain the conductive heat flow rates between the surface S1
and x. and the surface S2 and x by introducing this results into the
equations for the heal flow rates and :

Heat Transfer in Buildings 38

19
Two Dimensional Cylindrical Coordinates
(Pipes) I

Heat Transfer in Buildings 39

Two Dimensional Cylindrical Coordinates


(Pipes) II

Heat Transfer in Buildings 40

20
Heat Transfer in Buildings 41

Convection in porous insulation materials I


 Porous insulation materials exposed to a temperature difference may experience
a convective air flow within the layer.
 This convective air flow will reduce the thermal resistance of the layer.
 The extent of air flow will depend on among other things the temperature
difference, the orientation of the layer and the thickness of the insulation.

Figure 3.44: Vertical and horizontal layer of


thermal insulation with the thickness, d (m),
exposed to a temperature difference T+ -T-. The
thermal conductivity of the material, without
any convection, is .

Heat Transfer in Buildings 42

21
Convection in porous insulation materials II
 Circulation of air within the layer will carry heat from the warm side to the cold one,
i.e. lead to a net transfer of heat.
 For the horizontal insulation layer the precondition naturally is that the higher
temperature is at the bottom of the layer.
 The Nusselt number gives the increase of heat flow:

 The Nusselt number depends on the modified Rayleigh number, Ram. This is
defined as:

 Here, cpa (J/kgK), a (kg/m3) and v (m2/s) are the heat capacity, density and kinematic
viscosity of air respectively. The acceleration due to gravity is denoted by g (m/s2 ),
and k (m2) is the air permeability of the porous medium. The coefficient of thermal
expansion of air  (1/K) is approximately 1/T, where the temperature is given in
degree Kelvin.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 43

Energy balances for ventilated spaces I


 Consider a ventilated room with well mixed air, i.e. there is a
uniform air temperature. The air exchange rate n (s-1), is defined
as: n = Ra / V [s-1]
 where Ra (m3/s) is the inlet air flow rate and V (m 3) is the volume of the
room air.

Figure 3.47: Ventilated room with well mixed air. The network for the
Heat Transfer in Buildings 44
steady state case is shown.

22
Energy balances for ventilated spaces II
 The ventilation (convection) heat flow Qv (W) to the room is:

 where a (kg/m3) is the density of the air and cpa (J /kg K) is the
specific heat capacity of air at atmospheric pressure. The
volumetric heat capacity of air a cpa is equal to 1 250 (J/m 3 K ) at
10°C.
 We have neglected any transfer of latent heat in this formula.
Using a network conductance KV (W/K) we get:

 The wall structure has an external thermal insulation layer and an


inner layer of an arbitrary material.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 45

Energy balances for ventilated spaces III

The average U-value of the building envelope is U


(W/m2K) and the corresponding area (including
windows), facing the external climate, is Ae (m2).
A part of the building envelope is represented by a
window area Aw (m2) with a U-value equal to Uw
(W/m2K).
The U-value of the external facing building envelope,
not represented by the windows, is Ue. The average U-
value is obtained from an area weighting:

Heat Transfer in Buildings 46

23
Energy balances for ventilated spaces IV
 The formula can be derived by the rule of parallel conductances,
where U . Ae represents the conductance of the reduced
network.
 The conductances in the network are given by the various
exposed areas and their U-values: U1 . A1, U2 . A2 ... The general
formula then becomes:

 The interior air may also be in contact with non-insulated


internal walls, assumed to be built in the same material as the
inner layer of the external wall.
 The area of these surfaces will be denoted Ai (m2 ).

Heat Transfer in Buildings 47

Radiation
Energy emitted by matter that is at a finite
temperature.
Emission attributed to changes in electron
configurations.
Energy transported by electromagnetic waves.
No medium needed.
RELEVANCE OF THERMAL RADIATION:

 When no medium is present radiation is the only mode of heat


transfer.
Heat Transfer in Buildings 48

24
SPEED, FREQUENCY and WAVELENGTH

For any wave:

For electromagnetic waves:

Heat Transfer in Buildings 49

SPEED, FREQUENCY and WAVELENGTH


 For a medium other than vacuum:

 The frequency stays the same so,

 COMMON UNITS FOR


WAVELENGTH

Heat Transfer in Buildings 50

25
Thermal Radiation I

All bodies emit energy by electromagnetic waves which


we call thermal radiation.
The characteristics of the radiation are depending on the
properties of the surface material and on the surface
temperature.
Thermal radiation is defined as radiation with wavelength
between 10-5 and 10-8 m.
This includes visible light as well as a part of the infrared
and of the ultraviolet spectrum.
At normal room temperature, surfaces emit radiation far
into the infrared spectrum which we are not able to see.
Heat Transfer in Buildings 51

Thermal Radiation II
 The visible light that we detect with our eyes, as coming from a
surface of a body, is not emitted radiation but reflected radiation that
originates from the sun or some artificial light source.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 52

26
Radiation in an enclosure

Hot object in
vacuum; walls of
enclosure are cold.
Tsur

"
qemit   Tb4 Tb
"
qabs  qincident
"

 - Emissivity (1 is max., no units)


 - Stefan-Boltzmann constant =5.67e-8 (Watts/K4 m2)
 - Absorbtivity (1 is max., no units)
   - Gray surface
q"   (Tb4  Tsur
4
) - Net exchange in a large enclosure, gray surface

Heat Transfer in Buildings 53

Radiation or Convection?
"
qconv  h(T  Tair ) For forced convection: h=100 W/m2K
"
qrad   (T 4  Tair
4
) For natural convection: h=10 W/m2K

7
10

6
10
convection
5
10
q"

4
10

10
3
h=10
radiation

2
10 2 3 4
10 10 10
temp. (K)

Heat Transfer in Buildings 54

27
Lecture 4

Energy Utilisation

Part II

Blackboard homepage:
lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Taghi Karimipanah
E-mail:
tkh@hig.se

Tel: 073-280 75 47

Heat Transfer in Buildings 1

Black Body Radiation I


Blackbody – a perfect emitter & absorber of radiation; it
absorbs all incident radiation, and no surface can emit
more for a given temperature and wavelength
Emits radiation uniformly in all directions – no directional
distribution – it’s diffuse
Example of a blackbody: large cavity with a small hole
Joseph Stefan (1879)– total radiation emission per unit
time & area over all wavelengths and in all directions:
Mo Eb T4 W m2 ISO 9288

=Stefan-Boltzmann constant =5.67 x10-8 W/m2K4

Heat Transfer in Buildings 2

1
Black Body Radiation II
Black body spectral excitance giving the distribution of
the radiation over the spectrum can be given as a
function of the temperature, K.
5
o C1.
M C2
W m3
t
e 1
  is the wavelength in meter.
C1 = 3.741.10-16 W.m2
C2 = 0.014388 m.K

Heat Transfer in Buildings 3

Black Body Radiation III

Heat Transfer in Buildings 4

2
Irradiated Body = absorptance
= reflectance
 = transmittance

Heat Transfer in Buildings 5

Radiation Shape Factor

Heat Transfer in Buildings 6

3
Radiating and Irradiating Bodies

Heat Transfer in Buildings 7

Grey Body Radiation I


 The laws for grey bodies are similar to the ones for black
bodies. Only radiation exchange changes:
 For each wavelength and each direction, grey bodies emit the
same constant fraction of radiation a black body produces. The
ratio M / Mb is called emissivity e. Conservation of energy tells
us that absorptivity  must equal emissivity e. Reflectivity  in
turn is given by  =1- =1-e, Grey bodies with reflectivity 1 are
blank.
 A grey body follows Lambert's law (L =Cte). Consequently,
radiant heat flow rate obeys the cosine law while the emittance
is given by: M =  L.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 8

4
Grey Body Radiation II
 Spectral emittance obeys Planck's law, multiplied by the
emissivity e. Total emittance is:
4
T
M=e Cb (I)
100
 Each grey body emits and reflects radiation. Hence, the radiant
heat flow rates between a number of grey bodies can be
described as follows:
 Let M be the emittance of one of them and E the irradiation by
all others. The radiosity of the one grey body, i.e. the radiant
impression it gives, is then:

M' =e Mb + E (II)
Heat Transfer in Buildings 9

Grey Body Radiation III


 The emitted radiant heat flow rate is now equal to the difference
between radiosity and irradiation, or:
q R =M' -E (III)
 Eliminating the unknown irradiation between the equations (II)
and (III) gives: '
M -e×M b e
q R =M ' - = (M b -M ' ) (IV)
ρ ρ
 The received radiant heat flow rate is then: e
q R = (M ' -M b ) (V)
ρ
 Equations (IV) and (V) can be read as follows: treat a grey body as an
equivalent black body with a grey filter in front, and between the body
and the filter a radiant resistance equal to the ratio between reflectivity
and emissivity (/e). The black body has an emittance Mb, the grey filter
a radiosity M',
Heat Transfer in Buildings 10

5
Grey Body Radiation IV

Heat Transfer in Buildings 11

Grey Body Radiation V

Heat Transfer in Buildings 12

6
Radiation Shield

Heat Transfer in Buildings 13

Emissivity
 The emissivity of a surface is the ratio between the emitted
radiation and the radiation of a black body at the same
temperature.
 The emissivity of surfaces can vary with the wavelength.
 This is for instance utilized in window glazing with so called LE
or low emittance coating where the surface is treated to have
low emissivity for the infrared spectrum while visible light is
less affected.
 Total hemispheral emissivity is the total excitance of the
considered surface M divided by the total hemispheral
excitance of a black body M° at the same temperature.
 Since the spectral distribution of the black body excitance
varies with temperature the emissivity will also vary with
temperature
ε =M/M°

Heat Transfer in Buildings 14

7
Forced laminar duct flow I
The flow is generated by external forces and the
criteria for laminar flow is
Pr > 0.6 Re < 2300
The characteristic length for calculation of the
Reynolds number is the hydraulic diameter of the duct
which for non-circular geometries can be calculated
as four times the section area A divided by the length
of the perimeter P of the interior duct section.

It follows that the hydraulic diameter for a rectangular


duct with sides a and b will be

Heat Transfer in Buildings 15

Forced laminar duct flow II


In

if a>>b the hydraulic diameter will become 2 b. This


condition is typical for ventilated air gaps in the
exterior part of insulated constructions.
The following expression gives the average Nusselt
number along the surface:

 L is the length of the duct in the direction of the flow,


m.
Heat Transfer in Buildings 16

8
Forced turbulent flow of air in a duct I

We assume that the duct has smooth surfaces with


constant surface temperature.
The characteristic length for calculation of the
Reynolds number is the hydraulic diameter of the duct
which for noncircular geometries can be calculated as
four times the section area divided by the length of the
perimeter of the interior duct section.
Heat Transfer in Buildings 17

Forced turbulent flow of air in a duct II

Then the following expression is valid for a duct with


smooth surfaces with constant surface temperature.

 n=0.4 if the surface is warmer than the air


 n=0.3 if the surface is colder than the air
 The expression can for air also be used
approximately in the interval 2300 < Re < 10000 if n is
set equal to 0.4.
Heat Transfer in Buildings 18

9
Forced laminar flow along a flat surface
The conditions for laminar flow are as follows:

And the expression for the Nusselt number becomes:

 l, which is the length of the surface in the direction of


the flow, m, is also the characteristic length to be
used in the calculation of the Reynolds number.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 19

Forced convection with turbulent flow


along a flat surface
The criteria for turbulent flow along a flat surface are as
follows:

 This expression is mostly used to estimate the dependency of the


convective surface heat transfer coefficient on the convective surface
heat transfer coefficients on the exterior surfaces of buildings. Using
those equations one has to bear in mind that the air velocity around
buildings usually is different from the meteorological wind and there are
many elements around the building that can disturb the air flow.
 If a building is 12 m wide Reynolds number will exceed 5x10 5 at 0.5 m/s
and 107 at 10 m/s. The average wind velocity in Stockholm is about 3 m/s.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 20

10
Natural convection on room surfaces I

 The following equations apply for the natural convection surface heat
transfer coefficients on room surfaces i.e. floors, walls and ceilings:

 For laminar flow B=1/4


 and for turbulent flow B=1/3.

 For vertical walls we can use the same expression independent on


whether the wall is colder or warmer than the room air. The mode of
flow is determined from the Grashof number and the characteristic
length to be used in the calculation of the Grashof number is the wall
height.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 21

Natural convection on room surfaces II


Horizontal walls:
 For horizontal surfaces the heat transfer will depend not only on the
temperature difference but also on the thermal stability at the surface.
 For a ceiling colder than the room air the density of the air at the surface
will be higher than below which will generate turbulent air movements at
relatively low Grashof numbers.
 Similar instability will appear at warm floors where the density of the air in
the vicinity of the surface is lower than for the room air.
 The characteristic length will be the floor or ceiling area divided by the
perimeter of the floor or the ceiling. As an example consider a room
3x6x2.4 m. The floor area is 18 m2 and the perimeter is 18 m which will
give the characteristic length 1 m.
 For a relatively warm floor or a cold ceiling:

 For a relatively cold floor or a warm ceiling we expect conditions to be


stable up to high Grashof numbers.
Heat Transfer in Buildings 22

11
Natural air convection within an enclosure I

It is not always easy to make a distinction between a


room and an enclosure.
By an enclosure we mean a space where the
distance between the surfaces is so small that the
convection flow generated at one surface affects the
other.
The most common examples are thin non-ventilated
air layers in building constructions and the air gaps
between the panes in a multi-glazed window.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 23

Natural air convection within an enclosure II


Horizontal gap with upwards heat flow:
 The thickness of the gap d, m, is the characteristic length to be used in
the calculation of the Grashof number

 The following expressions are valid for air:

 And a more general expression for fluids is

 The heat transfer coefficient hc is in this case given from surface to


surface. When Nu = 1 the heat transfer coefficient is given as hc = λ/d .
 which means that the air in the gap is standing still and the heat transfer
in the air is taking place by conduction only.
Heat Transfer in Buildings 24

12
Natural air convection within an enclosure III
Vertical gap with limited height H and horizontal heat flow:
 The thickness of the gap, d, m , is the characteristic length to be used in
the calculation of the Grashof number

The expressions above are used for instance for the calculation of
the convective heat transfer between the panes of a multi-glazed
window.
The heat transfer coefficient is given as:

and the average density of heat flow rate between the surfaces can
be calculated as:

At high Grashof numbers the air in the cavity will start rotating due to the
density differences and we can assume that we have downward flow of air on
the cold side and upward flow of air on the warm side. This means that there
will be a temperature and heat flow gradient along the surfaces.
Heat Transfer in Buildings 25

Air flow through porous materials


 Since air flow through porous material is more often laminar,
a linear relation between the velocity and a pressure
gradient can be established in the material and for the flow
of an incompressible fluid, Darcy’s law is valid.

 B0 = The specific permeability of the material, m2


 η = The dynamic viscosity of the fluid, Ns/m2
 Δp/Δx = The pressure gradient, (m/s)

Heat Transfer in Buildings 26

13
THE SURFACE ENERGY BALANCE
A special case for which no volume or mass is encompassed by the control surface.

Ein  E out  0
 Applies for steady-state and transient conditions
 With no mass and volume, energy storage and generation are not relevant to the energy
balance, even if they occur in the medium bounded by the surface.

Consider surface of wall with heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation.

  qconv
qcond   qrad
  0


T1  T2
L
 h T2  T    2 T24  Tsur
4
0  
Heat Transfer in Buildings 27

Conduction Energy Equation


 For constant thermal conductivity
 2T  2T  2T q  cp T
   
x 2
y 2
z 2
  t
or
q 1 T
 2T  
  t
 Key to solving is knowing what boundary conditions to use
1. Constant surface T 2. Constant surface flux
(a) Known heat flux
T(0,t)  Ts
T
-  q"s
3. Convection @ surface x x  0
(b) Adiabatic (insultated)
T
-  h  T  T(0,t)  T
x x 0 -  0
x x  0

Heat Transfer in Buildings 28

14
Conduction Thermal Resistance

 Common in HVAC applications to use the thermal resistance per


unit area
(R value)

 Conductance: 1  Btu W
C=  Units: or
R x 2
hr  ft F m2 C

 Curved surfaces (pipes, etc.) 2 L


q=  Ti  To 
 ro 
ln  
 ri 
r 
ln  o 
 Rt   ri 
2 L
Heat Transfer in Buildings 29

Convection
 Basic relationship
average heat transfer
h  coefficient

 Primary issue is in getting convective heat transfer


coefficient, h
T
1 - f
h
As  h dAs hx 
y y 0

As Ts  T 
 h relates to the conduction into the fluid at the wall
 Unit R value.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 30

15
Radiation equations I
 Blackbody radiation exchange

" Driving force"


q
 Thermal resistance
 For a two-surface enclosure, gray surfaces

q12  q1  q2 

 T14  T24 
1 - 1 1 1- 2
 
1 A1 A1 F12  2 A2
Define:  ;  ; F

Heat Transfer in Buildings 31

Radiation equations II
 Emissivity affects emissions from surface at a given temperature

T=2000 K

Blackbody
(==1)
emissive power, E
Monochromatic

Gray body
(==0.6)
Real surface (
varies)

Wavelength, , m

Heat Transfer in Buildings 32

16
Combined Heat Transfer

Surface Resistance Solid Wall Resistance

Convection Radiation Conduction

 Factors that influence convection should be studied.

 Factors that influence radiation should be studied

 Difficult to combine convection and radiation analytically due to


factor of T4 .

 Tables available in literature that list surface unit R as function of


(, air velocity)
Heat Transfer in Buildings 33

Example: Composite Plane Wall I


Convection, radiation

Conduction

Convection, radiation
x Dry wall
Dry wall  Ainsul

q
Rsurface Rsurface

x Dry wall xStud


Dry wall  Astud Stud  Astud
Heat Transfer in Buildings 34

17
Example: Composite Plane Wall II
Use of the thermal resistance concept make the analysis of complex
geometries relatively easy, as discussed in the example below.
However, note that the thermal heat resistance concept can only be applied for
steady state heat transfer with no heat generation.

Example: Consider a composite wall made of two different materials

R1=L1/(1A) R2=L2/(2A)
T T1
2
T 1 1
T2
T2
T1  T2 T1  T2T T1  T2
q  
R R1  R2  L1   L2 
  
 1 A   2 A 
T T  L 
Also, q= 1 , T  T1  qR1  T1  q  1 
L1 L2 R1  1 A 
Heat Transfer in Buildings 35

Example: Composite Plane Wall III


Now consider the case where we have 2 different fluids on either sides of the wall at
temperatures, T,1 and T,2 , respectively.
 There is heat transfer by convection from the first fluid (on left) to material 1
and from material 2 to the second fluid (on right).
 Similar to conduction resistance, we can determine the convection resistance,
where Rconv = 1/hA
R2=L2/(2A)
R1=L1/(1A)
Rconv,2= 1/(h2A)
Rconv,1= 1/(h1A)
T
T1 k1 k2 T,2
T2 T,1 T1 T T2
T ,2  T,1 T ,2  T1 T1  T
where Q  
T,2 Rtot Rconv ,1 R1
T  T2 T 2  T , 2
 
R2 Rconv, 2
L1 L2 This approach can be extended to much more complex geometries
Heat Transfer in Buildings 36

18
Example: Radial Systems I
Cylindrical (Tube) Wall Spherical Wall (Shell)

Solid Cylinder (Circular Rod) Solid Sphere

Heat Transfer in Buildings 37

Example: Radial Systems II


 Heat diffusion equation in 1 d  dT  q
the r-direction for steady-  r   0
state conditions: r dr  dr  
q 2
 General Solution: T  r  C1 ln r  C2
2
dT
 Boundary Conditions:  0, T ( ro )  Ts T , h
dr r 0
 Temperature profile:

qro2  r 2 
T (r )  1    Ts
4  ro2 
L
 Calculation of surface temperature:
qro
q (ro2 L)  h(2ro L)(Ts  T ) and Ts  T 
2h
Heat Transfer in Buildings 38

19
Thermo-physical Properties
Thermal Conductivity: A measure of a material’s ability to transfer thermal
energy by conduction.

Thermal Diffusivity: A measure of a material’s ability to respond to changes


in its thermal environment.

Property Tables for Solids, gases and liquids can be found from
tables in text books.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 39

Methodology of a Conduction Analysis I

 Solve appropriate form of heat equation to obtain the temperature


distribution.

 Knowing the temperature distribution, apply Fourier’s Law to obtain the


heat flux at any time, location and direction of interest.

 Applications:

One-Dimensional, Steady-State Conduction


Two-Dimensional, Steady-State Conduction
Transient Conduction

Heat Transfer in Buildings 40

20
Methodology of a Conduction Analysis II
 Specify appropriate form of the heat equation.
 Solve for the temperature distribution.
 Apply Fourier’s Law to determine the heat flux.

Simplest Case: One-Dimensional, Steady-State Conduction with No


Thermal Energy Generation.

 Common Geometries:
 The Plane Wall: Described in rectangular (x) coordinate. Area
perpendicular to direction of heat transfer is constant
(independent of x).
 The Tube Wall: Radial conduction through tube wall.
 The Spherical Shell: Radial conduction through shell wall.

Heat Transfer in Buildings 41

Conservation of Energy

Estored  E gen  E in  E out

Thermal energy stored in a solid:

Estored  mC T

m = mass (kg)

C = specific Heat (J/kg K)

Heat Transfer in Buildings 42

21
Rate of energy in, out, generated

Ei / o   Aq" (t )dt Rate of energy in or out due


to heat transfer (surface)

E gen   i (t ) 2 Rdt
Rate of energy generated in an
electrical resistor (volumetric)

Heat Transfer in Buildings 43

Heat Flux Summary


q "
cond  (T1  T2 )
L
"
qconv  h(T  Tair )
"
qrad   (T 4  Tair4 )
Heat Transfer in Buildings 44

22
Used symbols and their units

Q/A=q=q” = heat flux vector (Watts/m2)


h = convection coefficient (Watts/ K m2)
 = thermal conductivity (Watts/ K m)
Cp = specific heat (J/kg K)
 = Stefan-Boltzmann constant (Watts/K4 m2)

Heat Transfer in Buildings 45

23
Lecture 5 Part I

Energy Utilisation

Blackboard homepage:
lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Taghi Karimipanah
E-mails:
tkh@hig.se
Tel: 073-280 75 47

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 1

Solar Radiation I

To study the solar radiation the following


items are important:

Sun-Earth Relations
Solar Angles
Solar Radiation
Solar Gain Through Building
Sol-Air Temperature

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 2

1
Solar Radiation II
 The spectrum of solar radiation extends from 200
to 3000 nm wavelengths. It is almost identical with
the 6000 K black-body radiation spectrum as
shown in Figure 1. The radiation is distinguished
as:

a) ultra-violet radiation, 200 to 380 nm, producing


photochemical effects, bleaching, sunburn, etc.
b) visible light, 380 (violet) to 700 nm (red),
c) infra-red radiation, 700 to 3000 nm, radiant heat, with some
photochemical effects.

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 3

Solar Radiation III


.

Figure 1 Solar Spectra Compared with The 6000K Black Body Emission Spectrum
Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 4

2
Solar Radiation IV
 When the sun's rays passing through the earth's
atmosphere:

a) a portion of solar radiation is scattered when striking on


molecules of air, water vapor and dust particles. That
portion scattering downward from the atmosphere arrives at
the earth surface in the form of diffuse radiation.
b) another portion of solar radiation is absorbed, and
c) the remaining portion of solar radiation transverses through
the atmosphere and reaches the earth surface in the form of
direct radiation.

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 5

Sun - Earth Relations


 The figure shows
changes in earth's
position relative to the
sun during the course
of a year.

FIG 2. Sun and Earth


Positions
Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 6

3
Solar Angles I
Solar Declination :
 Solar declination () is the angle between the earth-sun line and the
equatorial plane (Figure 3). Solar declination varies throughout the
year. The figure also shows Earth Relative to Sun at Summer Solstice.

Latitude Angle:
 Latitude angle (L) is the angle SOP (Figure 3) on the longitudinal plane
between the equatorial plane and the line PO which joins the point P
on the earth surface and the centre of the earth O.

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 7

Solar Angles II

FIG. 3. Earth Relative to Sun at Summer Solstice.

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 8

4
Solar Angles III
Solar Altitude:
 Solar altitude ( ) is the angle ROQ (Figure 4) on a vertical plane
between the sun's rays and the horizontal plane on the earth's
surface.
Solar Azimuth:
 Solar azimuth ( ) is the angle SOQ (Figure 4) on a horizontal plane
between the due-south direction line and the horizontal projection of
the sun's rays.
Surface-solar Azimuth :
 Surface-solar azimuth () is the angle POQ (Figure 4) on a horizontal
plane between the normal to a vertical surface and the horizontal
projection of the sun's rays.

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 9

Solar Angles IV

FIG. 4: Solar Angle with Respect to the Horizontal and Vertical Surfaces.
Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 10

5
Solar Angles V
Surface Azimuth :
 Surface azimuth () is the angle POS (Figure 4) on a horizontal plane
between the normal to a vertical surface and the north-south direction
line.
Hour angle :
 Hour angle (H) is the angle SPD (Figure 4) on a horizontal plane
between the local solar noon (meridian which contains the south-north
line) PS and the horizontal projection of the sun's rays PD. The hour
angle is given by:
360
H= 12-T  (1)
24
 where T = solar time
 In the morning, the hour angle is positive. At noon the hour angle is
zero.
 In the afternoon, the hour angle is negative.

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 11

Solar Angles VI
Angle of Incidence :
 The angle of incidence () is the angle between the sun's rays
irradiated on a surface and the line normal to this surface. In Figure 4,
the angle of incidence  for a horizontal surface is ROV; for vertical
surface, the angle of incidence  is ROP. In Figure 4, the angle of
incidence between the sun's rays and a tilted surface is  , where  is
given by:
cosθΣ =sinβ  cosΣ+cosγ  cosβ  sinΣ (2)

Solar Intensity:
 The solar intensity at a direction normal to the title surface (shown in
Figure 4 ) is the vector sum of the components along the line normal
of the titled surface.
IΣ =IDN  cosθΣ (3)
 where IDN = the solar intensity irradiated on a surface normal to the
sun's rays.

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 12

6
Solar Angles VII
 For a horizontal surface S = 0º, the solar intensity normal to the
horizontal surface is:

IH =IDN  cosθH (4)


 For a vertical surface S = 90º, the solar intensity normal to the vertical
surface is:
IV =IDN  cosθV (5)

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 13

Sol-air temperature
Sol-air temperature (eo) :
 Sol-air temperature is that temperature which, in the
absence of solar radiation, would give the same rate of
heat transfer through the wall or roof as exists with the
actual outdoor air temperature and incident solar radiation.
It is effectively the outside environmental temperature. It is
given by:
eo = e + Rso (  It+  I1)
Where
It is the total intensity of solar radiation on the outside surface and I 1
is the net long-wave radiation exchange between a black body at
outside air temperature and the outside environment.
 The sol-air temperature is approximately equal to the external air
temperature under overcast conditions.

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 14

7
Internal Heat Gains and Design Loads I

 From People: Q people

Person Qtotal Qsensible Qlatent


250 [Btu/hr] 210 [Btu/hr] 140 [Btu/hr]
Avg. person, at rest
100 W 60 W 40 W
640 [Btu/hr] 315 [Btu/hr] 325 [Btu/hr]
Avg. person, light work
185 W 90 W 95 W
1600 [Btu/hr] 565 [Btu/hr] 1035 [Btu/hr]
Avg. person, heavy work
470 W 170 W 300 W
 
Qlatent  m w  h fg

 Where m w =rate at which water is vapourised, kg/s or lbm/hr


h fg =enthalpy of vapourisation,J/kg or Btu/lbm
Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 15

Internal Heat Gains and Design Loads II


 From Electricity: Q elec

 By First Law of Thermodynamics, all electricity consumed in


the building becomes heat
 kWh 
 Average house uses ~ 8760 
yr   
 kWh  1  yr 
~ 8760      1kW  10 100W light bulbs
 yr  8760  h 

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 16

8
Internal Heat Gains and Design Loads III

 From Electricity II: Q elec

 Some of this may be for outdoor lighting, and the air conditions
compressor and condenser fan which are located outside. If we assume
that 75% of electricity is used indoors, then

 Btu   Btu   Btu 
Qelec =1kW×75%×3413  =2560   750 W
 kWh   hr 
1kW=3413 
 hr 

 The general method for calculating average heat gain from electricity is
to find total building electricity use, and multiply by fraction of use that
is indoors. For hourly heat gain, we may want to weight high use
periods heavier and low use periods lighter. W W
~ 1.5  2  16  2 
 Average commercial building uses for lighting :  ft  m 
 and for plug loads. W W
~ 0.5  2   5.4  2 
 ft  m 
 All of this, plus from electricity use, is heat gain from electricity.
Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 17

ENERGY CONSERVATION
LIGHTING ENERGY
 Lighting energy conservation can be achieved through:
 Lighting Controls
 Manual switching and regulation (phase cutting, HF ballast)
 Individual automatic switching and regulation
 Individual remote switching and regulation (infra-red,
ultrasonic)
 Lighting management systems
 Electronic Lighting
 High frequency circuits for fluorescent and halogen lamps can
produce energy saving of 25 to 30 %
 Better regulation (10 to 100%)
 Quick start
 Extended lamp life

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 18

9
Solar Heating I

 The concept of solar heating is to collect solar


energy in order to supply heat to an air heating
or hydronic heating system.
 The solar intensity. at its most (at noon along
the equator), is about 1000 W/m2 , but the
average solar intensity is much lower (e.g. in
USA about 200 W/m2 ).
 Evidently, the prerequisites for utilizing solar
energy vary for different locations in the world.

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 19

Solar Heating II
 To obtain heating energy emitted from the sun, a solar collector is
used.
 A basic design of such a collector (e.g. flat plane type) is shown in
Figure:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 20

10
Solar Heating III
 The efficiency of a solar collector can be expressed according
to the following equation (ASHRAE Handbook, 1999):

 Where

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 21

Solar Heating IV
 The most basic design of a solar heating system, shown below in
Figure, consists of a solar collector, a pump and a hot water storage
tank for service hot water.

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 22

11
Solar Heating V
 .

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 23

Solar Heating (active)

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 24

12
Solar Heating (passive)

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 25

Building balance point


 The Balance Point is the outdoor air temperature causing
building heat gains to be dissipated at a rate that creates a
desired indoor air temperature. It is determined by design.

Source; Michael Utzinger and James H. Wasley


Johnson Controls Institute
Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 26

13
Heating demand calculations I

 Heating demand calculations involves


three different types of calculations:
1) Heat load calculations – Used to design the
heating system.
2) Annual heating energy demand – Used to
determine the amount of energy needed.
3) Transients – Used to investigate time dependent
response of house and heating system.

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 27

Heating demand calculations II

 Heat load calculations:


 Used to design the heating system
 What is the maximum heat load the heating
system has to be able to deliver?
 How many radiators
 How large radiators
 Heat source requirement
 What kinds of heat losses does a house have?

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 28

14
Heating demand calculations III

 Heat Losses:
 Transmission losses – Through walls, floor, roof,
windows, doors.
 Ventilation losses – Heat lost by introduction of
cooler ambient air to the heated space.
 Infiltration losses – Heat lost by leakage of cooler
ambient air into the house

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 29

Heating demand calculations IV


 Outdoor temperature:
 Which temperature should we use to design our heating
system?

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 30

15
Heating demand calculations V
 Outdoor temperature:
 Daily mean temperature for the last 30 years

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 31

Heating demand calculations VI

 Outdoor temperature:
 In Sweden, the Design Outdoor Temperature (DOT) should
be used.
 The DOT is the lowest temperature that has prevailed
during a certain time period (one, or five consecutive days)
during the last 30 years.
 The temperature for the longer time period (DOT5) is used
for thermally heavy buildings like apartment buildings
(concrete or brick buildings).
 The temperature for the shorter time period (DOT1) is used
for thermally lighter buildings like wooden houses etc.

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 32

16
Heating demand calculations VII
 Outdoor temperature (DOT1 and DOT5):

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 33

Heating demand calculations VIII


 Transmission heat losses:
Ptrans = U A (t i -t o )
and
1
U=
1 1  2 1
  
ho 1 2 hi

 Where
U= Overall heat transfer coefficient
A= surface area
h=heat transfer coefficient
=thermal conductivity
= thickness
t=temperature
Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 34

17
Heating demand calculations IX
 Ventilation heat losses:

Pvent = V  c p  (t i -t o ) = m    c p  (t i -t o )
and
ACH  V
V=
3600

 Where V=volumetric flow rate, m  mass flow rate


c p  specific heat,   dencity
t= temperature, ACH= air change per hour
V=room volume in m3
Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 35

Heating demand calculations X

 Infiltration heat losses:


 Pressure difference between the indoors and outdoors
cause leakage through cracks near windows, doors, and
corners of the house.
 Usually the leakage is around 0.1-0.3 ACH for new houses,
and 0.5-1.5 ACH for old houses.
 The heat losses are calculated as the ventilation heat
losses with the new volumetric flow rate.

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 36

18
Heating demand calculations XI
 Heat Gains:
 People – Each human being dissipates about 100 W/person
 (Remember to use a time averaged mean value of the heat
gained).
 Electric appliances and lighting – Heat losses in appliances
are dissipated in the heated space.
 Remember to use a time averaged mean value of the heat
gained.
 All appliances are not used at the same time!
 Solar irradiation – Heat gained by transmission of sunlight
through windows (mainly).

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 37

Heating demand calculations XI


 Heat gain from various home appliances

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 38

19
Heating demand calculations XII
 Solar irradiation:
 Heat gain from solar irradiation depend on:
 Location of the house (Latitude, Longitude)
 Orientation of the house (N, E, S, W…)
 Optical properties of the windows.
 Window area.

Psol = 0.9  q v  A window,i


where 0.9=transmission coefficient, q v = solar intensity
A= window's area

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 39

Heating demand calculations XIII


 Building solar heat gains:
 Solar energy enters the building
through two paths.
 Solar gains are transmitted directly
through glazings into buildings and
absorbed by room surfaces and
furnishings.
 Indirect solar gains result from solar
radiation absorbed on exterior
surfaces and conducted through the
enclosure into the building.
 The sum of both entry paths for
solar radiation is defined to be the Solar heat gains through
building's solar heat gain.
the building glazing.

Source; Michael Utzinger and James H. Wasley


Johnson Controls Institute. Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 40

20
Window Properties – Radiant heat exchange

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 41

Heating demand calculations VIX


 Heat load equation:
 Adding the losses and the gains, and taking the difference
between them:

PHEATING = PHEAT LOSSES − PHEAT GAINS

There
PHEAT LOSSES = Ptrans + Pvent + Pinfiltr (+)

and
PHEAT GAINS = Psolar + Ppeople + PEl. Appliances (-)

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 42

21
Lecture 5 Part II

Energy Utilisation

Blackboard homepage:
lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Taghi Karimipanah
E-mail:
tkh@hig.se
Tel: 073-280 75 47

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 1

Annual Heating Energy Demand I


 Each instance in time, the heat load is given by:

 Integrating the heat losses over the entire heating season


give the annual heating energy demand:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 2

1
Annual Heating Energy Demand II
 If we introduce the mean temperature of the heating
season, Δtm

 The heat losses can now be written:

 If we introduce the specific heating demand, S

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 3

Annual Heating Energy Demand III

 The heat losses can now be written:

 The heat that need to be supplied to the house is found by:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 4

2
Annual Heating Energy Demand IV
 Specific heating demand (S):

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 5

Annual Heating Energy Demand IV


 Annual heating demand :

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 6

3
Annual Heating Energy Demand V
 Annual heating energy demand :

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 7

Transient Heating Energy Demand


Calculations I
 If, for example, the outdoor temperature suddenly changes, the
indoor temperature will also be affected.
 However, the indoor temperature change will be dampened by
the thermal mass of the building.
 A heat balance for the house can be written:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 8

4
Transient Heating Energy Demand
Calculations II
 Which can be rewritten as:

 Solving the equation gives:

 The equation takes different forms depending on the boundary


and initial conditions:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 9

Transient Heating Energy Demand


Calculations III
 As we mentioned before, the equation takes different
forms depending on the boundary and initial
conditions.
 Thus, three different cases can be distinguished:
 Heating-up case
 Cooling-off case
 Sudden temperature drop

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 10

5
Transient Heating Energy Demand
Calculations III
 Heating-up case:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 11

Transient Heating Energy Demand


Calculations IV
 Cooling-off case:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 12

6
Transient Heating Energy Demand
Calculations V
 Sudden temperature drop case:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 13

Transient Heating Energy Demand Calculations VI


 Example transient:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 14

7
Transient Heating Energy Demand Calculations VII
 Example transient (Solution):

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 15

Transient Heating Energy Demand Calculations VIII


 Example transient (Solution /continued):

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 16

8
Transient Heating Energy Demand Calculations IX
 Example transient (Solution /continued):

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 17

Cooling demand calculations I


 Traditionally, only the cooling load calculation was considered.
 Nowadays also the energy consumption achieving low
temperatures is considered.

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 18

9
Cooling demand calculations II
 .

 Solar irradiation, heat dissipated from people, and heat


losses from electric appliances are always heat gains!
 Heat gains due to transmission, ventilation, and infiltration
are dependent on temperature gradient and are heat gains
if tindoor < toutdoor!

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 19

Cooling demand calculations III

 Heat Gains:
 Heat gains from people depends on the number of people, and their
activity.
 Heat gains from electrical appliances are the sum of their heat losses at
a given point in time.
 Heat gains from solar irradiation consists of two parts; irradiation
transmitted through windows, and increased heat transmission through
walls.

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 20

10
Cooling demand calculations IV

 Solar Irradiation:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 21

Cooling demand calculations V


 Solar Irradiation:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 22

11
Cooling demand calculations VI
 Solar Irradiation:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 23

Cooling demand calculations VII


 Heat Gains:
 Transmission heat gain through building envelope (walls,
windows, roof, floor) is dependent on overall heat transfer
coefficient (U), surface area (A), and temperature difference.

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 24

12
Cooling demand calculations VIII
 Design outdoor temperature:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 25

Cooling demand calculations IX


 Design outdoor temperature:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 26

13
Cooling demand calculations X
 Design outdoor temperature:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 27

Cooling demand calculations XI


 Temperature duration:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 28

14
Cooling demand calculations XII
 Temperature duration:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 29

Cooling demand calculations XIII


 Example1: Solar irradiation on a wall
 A wall is exposed to solar irradiation. The temperature on the
outside of the wall is 20 °C and the heat transfer coefficient on
the wall outside is 10 W/(m²·K). The temperature on the inside of
the wall is -20 °C. The overall heat transfer coefficient of the wall
is 0.2 W/(m²·K). The solar intensity is 100 W/m², and the
absorptivity is 100%. Calculate the total heat transmission
through the wall.

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 30

15
Cooling demand calculations XIV
 Heat Gains:
 Infiltration heat gains through building envelope (walls, windows,
roof, floor) is dependent on total infiltration flow rate, specific heat of
air, and temperature difference.

 With ventilation we mean: exhaust air that is replaced by fresh air!


 Ventilation heat gains is dependent on total ventilation flow rate,
specific heat of air, and temperature difference.

 The supply temperature is dependent on the ventilation system!


Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 31

Cooling demand calculations XV


 5 system for removal of surplus heat:

 System 1: AC-unit in the room


 System 2: AC-unit with heat exchanger
 System 3: AC-unit without ventilation
 System 4: AC-unit with recirculation
 System 5: Hybrid between 2, 3, and 4
Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 32

16
Cooling demand calculations XVI
 System 1: AC- unit in the room :

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 33

Cooling demand calculations XVII


 System 1: AC-unit in supply air :

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 34

17
Cooling demand calculations XVIII
 System 2: AC- unit with heat exchanger :

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 35

Cooling demand calculations XIX


 System 3: AC- unit without ventilation :

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 36

18
Cooling demand calculations XX
 System 4: AC- unit with recirculation :

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 37

Cooling demand calculations XXI


 System 5: Hybrid between 2, 3 and 4 :

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 38

19
Example cooling load calculations I

 Calculate the cooling load for the room we calculated


on last lecture. In this case qv = 500 W/m², ti = 22 °C, to
= 28 °C. The ventilation system is of type 2, η = 0.5.
The heat gains from people and electric appliances is
1000 W, the heat transfer coefficient on the outside of
the wall is 20 W/(m²·K). From earlier we know that the
volumetric flow rate of air is 22.6 m³/h, infiltration can
be neglected. The density of air is 1.15 kg/m³ and the
specific heat is 1000 J/(kg·K).

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 39

Example Cooling load calculations II


 Room from transient heating load calculations

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 40

20
Example Cooling load calculations III
 Solution:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 41

Example Cooling load calculations IV


 Another example:
 A bus carrying 30 passengers is exposed to sunshine
during its route through the city center of Stockholm.
The bus is 15 x 3 x 2.5 m (length x width x height). The
solar intensity is 500 W/m². The window area of the
bus is 20 % of the total area exposed to the ambient.
The walls are poorly insulated, having a U-value of 1.0
W/(m²·K). The windows are of single pane type with a
U-value of 3.5 W/(m²·K). The ventilation air is taken
from the ambient and the flow rate including
infiltration is 5 000 m³/h. The ambient temperature is
25 °C. Calculate the temperature inside the bus if the
bus is driven at noon (12 AM) during a day in the
month of July.
Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 42

21
Example Cooling load calculations V
 Solution (Another example):
 Only half the of the surface
area is exposed to solar
irradiation!
 Temperature inside the bus
will be higher than the
ambient temperature, hence
transmission, ventilation, and
infiltration will be heat
losses!
 Assume:
1. α1=30 W/(m²·K)
2. Metabolism for persons:
M=100 W/person Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 43

Example Cooling load calculations VI


 Solution (Another example) continued:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 44

22
Example Cooling load calculations VII
 Solution (Another example) continued:

Solar radiation, Heating and Cooling loads 45

23
Lecture 6

Energy Utilisation
Blackboard homepage:
lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Taghi Karimipanah
E-mail:
tkh@hig.se
Tel: 073-280 75 47

Energy Balance of Buildings 1

The Energy Balance of a Building


 Aims:
1. To provide a general understanding of the processes and
systems that result in a given indoor climate and determine
the energy usage of a building.
 Processes and systems: Heating, Ventilation and Air-conditioning
systems
2. To supply methods and tools for analysis, evaluation and
design of the systems that have to provide a certain indoor
climate and at the same time determine the energy need of
the building.

Energy Balance of Buildings 2

1
The Energy Balance of a Building
The indoor climate in the rooms of a building
is influenced by four main parameters:

 The structure and the design of the building,


 The activities going on in the building,
 The outdoor climate conditions, and
 The technical systems that have to provide the required
indoor climate.

Energy Balance of Buildings 3

Roadmap of Indoor Climate


Building and the surrounding energy system

Energy optimisation

Building

Energy simulation

Interview, measurement and CFD

CFD and measurement

Room and indoor climate

Indoor climate and interaction between

Energy Balance of Buildings 4

2
The Energy Balance of a Room I

The heat balance can be determined by:


 Transport of heat through the building’s envelope (wall, floor,
windows etc. We call this transmission.
 Storage of heat in the building structure (e.g. solar irradiation).
 Internal heat generation (e.g. by equipment, lights, people, etc.)
 The temperature in a room is determined by the relationship
between the transport of heat to or from the room and the
generation of heat inside the room.
 The building itself, the existing outdoor conditions and the
activities in the room, in combination, result in a continuously
varying amount of heat that must be supplied or removed in
order to maintain the desired temperature level.

Energy Balance of Buildings 5

The Energy Balance of a Room II

The HVAC systems have to


provide the supply or removal
of heat as needed.
In an equivalent way, the
building, the activities and other
heat sources in the building, as
well as the outdoor situation,
result in airborne pollutants that
have to be removed to maintain
the expected air quality.
The HVAC systems also have to
provide this removal. See
Figure.
Energy Balance of Buildings 6

3
Transport of Heat through the Building
Envelope
By transmission due to
temperature differences, and
With air infiltrating through
the envelope.
 The heat flows are directly
related to the difference
between the room
temperature and the outdoor
temperature.

Energy Balance of Buildings 7

Storage of Heat in the Building Structure I

 Heat is stored in the building structure if the room


temperature varies; the building structure absorbs heat when
the room temperature increases and emits heat when the
temperature decreases.
 When the outdoor temperature varies, the corresponding
variations of the heat flow through the envelope are slowed
by the temperature inertia of the envelope mass.
 Radiated heat from lights, people and equipment is absorbed
by the surfaces of the room, stored in the structure and
emitted afterwards.
 The solar irradiation passing through windows has to be
absorbed in floors, walls and furniture, and transformed to
heat before it affects the heat balance of the room.

Energy Balance of Buildings 8

4
Storage of Heat in the Building Structure II
The peak of the solar heat
load affecting the room
temperature is often much
lower and occurs some
hours later than the actual
peak of solar irradiation
passing through the window.
The difference between the
peaks of load and irradiation
and the delay in time depend
on the storage properties of
the building.

Energy Balance of Buildings 9

Internal Heat Generation

Internal Generation of Heat


is due to:
 Solar irradiation in the daytime through
the windows, resulting in heat emission
to the room, primarily from its floor and
walls;
 Heat from the people in the room; and
 Heat generated by lighting and
equipment.
 There is also a continuous exchange of
heat between the room air and the
surfaces of the floor, walls and ceiling
of the room.

Energy Balance of Buildings 10

5
Heat Deficit and Heat Surplus I
 If there is no internal heat generation in a room, and there
are no facilities either for supply of heat or for removal of
excess heat, the room temperature will be the same as the
outdoor temperature.
 When the outdoor temperature changes, there may for a
while be some difference between the temperatures, but
when the balance is recovered, they will become equal.
 If there is an internal generation of heat, the indoor
temperature will stabilise at a level above the outdoor
temperature.
 The temperature increases with increasing internal heat
generation. This is illustrated in the adjacent diagrams in
next page.

Energy Balance of Buildings 11

Heat Deficit and Heat Surplus II


 If the room temperature is being kept within
certain limits, heat must be supplied to the
room, when the temperature tends to drop
under the lowest acceptable level, and
removed from the room when the temperature
lends to rise above the accepted highest level.
 The heat flow through the building envelope,
the heat loss, is roughly proportional to the
difference between the room temperature and
the outdoor temperature.
 The "without internal generation of heat'" line
equals the outdoor temperature, i.e., the
distance between that line and the room
temperature represents the heal flow through
the envelope.

Energy Balance of Buildings 12

6
Heat Deficit and Heat Surplus III
 The need of heat, the heat deficit, is the part of the heat loss that
is not covered by the internally generated heat. It is represented
by the left band shaded area.
 When the internal heat generation exceeds the heat loss at the
highest accepted room temperature, there will be a heat surplus
that has to be removed. The heat surplus occurs within the right
hand shaded area.
 The Temperature versus Outdoor Temperature diagram can be
used as a superficial illustration of how the internal generation
of heat and the insulation level of the building envelope
influence the heat deficit and the heat surplus, and thereby how
the need of HVAC is influenced.
 The HVAC systems are dimensioned according to the peak loads
which have to be managed.

Energy Balance of Buildings 13

Heat Deficit and Heat Surplus IV


 The following diagram illustrates how the
maximum load depends on the insulation
level and the internal heat generation.
 Black arrows pointing downwards
represent the maximum need of heat, i.e.
the decisive heat power capacity or the
heat supply system. Grey arrows pointing
upwards represent the maximum load of
surplus heat. i.e. the decisive cooling
capacity needed by the systems that have
to remove the surplus heat.
 The diagram below shows how the
relationship between heat deficit and heat
surplus is linked to the internal
generation of heat and the level of
insulation.

Energy Balance of Buildings 14

7
Heat Deficit and Heat Surplus V
Example 1
 In the diagram are shown two buildings with the same
insulation level of the building envelope, i.e., the heat loss is
the same for both, but the internal generation of heat is
different.
 When the internal generation of heat is low the deficit of heat
and the need of heat supply are high, while the heat surplus
and the need of removal of surplus heat are small.
 With increased internal generation of heat there is a shift
towards low need of heat and high heat surplus, i.e., greater
need of heat removal.

Example 2
 The influence of the level of insulation can be illustrated in a
similar way. In this instance the internal generation of heat is
the same in both cases, but the insulation levels differ. If the
insulation level is low. the heat loss will be large.
 For a given level of internal heat generation the shaded heat
deficit area will be large and the heat surplus area small. If,
however, the building is well insulated, the areas show that
the heat deficit will be smaller while the heat surplus is
enlarged.
Energy Balance of Buildings 15

Heat Deficit and Heat Surplus VI


 The basic difference between residential building; and commercial
ones is illustrated in the adjacent diagram.
 In dwellings there is usually no heat surplus that requires special
technical installations: a system for heat supply alone is sufficient.
 In commercial buildings, both deficits and surpluses of heal occur.
Both a heating system and systems for removal of heat surplus are
needed.

Energy Balance of Buildings 16

8
Heat Supply System
A heat supply system can be divided in
three main parts:
A heat source,
A system for distribution of heat to multiple
rooms, and
A means of supplying heat to the individual
rooms.

Energy Balance of Buildings 17

Heat Sources
 There is a large selection of possible heat sources for buildings, most of
them widely applied, although some other types of sources dominate in
some countries.
 For one-family homes, boilers of various kinds prevail. Natural gas, oil
and wood are common fuels.
 Electrical boilers and different types of heat pumps are becoming
frequent in areas without access to natural gas.
 Although solar heating is used to a certain extent, this is normally too
costly for purposes other than domestic water heating.
 For multifamily houses and commercial buildings, district healing is
common in the middle, eastern and northern parts of Europe.
 Heat pumps for heat recovery from exhaust air, for domestic water
heating, or for both domestic water and complementary space heating
may be a beneficial choice when existing multifamily buildings are
renovated.

Energy Balance of Buildings 18

9
Heat Distribution Systems
 Heat is usually distributed by hydronic systems or by air.
 In one family houses, hydronic systems dominate in areas with a cold
winter climate.
 Air based distribution systems are much used in the United States.
 In multifamily buildings and in commercial buildings, hydronic systems
are frequent.
 In commercial buildings, however, the space might be heated with air; if
so the air-conditioning system has a space heating function as well.
 Direct electrical heating exists in one family houses mainly in countries
that have had a good power supply and, thus, a comparatively low
electricity price.
 In residential buildings, gas fired room heaters are found mainly in
countries with a good natural gas supply. In this instance, electricity or
gas is distributed to the individual rooms, and the heat needed is
generated directly in the room.

Energy Balance of Buildings 19

Space Heating
 In buildings with hydronic heat distribution systems, radiators,
convectors or floor heating systems are common for the supply of heat
to individual rooms; this is usually controlled by thermostatic valves.
 Floor heating, by pipes in the floor, is highly regarded for comfort and is
becoming increasingly popular, especially in one-family houses.
 Floor heating systems do not need a water temperature as high as that
for radiators or convectors.
 This is an advantage when the building is provided with heat from a heat
pump or a similar heat source which performance is strongly dependent
on a relatively low supply temperature.
 In buildings, with airborne space heating, the air supplied to the room is
heated to a temperature high enough to compensate the heat deficit.
 In air heated buildings, the air is supplied at a temperature higher than
the room temperature.

Energy Balance of Buildings 20

10
Removal of Surplus Heat I
 From an economic and maintenance point of view, a well chosen
heat source can be very important for the life cycle cost of a
building.
 supplying a building and its separate rooms with heat is a
relatively uncomplicated issue.
 The real complications occur when it comes to the question of
removing surplus heat which tends to be a voluminous and costly
task.
 In residential buildings there is seldom a real need for special
installations for removal of surplus heat.
 Instead, in commercial buildings removal of surplus heat is an
important issue.
 This is one of the main reasons why commercial buildings tend to
be technically much more complicated than residential buildings.

Energy Balance of Buildings 21

Removal of Surplus Heat II


Surplus heat can be removed from a room in two
ways:
1. Cooling with conditioned air, supplied at a temperature lower
than the temperature of the room air.
2. Cooling directly inside the room with chilled surfaces. e.g.,
ceiling beams, or by circulating air cooled in fan-coil units.

 In commercial buildings there are often cooling machines, for


the cooling of supply air, when the outdoor temperature is
high, or for the cooling of the water circulated to ceiling
beams or fan-coil units, when there is heat surplus in the
rooms.
 In cities, district cooling systems are also becoming quite
usual.
Energy Balance of Buildings 22

11
Cooing with air I

 The basic requirements for room air quality


mean that there is always a need of
ventilation of some kind. It is therefore
common practice to utilise the air for
removal of the heat surplus as well.
 If the airflow needed for ensuring the air
quality is of some magnitude, a good cooling
effect can be obtained, assuming the
temperature of the supplied air is lower than
the room temperature.
 It is the combination of the magnitude of the
flow of air and the temperature of the supply
air that determines the cooling capacity of
the air.

Energy Balance of Buildings 23

Cooing with air II


 If the airflow rate is low about 0.5 air changes per hour or lower,
the supply air cannot be too cold.
 Otherwise there will be a disturbing draft and uncomfortable
temperature distribution in the room.
 it is difficult to obtain an acceptable thermal climate if the
supply air temperature is lower than about +15 ºC. Often, it
cannot be kept much lower than +17 °C.
 The lowest possible supply air temperature level depends on
the type and the position of the outlet air devices.

Energy Balance of Buildings 24

12
Cooing with air III
 The cooling capacity of air is illustrated in
the adjacent diagram.
 If the supply air temperature is +17 °C and
the exhaust air temperature should be + 23
°C, there is a temperature difference of 6 °C.
 In a common office room, with about 10 m
floor area, the airflow 35 litres/sec
represents about 5 air changes per hour (ach
5 1/h).
 This is about 2 or 3 times more than is
normally-needed for acceptable air quality in
an office room.
 In many modern offices the heat surplus in
such a room may be as much as 400 to 500 Ex.: 35 litres/sec of air is
W a sunny day. Thus quite a large airflow supplied to the room, the
may be needed to avoid too high room
cooling capacity will be about
temperatures.
250 W.

Energy Balance of Buildings 25

Cooing with cold surfaces


 By cooling with cold surfaces, the
cooling capacity depends on the
design, the temperature and the size
of the cooled surface.
 If a cold surface has a temperature
below the dew point of the air,
condensation occurs.
 To avoid risk of condensation, the
temperature of the beams or coils
must be higher than the possible air
By cooling a room directly with
dew temperature. chilled surfaces, high room
 For ceiling beams, no risk of temperatures can be avoided,
condensation can be accepted. independent of the air system.
 With fan-coil units, it is technically This can be done by chilled
ceiling beams or by fan-coil units,
possible to handle some condense, if
connected to a chilled water
a special drainage system is installed. system.

Energy Balance of Buildings 26

13
Alternative solutions for removal of
heat surplus I
 Cooling with air is a common issue.
 Air can always be used to obtain an acceptably dry indoor climate in
areas with high air humidity.
 To achieve an acceptable level of air quality, there is always need of
some kind of ventilation that removes airborne pollutants, and at the
same time we use air for removal of heat surplus.
 The outdoor air has a natural cooling effect, as long as the outdoor
temperature is lower than the presupposed supply temperature.
Thus we do not need extra cooling machines.
 Otherwise, we may need a quite large airflow rates to obtain a
reasonably high cooling capacity.
 Fan-coil units or cooled ceiling beams are often cost efficient
solutions.

Energy Balance of Buildings 27

Alternative solutions for removal of


heat surplus II
 Room air conditioners, which are complete with a cooling machine
and fans for air circulation and supply, are common in small offices,
shops and homes in areas with a hot and humid climate.
 To provide the airflow rate needed for cooling would be substantially
larger than what is required from the air quality point of view.
 The size of the water pipes needed to supply room cooling units is
almost insignificant compared with the air ducts needed for the
supply of air with a comparable cooling capacity.
 To keep temperatures of the cooling system above the dew
temperature of the surrounding air, quite extensive ceiling beams
may be needed.
 The risk of condensation makes chilled beams a somewhat dubious
solution in areas with humid climate.
 To avoid the risk of condensation, the fan-coil systems combined
with condensation drain can be used in a humid climate.

Energy Balance of Buildings 28

14
Some changes in lectures
Instead of lecture 11 the following items will be
handled here:
Power and Energy
Visualisation and Estimation of Power and Energy
Duration Diagrams

Energy Balance of Buildings 29

Power and Energy


 As soon as there is a temperature difference between two
points, a flow of heat (thermal energy) will occur from the
higher temperature level towards the lower temperature
level.
 The form for the flow of heat is thermal power.
 The basic unit for energy is joule (J). Consequently, the
basic unit for thermal power is joule/second, known as
watt (J/s = W).
 Heat is one of the two main forms of technical energy and
has a close connection to temperature.
 Every temperature difference generates a flow of heat that
continues until the temperatures become equal.
 The other main form of technical energy is work, still with
the unit Joule (J).
 Work is the form of energy which, unlike heat, can initiate
movement, in applications connected to buildings, work
usually exists in the form of electrical energy.

Energy Balance of Buildings 30

15
Basic Orientation I
 When residential buildings are concerned it is important:
 To minimise the need of space heating by a building envelope
design that minimises the heal losses, and
 To avoid the need of high ventilation rates by applying building
materials and building structure designs that do not emit harmful
gases, vapours or smells.
 Thermal energy is needed for space heating and electrical
energy for operation of some pumps and exhaust air fans.

Energy needs for establishing


an acceptable indoor climate in
a building ventilated by an
exhaust air system only.

Energy Balance of Buildings 31

Basic Orientation II
 Where commercial buildings are concerned, it is important to:
 Minimise the heat surplus by efficient lighting, efficient window shielding
from solar radiation, etc.;
 Design and dimension the ventilation and air conditioning systems with
strong focus on energy efficiency and reliability in operation; and
 Minimise the emission of pollutants that come from indoor activities, by
special air exhaust from polluting equipment and processes, isolation of
polluting sources, etc.

Energy needs For


establishing an
acceptable indoor
climate in a building
that needs supply air
treatment and air
conditioning

Energy Balance of Buildings 32

16
Visualisation and Estimation of Power
and Energy
The energy need of buildings is usually discussed in
annual terms, such as the yearly need of thermal and
electrical energy.
The annual need is usually estimated when a
building is designed; it is also usually recorded on at
least a yearly basis as a normal pan of the
management of the building.
For this reason, we are going to have a closer look
to Duration Diagrams and the Visualised Heat
Balance.

Energy Balance of Buildings 33

Duration Diagrams I
 For a closer analysis, from energy point of view, of the
building as a whole, monthly averages are often used.
 In research reports in the field of low energy residential
buildings and building design for minimised heat losses,
both analyses and results from monitored demonstration
projects are often accounted for by diagrams which show
the heat losses or the energy balance month by month.
 This is an adequate way to summarise and characterise the
thermal function of buildings when heat loss through the
building envelope is of primary interest.
 The thermal function of a building is of a comparatively slow
nature, while the thermal function of a HVAC system is quite
fast.

Energy Balance of Buildings 34

17
Duration Diagrams II

 In a supply air unit, the supply air temperature changes


within minutes if the temperature of the heating coil
changes.
 The room temperature response to a change in supply air
temperature is slower, but usually it is less than an hour.
 Consequently the time intervals chosen must be quite short
when a HVAC system in operation is analysed.
 When the thermal interplay between a building and its HVAC
system is dealt with a division into at least one hour
intervals is normally needed.

Energy Balance of Buildings 35

Duration Diagrams III


 There are 8760 hours in a year.
 A compilation based on so many time intervals might be difficult to
assess, whether it is presented as a table or as a diagram.
 A practical way to facilitate the handling is to use duration diagrams.

Design of a duration diagram exemplified by outdoor temperature.

Energy Balance of Buildings 36

18
Duration Diagrams IV
 The left diagram shows the outdoor temperature measured during a year, hour
by hour, at a specific place.
 If the same measurements were carried out again the following year, the
temperature at a corresponding hour would almost certainly be different.
 For example, the outdoor temperature at noon July 15th one year would almost
certainly be different from what it was at noon July I5th the year before, but the
temperature from the year before would occur at another hour the following year.

Energy Balance of Buildings 37

Duration Diagrams IV
 By rearranging the hours according to the temperature, starting
with the hour having the lowest temperature and ending with the
one having the highest temperature, a consecutive temperature
diagram is obtained.
 The diagram shows how many hours per year the outdoor
temperature will be below, or above, a given temperature level, it
shows the duration of the outdoor temperature below or above a
specific level.
 The outdoor temperature duration diagram for a given place is
similar from year to year.
 It can be used as one of the climatic characteristics of that
specific place.

Energy Balance of Buildings 38

19
Duration Diagrams V
 The duration diagram, in its turn, can be roughly characterised
by the mean outdoor temperature.

The approximate relationship between the duration of the outdoor temperature and the
mean outdoor temperature. (Hallén 1981)
Energy Balance of Buildings 39

Duration Diagrams VI
Helsinki, Finland +4.5 °C Berlin, Germany +9.5 °C
Oslo. Norway +5.9 °C Manchester, UK +9.5°C
Stockholm, Sweden +6.6 °C Amsterdam, +9.7 °C
Warszawa, Poland +7.9 °C Netherlands
Paris, France +10°C
Praha, +8.0 °C Dublin, Ireland +10.2°C
Czechoslovakia
Zurich, Switzerland +8,5 °C Budapest, Hungary +11.2°C
Hamburg, Germany +8.5 °C Milan, Italy +12.3°C
Copenhagen. +8.6 °C Madrid, Spain C
+13.9°C
Denmark

Examples of annual mean temperatures.

Energy Balance of Buildings 40

20
The Heat Balance Visualised

The heat balance is determined by:

Heal loss due to heat transmission and air


infiltration through the building envelope.
Storage of heat in the building structure.
Internal net generation of heat.

Energy Balance of Buildings 41

Heat Loss through the Building Envelope


I
 When the outdoor temperature, to(°C), is lower than the room
temperature, tr( °C), the building will lose heat to its surroundings.
 The cause of the loss is heat transmission and air infiltration
through the outside walls, the windows and doors and the roof.
 Each of these parts of the envelope accounts for its portion of the
losses.
 The heal flow due to transmission through the different parts
depends on their area, Aj(m2), and their heat transmission
coefficient, Ut W/(m2°C).
 When the temperature varies, there is also some influence of the
mass of the walls on the heat transmission.

Energy Balance of Buildings 42

21
Heat Loss through the Building Envelope
II
 The heat transmission through the outer wall will be somewhat
delayed: the heavier the wall, the longer the delay.
 the transmission through the wall itself is usually quite small
compared with the transmission through windows and heat loss
by infiltrating air.
 Therefore, this delay has a limited effect on the heal balance and
is disregarded here.
 The total heat loss due to transmission will then be:

Qtr  U j Aj (tr  to ) Ktr (tr  to ) (1)

Energy Balance of Buildings 43

Heat Loss through the Building Envelope


III
 The heal loss due to air infiltration, depends mainly on the
tightness of the different elements, and how well they are fitted
together.
 If the airflow due to infiltration isVi (m3 /s) ,the heat loss due to
infiltration will be:

Qi  Vi  c p (tr  to )  Ki (tr  to ) (2)

 Where  is the density and cp the specific heat capacity of air.

Energy Balance of Buildings 44

22
Internal Generation of Heat I

The internal heat generation includes all the heat


shows that influence the room air temperature:
 the heat emitted from people, lighting and equipment, heat from
solar radiation and heat emitted or absorbed by the building
structure.
By combining the equations (1) and (2), the total heat
loss due to transmission and air infiltration is:

Qtr  Qi  ( Ktr  Ki )(tr  to ) (3)

Energy Balance of Buildings 45

Internal Generation of Heat II


 The internal generation of heat from people, electrical equipment,
lighting, and building structure is Q .
int
 This heat compensates the heat loss.
 It can be expressed as a temperature difference, (Tint),
comparable with (tr-to) in equation (3)

Qint
Tint  (4)
( Ktr  Ki )
 Usually, the internal heat generation due to the activities varies during the
day and between day and night, especially in commercial buildings.
 This must be taken in consideration, but in order to illustrate the energy
balance in principle, we shall start with the assumption that the internal
heal generation is about the same day and night.

Energy Balance of Buildings 46

23
Internal Generation of Heat III

 The internal heat load would vary over the year due to the solar
radiation.
 There is a correlation between the solar radiation and the outdoor
temperature.
 The internal heat generation due to solar radiation, and thereby
also the Tint tends to increase with rising outdoor temperature.
 Thus, Tint can be represented approximately by a sloping curve,
the internal heat characteristic IHC.
 The level of the Internal Heat Characteristic, IHC, is determined by
the insulating properties of the building envelope and the internal
heat generation, as is the Tint.

Energy Balance of Buildings 47

Internal Generation of Heat IV


 At a certain outdoor temperature, the heat loss through the
building envelope and the internal heal generation coincide.
 The outdoor temperature, when the building in operation is in
thermal balance with its surrounding, is termed the balance

tb  tr  Tint
temperature tb:
(5)

tb
The figure shows the internal
Heat Characteristic, IHC, and
the Balance Temperature in the
duration diagram.

Energy Balance of Buildings 48

24
Internal Generation of Heat V
 According to equations (3) and (4), the heat loss through the building
envelope is approximately proportional to temperature differences, and
so is also the internal heat generation.
 Consequently a heat power axis, parallel to the temperature axis, can be
introduced in the diagram.
 In general terms energy is: Q   Q d
 Thus, energy can be represented as a surface in power-time diagram as
follows:

Power and energy in the duration diagram

Energy Balance of Buildings 49

Internal Generation of Heat VI


 The size of the areas shown in the duration diagram of power
and energy are a measure of an annual amount of energy.

 kW  hours/year 
Q j  ( Ktr  Ki ) Aj   
 cm  cm 
Scale factors

 A vertical distance is a measure of heat power. The heat power


scale and the temperature scales are connected by:

Q  ( Ktr  Ki )T (6)

Energy Balance of Buildings 50

25
Internal Generation of Heat VII
Some widespread types of office equipment and household
appliances which should be considered when making an energy
balance for a building are listed below:
 Computers
 Washing machines
 Monitors Dishwashers
 Copiers
 Dryers
 Printers
 Audio equipment
 Faxes
 Television
 Scanners
 Stoves
 Refrigerators
 Freezers
Energy Balance of Buildings 51

26
Lecture 7 Part I

Energy Utilisation
Wet Heating and Cooling Distribution Systems

Blackboard homepage:
lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Taghi Karimipanah
E-mail:
tkh@hig.se

Tel: 073-280 75 47

Wet heating and cooling distribution 1


systems

Wet Heating Distribution Systems


Wet heating distribution systems include:

Systems for liquid distributed heating


Heaters
Piping
Pumps and pressure drop

Wet heating and cooling distribution 2


systems

1
Different Heating Distribution Systems I
 Hypocaust - Roman floor heating system (2000 years old):

Wet heating and cooling distribution 3


systems

Different Heating Distribution Systems II


All-water systems
Heated water is supplied in pipes to the room.
The heat is transferred to the room by a heat
exchanger (known as a heater).

All-air systems
Heated air is supplied to the room that has a
heating demand (treated in the ventilation
system part).

Wet heating and cooling distribution 4


systems

2
All-water Heating Systems I
One pipe system
Two pipe system

Wet heating and cooling distribution 5


systems

All-water Heating Systems II


Two-pipe rising or up-feed system:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 6


systems

3
All-water Heating Systems III
Two-pipe drop system:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 7


systems

All-water Heating Systems IV


One-pipe drop system:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 8


systems

4
All-water Heating Systems V
One-pipe horizontal system:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 9


systems

Temperature levels for heating systems


For heating systems with a boiler, the supply
temperature is usually chosen at 80 °C and the
heaters are designed for a return temperature of
about 60 °C.
Modern systems are designed for a supply/return
temperature of 55/45 °C. With these low
temperatures, it is possible to use a heat pump as a
heat source.
Floor heating use even lower temperature levels.
Here the use of a heat pump as a heat source is
especially beneficial.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 10


systems

5
Shunting heating systems with boilers
If the return
temperature to the
boiler is too low, then
condensation of
sulphuric acids may
cause severe corrosion
inside the boiler.
To avoid the corrosion,
the return temperature
is held high by shunting
hot water back to the
return line.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 11


systems

Airing of liquid systems


Air can be dissolved in water, and the solubility
depend on both the temperature and the pressure.
The solubility decreases with increasing temperature
and decreasing pressure.
Hence, air will be released in points in the system
where the pressure is the lowest and the temperature
is the highest.
Where are these points?

Wet heating and cooling distribution 12


systems

6
Air solubility in water
.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 13


systems

Airing methods I
.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 14


systems

7
Airing methods II
.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 15


systems

Airing methods III


.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 16


systems

8
Heaters
Radiative heaters (Radiators): More than 50 %
of the heat is transferred by radiation.
Wall mounted
Ceiling mounted

Convective heaters (Convectors)


Wall mounted
Floor mounted

Wet heating and cooling distribution 17


systems

Placement of heaters I
 Convectors are usually
placed beneath the
windows for two
reasons:
1) Counteract draught
2) Compensate for the
cold window that
otherwise would cause
a low operative
temperature
(asymmetric radiation).
Wet heating and cooling distribution 18
systems

9
Placement of heaters II
 Counteract draught:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 19


systems

Placement of heaters III


 Asymmetric
radiation:
 A higher inside
window pane
temperature lead to
a higher operative
temperature and a
decreased
influence of
asymmetric
radiation.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 20


systems

10
Cast iron radiators
 Cast iron radiators have a comparatively large water volume and
are therefore difficult to regulate quickly.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 21


systems

Modern Panel radiators


 .

Wet heating and cooling distribution 22


systems

11
Ceiling Panels
 .

Wet heating and cooling distribution 23


systems

Floor heating
 .

Wet heating and cooling distribution 24


systems

12
Example for floor heating I
 Apartment building with floor heating in all floors.
 Individual heating bill - each apartment pays their
own heating costs.
 One family went on vacation and turned the heating
off in their apartment.
 The family living in the apartment below were
complaining to the landlord about the low
temperature in their apartment.
 A consultancy company was engaged to investigate
why.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 25


systems

Example for floor heating II


 Original cross section of the floor

Source: J.
Karlsson, KTH

Wet heating and cooling distribution 26


systems

13
Example for floor heating III
 Original temperature distribution

Source: J.
Karlsson, KTH
Wet heating and cooling distribution 27
systems

Example for floor heating IV


 New cross section of the floor

Source: J.
Karlsson, KTH

Wet heating and cooling distribution 28


systems

14
Example for floor heating V
 New temperature distribution

Wet heating and cooling distribution 29


systems

Heat transfer I
 Heaters are heat exchangers!

Wet heating and cooling distribution 30


systems

15
Heat transfer II
 Example:
Calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient for
a heat exchanger if the heat transfer coefficient
on the inside and the outside of the heat
exchanger is αinside=100 W/(m²·K) and
αoutside= 10 W/(m²·K) respectively, and the
thickness of the wall is 1.5 mm and the wall
thermal conductivity is 50 W/(m·K).

Wet heating and cooling distribution 31


systems

Heat transfer III


 Solution:

 Hence, the U-value of a heat exchanger is close to


the smallest of αinside ,αoutside and δ/k.
 Usually you can assume that U≈ αoutside.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 32


systems

16
Heat transfer IV
 Radiation heat transfer:

 AUST= area-weighted average temperature of


uncontrolled surfaces in room.
 Natural convection from a heated ceiling or a
cooled floor:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 33


systems

Heat transfer V
 Natural convection from a heated floor or a cooled
ceiling:

 Natural convection from a wall:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 34


systems

17
Pipe fittings
 Pipes come in standardized sizes.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 35


systems

Pumps and pressure drop I


 For a closed circuit, the pressure balance is:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 36


systems

18
Pumps and pressure drop II
 For closed natural circulation circuits:

 For closed circuits with a pump:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 37


systems

Pressure drop
 The total pressure drop consists of three parts:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 38


systems

19
Friction pressure drop
 .

Wet heating and cooling distribution 39


systems

Friction Factors
 The friction factor depend on the Reynolds number
and the surface roughness.
 Reynolds number, Re
di ×v
Re= where di = inside diameter
μ
v= velocity and  =kinematic viscosity

 Relative roughness ε/di


 The flow is Turbulent if Re > 2300 and Laminar
otherwise.
 Friction factors can be obtained either from charts
or equations. Wet heating and cooling distribution 40
systems

20
Moody’s Chat for Friction Factors and Roughness

 .

Wet heating and cooling distribution 41


systems

Friction Factors - Equations


 Turbulent region, rough pipes (Colebrook
equation):

 Turbulent region, smooth pipes (Blasius equation):

 Laminar region:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 42


systems

21
Single pressure drop
 .

 The loss coefficient can be obtained from tables, in


Fluid mechanics text books.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 43


systems

Losses in T- junctions
 .

 The above K-values are approximative. In reality,


the K-values depend on the pipe diameter, and the
flow rates in the branches.
Wet heating and cooling distribution 44
systems

22
Example Pressure drop in pipe system I
 Calculate the pressure drop, and all the velocities in the
system. The pipe inner diameter is 10 mm, and the volumetric
flow rate of the pump is 7 dm³/min. The density and kinematic
viscosity of water is 1000 kg/m³ and 0.59·10-6 m²/s
respectively. Assume smooth pipes.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 45


systems

Example Pressure drop in pipe system II


 Considerations: Will the velocity and flow rate be constant in
all parts of the system?

Wet heating and cooling distribution 46


systems

23
Example Pressure drop in pipe system III
 Considerations:

 How will the branches influence the pressure drop?


 Since the two branches are in parallel, the pressure
drop will be the same for both branches!
 What will be different between the branches?
 The velocity will ”adapt” in order to satisfy the
pressure drop requirement!

Wet heating and cooling distribution 47


systems

Example Pressure drop in pipe system IV


 Considerations:
 How do we calculate the pressure drop?

Wet heating and cooling distribution 48


systems

24
Example Pressure drop in pipe system V
 Considerations:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 49


systems

Example Pressure drop in pipe system VI


 Solution:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 50


systems

25
Example Pressure drop in pipe system VII
 Solution:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 51


systems

Example Pressure drop in pipe system VIII


 Solution:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 52


systems

26
Example Pressure drop in pipe system IX
 Numerical Solution:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 53


systems

Example Pressure drop in pipe system X


 Graphical Solution:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 54


systems

27
Example Pressure drop in pipe system X
 Graphical Solution:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 55


systems

Example Pressure drop in pipe system XI


 Graphical Solution:

So, is this a good heating system?


What happens with the heat distribution if the heaters are identical?
There will be an uneven distribution due to the difference in flow rate
going through the different branches.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 56


systems

28
Lecture 7 Part II

Energy Utilisation
Wet Heating and Cooling Distribution Systems

Blackboard homepage:
lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Taghi Karimipanah
E-mail:
tkh@hig.se

Tel: 073-280 75 47

Wet heating and cooling distribution 1


systems

Design of a heating system I

 If you have a system with identical heaters you


want the same flow rate through all of them.
 To ensure an even distribution of heat, it is crucial
that the critical heater get the required flow rate.
 If all the heaters are identical, the critical heater is
often the one situated the longest distance from the
pump. If uncertain, calculate the pressure drop for
all heaters.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 2


systems

1
Design of a heating system II
 Procedure for heating system design:
 Divide the system into different parts where the
flow rate in each part is constant. These parts is
often called ”runs”.
 As a rule of thumb, after each branch there should
be a new run since the flow is split up in two or
more flow paths.
 Remember that the total pressure drop is the sum
of all pressure drops from the pump to the critical
heater and back to the pump again. The summation
always follows ONE FLOW PATH. Never add parallel
runs!
Wet heating and cooling distribution 3
systems

Design of a heating system III


 Equations:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 4


systems

2
Design of a heating system IV
 R-value chart:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 5


systems

Previous example I
 Calculate the pressure drop, and select proper pipes for the
heating system. The R-value should be between 40-100 Pa/m.
The density of water is 1000 kg/m³. Prad = 1000 W, Δtrad = 10 °C.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 6


systems

3
Previous example II
 It is often beneficial to use a spread sheet for these
calculations. You may also use Excel. As example:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 7


systems

Previous example III


 R-value chart:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 8


systems

4
Previous example III
 Spread-sheet - Com+ Branch 2:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 9


systems

Previous example IV
 R-value chart (Run 1):

Wet heating and cooling distribution 10


systems

5
Previous example V
 Spread-sheet - Com+ Branch 1:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 11


systems

Previous example VI
 The critical heater is number 2!
 Δppump = 6356.1 Pa
 For branch 1 we need to add some pressure drop in order to
get an even distribution!
 Calculate the pump power requirement

Wet heating and cooling distribution 12


systems

6
Passive Systems
 What are Passive Systems?
 Systems that requires little or no driving
energy.
 Systems that use renewable energy sources
(Bio, Hydro, Solar, etc).

Wet heating and cooling distribution 13


systems

Passive Heating I
 Solar irradiation should be able to cover most of our heating
demand…
 … at least statistically!

Wet heating and cooling distribution 14


systems

7
Passive Heating II
 Heat storage in a wall:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 15


systems

Passive Ventilation I
 Ventilation systems and ventilation flow can
be:
 Mechanically induced
 Thermally induced
 Wind induced

Wet heating and cooling distribution 16


systems

8
Passive Ventilation II
 Driving forces:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 17


systems

Passive Ventilation III


 Thermally induced ventilation I:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 18


systems

9
Passive Ventilation IV
 Thermally induced ventilation II:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 19


systems

Passive Ventilation V
 Thermally induced ventilation III:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 20


systems

10
Passive Ventilation VI
 Example:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 21


systems

Passive Ventilation VII


 Solution:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 22


systems

11
Passive Ventilation VIII
 Solution (cont…):

warm

Wet heating and cooling distribution 23


systems

Passive Ventilation IX
 Solution (cont…):

Wet heating and cooling distribution 24


systems

12
Passive Ventilation X
 Practical solutions:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 25


systems

Passive Ventilation XI
 Practical solutions:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 26


systems

13
Passive Ventilation XII
 Practical solutions:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 27


systems

Passive Ventilation XIII


 Practical solutions:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 28


systems

14
Passive Ventilation IVX
 Practical solutions:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 29


systems

Passive Ventilation VX
 Wind induced ventilation:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 30


systems

15
Passive Ventilation VX
 Wind induced ventilation:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 31


systems

Passive Ventilation VX
 Wind induced ventilation:
 Calculation procedure the same as for thermally
induced ventilation
 Determine pressure difference,
 Set equal to the losses.
 Solve for velocity and flow rate

Wet heating and cooling distribution 32


systems

16
Passive Ventilation VIX
 Wind and thermally induced ventilation:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 33


systems

Passive Ventilation VIIX


 Wind and mechanically induced ventilation:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 34


systems

17
Passive Cooling I
 Passive cooling is usually methods and
systems that reduce the cooling load…
 …and is hence not a method/system that
provide the cooling capacity needed…
 …but sometimes the reduction is large
enough to eliminate the need for cooling

Wet heating and cooling distribution 35


systems

Passive Cooling II

 Solar irradiation adjusting


 Shading
 Blinds
 Solar driven cooling (ventilation)
 Cooling by radiation
 Cooling by evaporation

Wet heating and cooling distribution 36


systems

18
Fixed Shading

 .

Wet heating and cooling distribution 37


systems

Adjustable Shading

 .

Wet heating and cooling distribution 38


systems

19
Ventilation Blinds

 .

Wet heating and cooling distribution 39


systems

Solar Driven Cooling Ventilation

 .

Wet heating and cooling distribution 40


systems

20
Cooling by Radiation

 The sky temperature is on average 6 °C


lower than the air temperature (even lower
at low air temperatures).
 This means that heat can be dissipated by
radiation to the sky.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 41


systems

Pond Roof

 .

Wet heating and cooling distribution 42


systems

21
Cooling by Evaporation

 A change of phase is always involves


transfer of large quantities of energy.
 It is hence a efficient way of facilitating
cooling.
 Many passive cooling methods/systems use
phase-changing techniques.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 43


systems

Green Roof I

 Water stays, evaporative cooling


 Thermal mass

Wet heating and cooling distribution 44


systems

22
Green Roof II

 .

Wet heating and cooling distribution 45


systems

Heat Islands I

 .

Wet heating and cooling distribution 46


systems

23
Heat Islands II

 .

Wet heating and cooling distribution 47


systems

Passive circulation and air water I

 Usually passive circulation of air and water


is used for heating houses or domestic
sanitary hot water
 Here a few examples will be shown, several
others exist

Wet heating and cooling distribution 48


systems

24
Passive circulation and air water II

 Circulation of air:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 49


systems

Passive circulation and air water III

 Circulation of water - Thermosyphon:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 50


systems

25
Passive circulation and air water IV

 Circulation of water - Thermosyphon:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 51


systems

Passive circulation and air water V

 Circulation of water - Thermosyphon:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 52


systems

26
Passive circulation and air water VI

 Circulation of water -
Thermosyphon: patent
taken by Peter
Kjaerboe
 The water flow is driven
by steam bubbles
generated in the tank
marked (30). The
bubbles drag water with
them as they rise at
location (31).

Wet heating and cooling distribution 53


systems

Heating of domestic hot water I

 What is the heating capacity requirement for


taking a shower?
 Assume flow rate is 30 liters/minute
 Assume shower water temperature is 40 °C
 Assume unheated water is 10 °C.
 Power consumption to heat this water:

Wet heating and cooling distribution 54


systems

27
Heating of domestic hot water II

 On average a person uses 1200 kWh of energy for


heating of domestic hot water every year.
 This represents a mean heating demand of 137 W.
 If we store hot water we can save heating capacity
(Power)!
 In Sweden one person use between 30-50 liters of
domestic hot water per day.

Wet heating and cooling distribution 55


systems

Direct radiative heating of water

 .

Wet heating and cooling distribution 56


systems

28
Preheating of domestic hot water by heat
exchange with Sewage water
 .

Wet heating and cooling distribution 57


systems

Sewage water heat recovery coaxial tube

 .

Wet heating and cooling distribution 58


systems

29
Lecture 8
Energy Utilization PART I
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer

Blackboard homepage:
lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Taghi Karimipanah
E-mail:
tkh@hig.se

Tel: 073-280 75 47

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 1

Text Books Used

1. Hugo Hens, Building Physics – Heat, Air and Moisture,


2007 Ernst & Sons Verlag, ISBN 978-3-433-01841-5,
Germany. http://dnb.d-nb.de.
2. Carl-Eric Hagentoft, Introduction to Building Physics,
2001, Studentlitteratur, ISBN 91-44-01896-7, Sweden,
www.studentlitteratur.se.
3. Per Erik Nilsson (editor), Achieving the Desired Indoor
Climate –Energy Efficiency Aspects of System Design,
2003, Studentlitteratur, ISBN 91-44-03235-8, Printed in
Denmark by Narayana Press, www.studentlitteratur.se.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 2

1
Mass Transfer I
 The term 'mass transfer' points to the transfer of air, water
vapour, water-dissolved solids, gases and liquids in and
through materials and building constructions.
 As examples, we have the airflow in a room, the transport of
water vapour through a roof, the movement of water and
salts in bricks, the diffusion of blowing agents out of
insulation materials, the absorption of CO2 by fresh lime
plaster, etc.
 Mass flow can only develop in open-porous materials, i.e., in
materials that have accessible pores with an equivalent
diameter larger than the diameter of the molecules that try to
pass through them.
 In building materials without pores. in materials with smaller
pores than the said diameter or in materials with only closed
pores, mass transfer does not occur.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 3

Mass Transfer II
 In Building materials, air carries heat (enthalpy) and water
vapour.
 When the open pores in a material are not filled with water,
they contain humid air.
 Water can enter a pore only when the humid air is pushed
out. Air transfer has positive and negative effects:
 The passage of dry air increases the drying potential of a
construction and discharges water vapour before it may
condense.
 Air outflow affects the thermal and moisture performance, while
buoyancy flow around the thermal insulation increases heat
loss and gain.
 Cavity ventilation in turn facilitates condensation by clear sky
radiant cooling. At the same time, comfort, health and indoor air
quality require correctly ventilated buildings with a continuous
flow pattern between fresh air intakes and air exhausts.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 4

2
Mass Transfer III
 Of all the burdens on a building, moisture is the most
destructive one. Consequently, a correct moisture tolerance
is a challenge for each designer and builder.
 The word 'moisture' indicates that water in porous materials
is present in its two or three phases, with different
substances dissolved in the liquid phase. In other words,
'moisture' includes:
 For temperatures below 0°C: Ice, water, water vapour and
diverse substances dissolved in the liquid phase (such as
salts).
 For temperatures above 0°C: Water, water vapour and diverse
substances dissolved in the liquid phase (such as salts).

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 5

Mass Transfer IV
 Water vapour consists of separate water molecules with a
diameter close to 0.28 x 10-9 m (0.28 nm), while water is
composed of clusters of molecules which as clusters have a
much larger diameter.
 As a consequence, pores that are permeable for water
vapour may not be accessible for water. Thus, some
materials are waterproof but not water vapour proof.
 Ice is crystalline. If water transforms into ice, its volume
expands by 10%, which is why ice formation can be quite
destructive.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 6

3
Mass Transfer V
 The amount of humid air, moisture or another fluid a
material may contain, depends on:
 Density  [kg/m3]: Mass per volume-unit of material. A
porous solid substance has a density which is smaller than
the specific density. For liquids and gases, the density
equals the specific density.
 Total porosity  [% m3/m3): Volume of pores per volume-unit
of material.
 Open porosity o [% m3/m3): Volume of open pores per
volume-unit material. What fraction of the porous system is
'open' depends on the fluid migrating through the material.
In general, open porosity is smaller than total porosity (o 
 ).

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 7

Mass Transfer VI
 The following relationship exists between porosity and
density (pores filled with humid air, specific density of the
material s): ρ -ρ ρ
ψ= s  1- (I)
ρs -ρa ρs
with ρa the density of air
 The air in a material is indicated as:
 Air content wa (kg/m3): Air mass per volume-unit of material.
 Air ratio Xa(% kg/kg): Air mass per mass-unit of dry material.
 Volumetric air ratio a [% m3/m3): Volume of air per volume-unit
of material.
 Air saturation degree Sa [%): Ratio between the current air
content and the maximum possible air content. May also be
defined as the fraction of pores filled with air against those
accessible for air.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 8

4
Mass Transfer VII
Moisture presence is quantified in an analogous way:
 Moisture content w [kg/m3]: Mass of moisture per volume-unit
of material.
 Moisture ratio X [% kg/kg]: Mass of moisture per mass-unit of
dry material.
 Volumetric moisture ratio  [% m3/m3]: Volume of moisture
per volume-unit of material.
 Moisture saturation degree S [%] Relationship between the
moisture content present and the maximum moisture content
possible. May also be defined as the fraction of open pores
filled with moisture against those accessible for moisture.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 9

Mass Transfer VIII


 The four definitions can be extended to any kind of fluid.
 The first three average the presence of a fluid over the material,
although in reality no air, moisture, dissolved salt, etc., are
contained in the matrix.
 The real 'content' in the pores is equal to  S with  the density
of the fluid and S the saturation degree for the fluid considered.
 The following relationships hold between air content and air
ratio and. air content and volumetric air ratio ( is the density of
the porous material):
wa wa
Xa =100  a =100 (II)
ρ ρa

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 10

5
Mass Transfer IX
 Identical formulas link moisture content to moisture ratio and, moisture
content to volumetric moisture ratio:
w w w
X=100  =100 = (III)
ρ 1000 10
 At the same time air and moisture content arc coupled by:
 w 
w a =ρa  ψo - (IV)
 100 
 The saturation degree also form a twin (on condition that no other
substances fill the pores):
S+Sa =1 (V)
 Equations (IV) and (V) indicate that no air will be present where water
sits and vice versa. This is not the case for water vapour. which mixes
with air.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 11

Mass Transfer X
 In the case of air, the choice of what quantity to use (wa, Xa of  a) is not
bound by rules. This is different for moisture.
 The equation (III) shows that the same moisture reality induces
important numerical differences among the three quantities.
 For materials with a density above 1000 kg/m3 the moisture ratio gives
the smallest value. For materials with a density below 1000 kg/m3 that
honour goes to the volumetric moisture ratio. While 'moisture' is co-
notated negatively in practice, there is a temptation to use the lowest
and apparently best scoring number for each material. without
indication of units.
 Therefore, the following rules are set:
 (1) moisture content w (kg/m3) is used for stony materials; (2) moisture
ratio X [% kg/kg] is used for wood-based materials; (3) volumetric
moisture ratio  [% m3/m3] is used for highly porous materials, and (4)
never forget to mention the units.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 12

6
Air Flows Around, Within and Through
the Building Envelope I
 Air flows around buildings, within or through the building envelope,
have a great influence on the ventilation rate of the building and the
heat and mass balance of building components.
 It is of great importance to determine the pressure difference over
the building envelope.
 This will be the driving force for both intentional and unintentional air
flows, carrying both heat and moisture, between the ambient air and
the indoor one.
 The intentional air flows will be referred to as:
 Ventilation
 The unintentional ones will be referred to as:
 Air leakages

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 13

Air Flows Around, Within and Through


the Building Envelope II
The amount of air leakage is determined by the
pressure difference and the air-tightness of the
building envelope.

The driving forces (pressures) causing air flows are:


 Wind pressure
 Stack pressure (temperature differences)
 Mechanical ventilation components (fans)

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 14

7
Wind Pressure I
 A positive pressure is induced on the up-wind face of a building.
 On fiat roofs there will be a suction. However, for roof pitches above
30° the pressure on the leading face tends to become positive.

Figure 4.1: Air flows around the building envelope and, wind
pressure acting on a building.
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 15

Wind Pressure II

 Relative to static pressure of the free wind, the pressure, Pw (Pa),


acting at any point on a surface can be approximated by:

a v 2
Pw  C p 
2
 where, Cp [-] is a wind pressure coefficient, and v [m/s] is the wind
velocity at a specified reference height.
 A negative value of Cp means that there is a wind suction acting on
the envelope, i.e. it wants to suck out air from the house.
 The pressure coefficient is an empirically derived parameter, largely
based on the results of wind tunnel experiments.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 16

8
Wind Pressure III
 The following figure shows wind pressure coefficient Cp for low rise
buildings, up to three storeys) expressed as an average value for
each face of the building. The building is surrounded by obstructions
equivalent to half the height of the building. Wind speed reference
level equal to the building height.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer


Figure 4.2 17

Wind Pressure IV
 The strength of the wind is influenced by the surface roughness and
the height above ground.
 A reference level for wind velocity must be specified for use in the wind
pressure calculations. This is commonly taken as the building height.
 Local weather station data must be corrected to account for any
difference between measurement height and building height and to
account for the terrain roughness as shown in figure.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 18

9
Wind Pressure V
 An approximate correction equation to account for height differences
and intervening terrain is given by:

z mU U k  z
a

 Where Um (m/s) is the wind speed at a weather station at a height of


10 m, and Uz (m/s) is the wind speed at the building height z. The
constants k and a are given in following table.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 19

Wind Pressure VI
 In order to get a mass balance of the building, an internal pressure Pi
(Pa) is established.
 Since mostly the pressure around the building envelope is negative,
also the internal pressure becomes negative.
 The internal pressure is given by: 2
a v
Pi  C pi 
2
 For a building envelope with evenly distributed air leakages, Cpi is
approximately equal to -0.3.
 The pressure differences over the building envelope, due to the wind
becomes:
a v 2
Pw   C p  C pi  
2
 A negative pressure difference wants to suck air out from the house.
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 20

10
Wind Pressure VII
Example:
 The considered building has a total height of 6 m, and it is located in an urban
region. The air leakages can be assumed to be distributed uniformally around
the building. Estimate the pressure difference over the windward side building
envelope, when the wind speed is 10 m/s at the height of 10 m at the nearest
weather station.
 Using the following formula and its table of constants , the reference wind speed
can be calculated:

v  U z  Um  k  za
 10  0.35  60,25  5.5 m/s
 The pressure coefficient can be found in Figure 4.2. The pressure difference
becomes:
a v 2 1.2  5.52
Pw   C p  C pi     0.4  (0.3)    12.7 Pa
2 Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 2 21

Stack Effect I
 Stack pressure is generated by the difference in temperature (density
difference) between the indoor and outdoor air.
 This produces an imbalance which results in a vertical pressure difference.
 It causes a negative pressure difference Ps over the building envelope at
the top (air is sucked out from the building), and a positive one at the
bottom of the building (air is pressed into the building).

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 22

11
Stack Effect II
 At the height of the neutral pressure plane the air pressure is equal both
at the exterior and the interior of the building.
 The pressure difference at the vertical distance z, in the downward
direction, from the neutral pressure plane is:

Ps  z   e  i   g
 Here, Pe is the external air density, and Pi is the internal one. This can be
expressed using temperatures and the General Gas Law as:

1 1
Ps  z  3456    
 Te Ti 
 Here, the exterior and interior temperatures Te and Ti shall be given in
degrees Kelvin.
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 23

Mechanical ventilation Components I


 The mechanical ventilation system introduces a pressure
difference over the building envelope denoted Pv.
 A negative value of Pv results in an air flow out from the building,
and a positive one results in a flow in to the building.

 There are various configurations of mechanical ventilation are in


use, for instance:
 Extract ventilation - a fan is used to mechanically remove air from
a space. Pv >0 gives an equal mass of fresh air into the space
through purpose provided air inlets or infiltration openings.
 Supply ventilation - outdoor air is mechanically introduced into
the building where it mixes with the existing air. (Pv >0 ).
 Balanced ventilation - Combines extract and supply systems as
separately ducted networks. Sometimes a slight imbalance may
be introduced (intentionally Or non-intentionally) so that, Pv >0 or
Pv <0 .
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 24

12
Mechanical ventilation Components II
 The total air pressure over the building envelope is given by the
sum of the ones induced by wind, stack and ventilation system.

P  Pw  Ps  Pv


 From the formula it is obvious that all the three mechanisms will
influence the total pressure difference.
 The wind speed
 The temperature difference between the indoor and outdoor air in
combination with the space heights
 The induced pressure difference due to the ventilation system will
determine the final pressure difference.
 Thus it can vary with the time of the year, the weather and the
operation of the ventilation system.
 This must be considered in the thermal and moisture analysis of
the building component.
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 25

Air Transfer Through the Building Envelope


I
 The air can flow through porous building materials and
through gaps, cracks and holes. Normally, the latter ones will
dominate the air leakages.
 If a porous (permeable) building material is subjected to air
pressure differences, P, some air will pass through it. For a
material thickness d (m) we get the air flow rate Ra (m3/s):

 P
Ra  A
 d
 Here, A (m2) is the area considered,  (m2) is the permeability
and  (Ns/m2) is the dynamic viscosity of air.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 26

13
Air Transfer Through the Building Envelope
II
 The general empirical Darcy law reads:
Ra  P
 um
A  x
 Here, um (m/s) is the average fluid velocity.
 The network resistance component for this steady flow of air
through a material layer is denoted S (Pa.s/m3 ):

P1  P2
Ra 
S
 d
S
A 
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 27

Air Gaps I
 The following figures shows the case with an air gap penetrating an air
tight building envelope component.
 The air gap height is denoted b (m), the length of the air channel is L
(m), and the flow area perpendicular to the flow direction is A (m2).

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 28

14
Air Gaps II
 The air flow is determined by the pressure losses inside the air gap,
and the entrance and exit pressure losses.
 For the inner of the air gap the pressure loss Pg (Pa) is normally
determined by a laminar flow process:
Pg 12  L
Ra  Sg 
Sg b2  A
Criteron: the flow is laminar if :
u  2b
Re= m <2000
 / a
 where Re is the Reynolds number. The criterion can also be written
as:
Ra  2  b  a
<2000
A
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 29

Air Gaps III


 The relation between the entrance and exit pressure losses Pe (Pa)
and the air flow rate is given by:
Pe
Ra 
Se ( Ra )
 where the air flow resistance Se is a function of the air flow rate itself:
 Se ( Ra )  Se '  Ra

 ' 1.8   a
 Se  (Pa/(m3 /s)2 )
 2  A2
 The total flow through an air gap can be illustrated with the network in
Figure 4.6. With P1 -P2 = P we get:

P P
Ra  
S g  Se S g  Se '  Ra
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 30

15
Air Gaps IV
Sg P
 Rearranging the terms: Ra2  '
 Ra  =0
S e Se'

Figure 4.6: Network for the air flow through a gap, including entrance and exit pressure losses.

 The solution of the equation is:

Ra 
1
2  Se '
  S g2  4  P  Se ' -S g 
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 31

Air Gaps V

 Example: Consider the case with an air gap, with the height 0.2 mm, in
between two 0.22 m thick and very long building components. The
pressure difference is 10 Pa. Since the components are very long, we
will look at one meter of this, i.e. A = b· 1.
12  L 12 17.5 106  0.22
Sg  = =5.775 106 Pa  s/m 3
b  A (0.2 103 ) 2  0.2 103 1
2

1.8   a 1.8 1.25


Se '  = = 28.125 106 (Pa/(m3 /s) 2 )
2 A 2
2  (0.2 103 ) 2

Ra 
1
2  Se ' 
 S g2  4  P  Se ' -S g =
1
28.125 106

 
(5.775 106 ) 2  4 10  28.125 106 -5.775 106  1.73 106 m3 /s
Ra  2  b  a 1.73 106  2  0.2 103 1.25
= =0.247 <2000
A 17.5 106 1 0.2 103
The air flow through the gap is Laminar
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 32

16
Building Air-tightness
 The philosophy, as with all ventilation strategies, is to “build tight and
ventilate right”.
 The air-tightness performance of a building is often specified in terms of
an air exchange rate at an artificially induced pressure, e.g. 50 Pa.
 Air flows through porous building materials and joints in the building
envelope. This must be considered when applying air-tight construction
techniques.
 Different construction materials have different leakage characteristics.
 Normally a modern building has a double skin construction.
 The inner and outer leaves are separated by a layer of thermal
insulation.
 Air-tightness is dependent on good sealing of the inner leaf. It is
acceptable, from a moisture point of view, that the outer shell may be
intentionally less air tight than the inner one, so that any air that enters
the building envelope from inside can escape to the outside.
 This reduces the risk of moisture convection damages.
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 33

Heat Losses due to Transmission and


Ventilation I
 The transmission heat losses are mainly caused by heat conduction in
the building envelope materials.
 For a building with various areas Ai, with the corresponding U-values,
Ui, we get the following transmission heat losses:

Qtr  Ti  Te    AU
i i

 The ventilation heat losses, neglecting the effects of latent heat, without
accounting for any means of heat recovering, become:

Qvent  Ti  Te   a c pa  nV
Ra
n is air exchane rate [s 1 or h 1 ]
V
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 34

17
Heat Losses due to Transmission and
Ventilation II
 It is interesting to compare ventilation and transmission heat losses at
different degree of thermal insulation.
 Let us assume a building with a parameter length of P (m), a floor and
roof area of A (m2), and a building height of H (m). The heat loss then

Qtr  Ti  Te   Ae U
becomes:

 Here, U is an average U-value obtained from: Ae U   Ai U i


Ae  2  A  P  H
 The ventilation losses becomes:
Qvent  Ti  Te   a c pa  n  A  H
 The ratio between the two different heat losses becomes:
Qvent a c pa  n  A  H a c pa  n  H 1
  
Qtr U  (2  A  P  HMass, ) Air and MoistureUtransfer 2  P  H / A 35

Heat Losses due to Transmission and


Ventilation III
Example: A rectangular building (A = L.B, L = B, P = 2·(L+B)) is
considered. By inserting these values in our obtained formula we get:
Qvent a c pa  n  H 1 a c pa  n  H 1
   
Qtr U 2 PH / A 2 U 1  ( L  B)  H / ( L  B)

 With H = 2.5 m, n=0.5 1/h and L = B =10 m, corresponding to a small


residential building, we obtain:
Qvent n
 0.29  with n in h 1
Qtr U
 The following table gives some values for this specific case: With an
average U-value of 0.145 (W/m2K) the transmission and the ventilation heat
losses are equal.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 36

18
Moisture Transfer in Building Envelope I

Moisture
sources: 3
1. Air moisture 1
2. Building
moisture 1 2
3. Rain etc.
4. Ground
moisture
4

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 37

Moisture Transfer in Building Envelope II


Water can exist in three states (phases) of matter: solid
(ice), liquid (water) and gas (vapour).
In the physical conditions that buildings are operated, all
these three states of moisture may exist.
As much as water is essential for all forms of life, it brings
about deterioration and disintegration of natural and man-
made materials.
Buildings that are built to last many decades consist of a
large number of such materials.
The interaction of moisture with building materials and
components of the envelope may significantly influence the
thermal performance of buildings.
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 38

19
Moisture Transfer in Building Envelope III

 The sources for moisture, important for buildings, have their


origin in:
 Indoor and outdoor air humidity
 Construction damp (Building moisture)
 Precipitation
 Water leakage
 Moisture in the ground.

 Indoor, moisture is generated by day-to-day activities such as


breathing, cooking, bathing, and washing and drying clothes.
 Moisture, which has been stored during the summer period, can also
be released from furniture and building materials during the winter
period.
 This is a type of seasonal storage.
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 39

Moisture Transfer in Building Envelope IV


 Many construction materials have a higher content of moisture in
their initial state than what is found later in the normal operation of the
buildings.
 Concrete and wood are examples of such materials. The excess
amount of water will be released during the first months or years
during which the building is in operation.
 The precipitation occurs in different forms such as rain, snow and
hail.
 In combination with the wind, the direction of for instance rain can be
anything from vertical to horizontal. The amount of rain hitting a
vertical surface is referred to as driving rain.
 Water leakages, coming for instance from bursting pipes, can result in
severe moisture problems.
 However, leakage problems in general are not dealt with here.
 Moisture can be found in the ground in both liquid and vapour phase.
Groundwater and precipitation are the sources of the liquid water. Due to
the presence of liquid water, high water vapour content is normally found
in soil materials. Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 40

20
Moisture in Air I

 The water vapour content of air, or the humidity by volume, is denoted


by v (kg/m3).
 Air consists of many gases, each contributing with its partial pressure
to the total air pressure.
 For water vapour we denote the partial pressure by Pv (Pa).
 The General Gas Law gives the relation between the vapour content
and the partial pressure:
Pv  461.4  (T  273.15)  v

 Here, the temperature, T, is given in degrees Celsius.


 Due to liquid-gas equilibrium for water, there is a maximum possible
water vapour content in the air. It will be denoted by Vs (kg/m3). This
humidity by volume at saturation is a function of temperature, see
Figure 5.1.
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 41

Moisture in Air II

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 42

21
Moisture in Air III

 Using a formula from the German DIN-standard (4108), the following


expression can be used for vs:
n
 T 
a b  
vs   100  (T in degrees Celsius)
461.4  T  273.15 
0  T  30 a = 288.68 Pa b = 1.098 n = 8.02
-20  T  0 a = 4.689 Pa b = 1.486 n = 12.3
 The relative humidity , RH, is defined as:
v
  %
vs
 The relative humidity is often expressed in per cent.
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 43

Moisture in Porous Materials I


 The following figure shows a porous building material
surrounded by air of a certain temperature and relative humidity.

Figure 5.2: Material surrounded by humid air. Part of the pore structure
and the absorbed moisture is also shown.
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 44

22
Moisture in Porous Materials II

 Within the material, a complex pore structure exists.


 The solid surfaces have the tendency to capture and localize water
molecules on them.
 For each given relative humidity there will we an equilibrium.
 The moisture content of a material is denoted:
W ( )
3
 kg / m 
 Strictly speaking, there is a temperature dependence for w as well.
However, this can normally be neglected.
 The moisture ratio (mass by mass) is defined as: W
u
dry
 Here, dry (kg/m3) is the dry density of the considered material.
 It is the density obtained after that the material has been dried in an
environment with the temperature of 105°C for a long period of time. The
moisture ratio is often expressed in per cent.
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 45

Moisture in Porous Materials III

 The equilibrium curve w(¢) is known as the sorption isotherm of the


material. As example of such a curve is shown in following figure.

Figure 5.3: Sorption isotherm.


Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 46

23
Moisture in Porous Materials IV

There is a limited amount of water that can be stored in a


material, captured from the surrounding humid air, at
isothermal conditions.
This hygroscopic range covers the interval approximately
between 0 and 98% relative humidity.
A considerable amount of further more water can be fixed
to the pore structure, if the material is in contact with liquid
water.
The upper limit for the moisture content of a material in
contact with liquid water is denoted wcap (kg/m3). Here, cap
stands for capillary saturated material.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 47

Moisture in Porous Materials V

 The maximum possible water content of a material, i.e. when all the
pores are filled with water, is denoted by wsat (kg/m3). Here, sat stands
for saturated.
 This level is difficult to reach, since air is easily trapped inside the
pores in the material. The figure shows the different ranges discussed.

Figure 5.4: Principle figures explaining the different ranges and the
corresponding amounts of water stored in a material.
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 48

24
Moisture in Porous Materials VI

 If a porous building material is soaked in water and allowed to dry in air


at different relative humidities it will not retrace the sorption isotherm.
 Usually, during desorption it retains more moisture than what it can
adsorb at any given relative humidity.
 This phenomenon is referred to as hysteresis, see following figure.
W
Sorption’s
Curve
desorption
Hysteres

absorption

100%
Figure 5.5: Sorption and desorption curve, with hysteresis effect
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 49

Moisture Transfer in Air or by Air (Diffusion)


 Consider a layer of stagnant air, as in following
figure. The width of the layer is d. The vapour
concentration, the humidity by volume v is kept
at V1at one side of the layer and at V2 on the
other side.
 The steady-state diffusive flux g (kg/(m2s)) is
according to Fick's empirical law:
v1  v2
gD
d
 The coefficient D is the diffusivity of water
vapour in air (25.10-6 m2/s at 20°C).
 We have the following general expression for
the moisture flow:
dv Figure 5.6: Diffusion of
gD water vapor in stagnant air.
dx
 This is the standard form for Fick's diffusion
law. Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 50

25
Moisture Transfer in Air or by Air
(Convection) I
 Consider the structure in the following
figure and the air flow passing through.
 The air flow rate is denoted by Ra (m3/s).
The humidity by volume of the entering
air is Vin, and the corresponding one for
the air exiting is Vout.
 We will assume that the air temperature
will be the same as the temperature of
the materials in any point in the
structure.
 The net moisture rate G (kg/s) entering Figure 5.7: Air flow passing
the structure becomes: through a structure.

G  Ra   vin  vout 
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 51

Moisture Transfer in Air or by Air


(Convection) II
 Let us assume that the air is flowing from
warmer to colder regions of the structure, as
illustrated in Figure.
 The surface temperatures of the structure,
which will govern the temperature of the in and
out flowing air, are denoted by T+ and T-.
 If the humidity by volume at saturation in the
colder region of the structure is lower than the
corresponding one for the entering air,
condensation will take place.
 The humidity by volume of the exiting air will
then drop to vs(T-).
 This type of moisture convection will increase
the amount of moisture in the structure by the

G  Ra   vs (T )  vout 
Figure 5.8: Air flowing from
rate:  a warmer to colder regions
in a structure.
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 52

26
Moisture Transfer in Air or by Air
(Convection) III
 Example: The following data are assumed: T+ = 20°C, T- = -5°C ,
+ = 50%  -= 90% and R = 0.5 m3/h.
 The moisture flow due to moisture convection is:
From figure 5.7 (“Humidity by volume at saturation” curve) gives vs(20°C)=17 and
vs(-5°C)=3.5 g/m3. Also =v/vs gives v=vs.  and the equation
G  Ra   vin  vout   0.5   0.5vs (20)  0.9vs (5) 
 0.5   0.5 17  0.9  3.5  2.7 g/h
 During one week the moisture flow corresponds to 2.7x24x7/1000=0.45 litters of
water.
 For the case of dry and cold air entering the structure we have:
G  Ra   vs (T  )  vout   0.5   vs (20)  0.9  vs (5) 
 0.5  17  0.9  3.5  7 g/h
 During one week 1.17 litters ofMass,
water are dried out from the structure.
Air and Moisture transfer 53

Moisture in Porous Material (Diffusion) I


 We consider diffusion of water vapour through a
material layer as shown in figure. The width of the
layer is d. The humidity by volume v is kept at V1
at one side of the layer and at V2 on the other side.
 The steady-state diffusive flux g (kg/ (m2s))
becomes:
v v
g  v 1 2
d
 Here, v (m2/ s) is the vapour permeability of the
material. The general expression, Fick's law, for
water vapour diffusion through a material is:
dv
g  v
dx Figure 5.9: Diffusion of
 The rate of diffusion can be compared with the one water vapor through a
obtained in stagnant air. Introducing the ratio material layer.
between D and v gives: D
  Mass, Air and Moisture transfer
v 54

27
Moisture in Porous Material (Diffusion) II
 Combining the mentioned relations gives:
D dv
g
 dx
 For stagnant air the -factor is equal to one.
 The following table gives the corresponding value for some other
materials:

Table 5.1: The f1-factor for some materials.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 55

Moisture in Porous Material (Diffusion) III


 A network component for steady-state water vapour diffusion can be
used in the same way as in heat conduction.
 In the mass transfer cases we normally deal with one-dimensional cases
only.
 Therefore, the network resistance will refer to one-dimensional flow for a
unit area:
v1  v2
g
Zv
 For the wall vapour resistance, Zv, (s/m) of a layer we have: d
Zv 
v
 The diffusion of water vapour through a structure of several material
layers can be handled analogous to the way in heat conduction.
 It can, analogous to surface heat resistance, be represented by a surface
water vapour resistance. Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 56

28
Moisture in Porous Material (Diffusion) IV
 Let Zvi (s/m) be the resistance at the inner side of the building envelope
and Zve the corresponding one at the exterior side.
 The following figure shows the case with a multi-layered wall and the
corresponding network.

Figure 5,10: Multi layered wall and the corresponding network for the water vapor flow,
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 57

Moisture in Porous Material (Diffusion) V


 The net flow of vapour through the
structure (as long as no condensation
occurs inside the structure becomes:
v1  v2 N
di
g Z v ,tot    Z vi  Z ve
Z v ,tot i 1  v ,i
 The figure shows, for an example, the
temperature, the humidity by volume and
the relative humidity distribution in a wall
with two layers.
 The temperature and humidity by volume Figure 5.11: Steady-state
distributions in each layer are linear. temperature, humidity by
 However, the non-linear behaviour of the volume and relative
humidity by volume at saturation results humidity distribution in a
wall with two layers.
in a non-linear distribution of the relative
humidity.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 58

29
Lecture 8
Energy Utilization PART II
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer

Blackboard homepage:
lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Taghi Karimipanah
E-mails:
tkh@hig.se

Tel: 073-280 75 47

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 1

Capillary suction I
 Consider a small tube in contact with liquid water as shown in
figure.
 The water level is higher in the tube than in the surrounding water.
 This is due to capillary suction, which has its physical explanation
in the attraction between the water molecules and the tube walls,
and a surface tension phenomenon.
q
Tube

Water

r
Water rising in a small tube in contact with the liquid water.
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 2

1
Capillary suction II

 The suction, i.e. the negative pressure, under the water


meniscus is given by the following expression:
2
p  cos(q ) (Pa)
r
 Here, r (m) is the radius of the tube,  (N/m) a surface
tension coefficient, and q contact angle between the water
meniscus and the tube walls.
 For normal building materials this angle is approximately
equal to zero.
 The coefficient  is 0.073 N/m at 20 ºC.
 The suction will lift up the water in the tube to a level where
there is a balance with the gravitational forces.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 3

Capillary suction III


 Assuming a contact angle q equal to zero we get:
2 2
Hg  water  p   H
r g  water
 The following table gives this height, H, as a function of the tube radius.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 4

2
Capillary suction IV
 The water, in a material with fine pores, will be sucked up to very high
levels, up to hundreds of meters.
 For materials, such as gravel, the height is only in the order of
centimeters.
 The following shows the case with a dry material that, from time zero, is
in contact with water.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 5

Capillary suction V
 The moisture flow into the material is given by:
A
g
2 t (I)
2
where A (kg/m s ) is a water sorption coefficient.
 The coefficient A has been measured for several types of materials, see
Table.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 6

3
Capillary suction VI
 The total amount of water taken up by the material, after the time t,
becomes:
t

 g dt  A
0
t (kg/m3 )

 The front of capillary saturated material is positioned at the depth .xp


(m): .
xp  B  t
(II)
where B (m / s ) is a water penetration coefficient.
 The water transferred through a material layer in contact with liquid
water, with the thickness d, can be approximated using the formulas
above.
 Combining (I) with the penetration depth put to the thickness d, and (II)
gives:
A B
g A & B are given in table 5.3., d is layer thickness
2d
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 7

Combined diffusion and capillary suction I


 Generally the moisture is transported both in vapor and liquid phase
through the pores of a material.
 The pores can be empty, partially filled or totally filled with liquid water.
The rest of the porous volume is filled with humid air.
 The following figure shows a chain of pores in contact:

Figure 5.14: Chain of pores inside the material.


 In a pore system without liquid water, see Figure 5.14a, the moisture is
transported due to vapor diffusion only.
 If the pore system is totally filled with liquid water, see Figure 5.14b, the transport
is caused by capillary suction, i.e. due to difference in the suction (differences in
liquid pressure).
 For the third case, Figure 5.14c, there will be a mix of diffusion in the open parts of
the system and capillary suction in the filled one, alternatively a kind of surface
migration in the adsorbed water at the pore walls, Figure 5.14d.
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 8

4
Combined diffusion and capillary suction II
 The transport coefficient v is shown in Figure 5.15 for some materials.
 At low relative humidities it has a constant and rather low value.
 This can be explained by diffusion of water vapor in the greater unfilled
pores.
 The path for the water vapor molecules, which is given by chains of
unfilled pores is not affected. The relative humidity is still not large enough
to start capillary condensation in these pores.

Figure 5.15: The vapor permeability, v , as a junction of the relative humidity


for some materials. Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 9

Combined diffusion and capillary suction III


 At larger relative humidities the transport of water will be a combination
of the slow diffusion process and the much more rapid and powerful
capillary suction.
 The vapor is transported to liquid surfaces where it condenses. At the
other side of the chain filled with liquid water a corresponding amount of
water is evaporated, see the figure below.
 This will shorten the total path of diffusion. It is shown as an increase in
the transport coefficient V.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 10


Figure 5.16: Transport of water in a partially filled pore system.

5
Combined diffusion and capillary suction IV
 For an increasing moisture content, more and more pores will be filled
with liquid water. When the critical moisture content is reached, chains of
totally filled pores from one side of the material to the other can be found,
see the figure below.
 For this case the transport due to capillary suction will dominate the
process.
 At these high moisture contents the relative humidity is close to 100%.

Figure 5.17: Transport of Air


Mass, water in chains
and Moisture transferof filled pores. 11

Combined diffusion and capillary suction V


 The figure below shows a network representation of the moisture
flow through a material layer, and the dependence on the relative
humidity.
 We have:

v1  v2 d
g where Zv ( ) 
Zv ( )  v ( )

Figure 5.18: Network representation accounting for the dependence on


the relative humidity.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 12

6
Transfer of liquid water due to
pressure difference I
Permeable material layer:
 A layer subjected to a liquid water pressure difference, P (Pa), during a
long period of time will get its pores filled with water.
 The flow of water through the layer can be estimated using the Darcy
law, analogous to air flows.
 For a layer with the thickness d we get:
 P
g   water   (kg/m2s)
 d
 Here,  (m2), is the permeability of the material, and  is the dynamic
viscosity of water, it is equal 1.31 . 10-3 Ns/m2 at 10 ºC. Table 5.4 gives
the permeability for some materials.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 13

Transfer of liquid water due to pressure


difference II
A hole in water tight layer:
 A large amount of water can be transported through a small hole in a
water tight layer, if there is a water pressure difference.
 The origin of the pressure difference can for instance be small puddles
of water on a layer, with a certain depth h (m).
 The pressure difference then becomes:
P  hwater  g
 The Dick formula can be used for the estimation of the water flow
through the hole:
G  A  0.92  P  water
 Combining the above relations we get:

G  A  0.92  water  hg
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 14

7
Transfer of liquid water due to pressure
difference III
 The following table shows the permeability for some materials.

 Example: There is a small hole with the diameter 0.5 mm in a water tight
thin layer. A small puddle of water with the depth 0.01 m has been
created on top of the whole. The water flow rate becomes:
G  A  0.92   water  hg
 (0.5 103 ) 2
  0.92 103  0.01 9.81  57 106 kg/s
4
The result can also be expressed as 0.2transfer
Mass, Air and Moisture kg/h. 15

Moisture to and from a surface


(convection)
 The moisture flow rate g (kg/m2s) between the ambient air and a surface
g     va  vsurf 
reads:

 Here,  (m/s) is a moisture transfer coefficient. The value of  depends on


the air velocity close to the surface.
 There is a well known approximation, Lewis formula, that relates the
convective heat transfer coefficient c to the  -value. 
 c
 a c pa
 If the air speed/wind speed, u, is known for a forced convection , the
convective heat transfer coefficient, c , can be obtained from:
 c  6  4  u for u  5m / s


 c  7.41 u
 for u  5m / s
0.78

 A surface vapor resistance is often used instead of a ,B-value. It is defined


by:
1  Z vi  360 s/m interior surface
Z vs  for building physics applications 
 ve  60 s/m exterior surface
 Ztransfer
Mass, Air and Moisture 16

8
Moisture to and from a surface
(condensation and evaporation)
 If the humidity by volume of the ambient air, Va, outside the
considered surface, is greater than or equal to the humidity by volume
at saturation at the surface, condensation will take place.
 For a surface temperature T we get:
g     va  vs (T ) 
 The condensation of water on the surface will also give a positive heat
flow.
 This might increase the surface temperature and reduce the amount of
condensate.
 In order to determine the relation between moisture and heat transfer an
energy balance must be established for the surface.
 In an analogous way the evaporation from a wet surface becomes:

g     vs (T )  va 
 For this case the evaporation will result in a cooling of the surface.
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 17

Drying of a Layer I
 Drying of the layer as shown in the following figure is considered.
 The relative humidity in the layer is ø, i.e. the moisture content is w(ø).
 For simplicity we will assume that the temperature, T, of the layer and the
air is the same. The relative humidity of the ambient air is ¢a.
 An effective way of analyzing the drying process is to use the same
technique as used in numerical simulations.
 In network figure below the layer is lumped into one point, connected to
the surroundings through vapor resistances, each representing a layer
with the thickness d/2.
 The vapor resistance Zv(¢) is determined by the average relative humidity
found between the center and the surface of the layer.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 18

9
Drying of a Layer II
 If the convective surface resistance is denoted by Zvs then the drying
moisture rate, g, becomes:
During a period .t (s), with this
v  va   a
g  2  2  vs (T )  outflow of moisture, the average
Z v ( )  Z vs Z v ( )  Z vs moisture content of the layer will
decrease according to:
  a g  t
 2  vs (T ) w 
d / (2 v ( ))  Z vs d
For an initially wet layer, the resistance
Zv() will be small compared to Zvs, since the
vapor permeability at very high relative
humidities can be very large.
This means that initially, the drying rate will
be rather constant.
Gradually the layer will be dryer, i.e. lower
, which results in an increase of the total
vapor resistance. The principle behavior of the drying
process, in terms of the moisture
These two facts result in a slower drying
drying rate g.
rate. Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 19

Moisture balance for two building


components I
 Suppose that the two following are in moisture contact through water
vapor diffusion through the surrounding air only.
 The two bodies are surrounded by a moisture tight envelope, i.e. there is
no exchange of moisture with other bodies.

 The volumes of the bodies are V1 and V2, and the temperatures are T1
and T2. The initial relative humidities are ¢1and ¢2. The sorption
isotherms will be denoted W 1 (¢) and W 2 (¢) respectively.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 20

10
Moisture balance for two building
components II
 The total initial mass of moisture, M (kg), will then be:

M  V1  w1 (1 )  V2  w2 (2 )

 This mass must be conserved, since there will be no contact with


other bodies, and the storage of moisture in air can be neglected.
 In the state of equilibrium the humidity by volume will be the same,
v, in both bodies. There will then be no potential for moisture
exchange any longer.

M  V1  w1 (1 )  V2  w2 (2 ) 
v v
 V1  w1 ( )  V2  w2 ( )
vs (T1 ) vs (T2 )
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 21

Moisture balance for two building


components III
 Example: Consider two building components with the same volume, V. The material of the
first is wood (spruce, p =430 kg/m3 ) and of the second light-weight concrete (p =400 kg/m3). The
sorption isotherms are given in Appendix E (Tables Material data on the blackboard). The
temperature and initial relative humidity of the wood is 15 ºC and 80% The corresponding data
for the light-weight concrete is 20 ºC and 95%. The total amount of moisture initially, M, using
the sorption curve for wood and desorption curve for light-weight concrete becomes:

M  V   75  70 
 We have from lectures:
v v
M  V1  w1 (1 )  V2  w2 (2 )  V1  w1 ( )  V2  w2 ( )
vs (T1 ) vs (T2 )
 In this case we have

M  V   75  70   V .  wwood  (v /12.82)  wlight  (v /17.28) 

 Here, we have used the unit (g/m3) for the humidity be volume.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 22

11
Moisture balance for two building
components IV
 Example: (continued)
 By simplifying the relation we get:

M
 145  wwood  (v /12.82)  wlight  (v /17.28) 
V
 wwood  (wood )  wlight  (light )
 One way of solving this is to make a table and change v step by step. In the table below the units
are (g/m3) for v, (%) for , and (kg/m3) for wand M/V:

 Apparently the moisture is moving from the warmer light weight concrete to the colder wood. In
total around 46 kg/m3 (70-23.5) is transferred. The relative humidity is approximately 97% for
wood and 72% for the light weight concrete when equilibrium is reached. .
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 23

Moisture balance for ventilated spaces


(Transient change due to a moisture source ) I
 A ventilated space with well mixed air is assumed in this section, i.e. it
exists one uniform humidity by volume in the whole interior of the
ventilated space.
 We will neglect any storage of moisture in the interior materials.
 For a ventilated space shown in figure, the air exchange rate is n.
 The ventilation inlet air has the humidity by volume equal to the external
one Ve.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 24

12
Moisture balance for ventilated spaces
(Transient change due to a moisture source ) II
 We will assume that this has been going on for a long period of time, which has
resulted in a indoor humidity by volume Vi equal to the external one.
 At time zero an internal moisture source G (kg/s) is activated.
 The following mass balance for the air volume V must then be satisfied:

dvi
G  nV   ve  vi (t )   V
dt
 1  e nt 
G
 The solution of this ordinary differential equation is: vi (t )  ve 
nV
 We can see that there will be a final constant higher level of the indoor humidity
by volume, in comparison with the external one.
 The time it takes to reach this value is of the order 1In (s).
 The increase is denoted as the indoor moisture supply: G
v 
nV
 The indoor moisture supply is typically in the range of 2-4 glm3 in residential
buildings.
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 25

Moisture balance for ventilated spaces


(Steady-state condition, wet surface and surface condensation ) I
 The steady-state moisture balance of a ventilated room can be handled with the
help of network analysis. The following figure shows the network for the case
treated in the previous section.

 The ventilation vapor conductance, Kv (m3Is), is defined by: K  n V


v

 Except for the moisture source and the ventilation, the presence of cold surfaces
(where condensation will take place) and wet surfaces, will influence the indoor
humidity.
 Assume that there is a wet surface with the area Awet (m2 ) and the temperature
Twet .
 Furthermore, there is an cold area with the area Acond and the temperature Tcond.
The surface transfer coefficients are denoted  cond and  wet respectively.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 26

13
Moisture balance for ventilated spaces
(Steady-state condition, wet surface and surface condensation ) II
 The following conductances, describing the moisture flux between these
surfaces and the air are used in the network analysis:

K cond  cond  Acond K wet  wet  Awet

Figure 5.25: Network for a ventilated space with an internal moisture


source, a wet surface and a cold one
Mass, Air(where condensation
and Moisture transfer will take place). 27

Moisture balance for ventilated spaces


(Steady-state condition, wet surface and surface condensation ) III
 The indoor humidity by volume can be calculated using the reduction
rules explained before or through a direct moisture balance for the air:

G  K v   ve  vi   K cond   vs (Tcond )  vi   K wet   vs (Twet )  vi   0

 The solution becomes:

vs (Tcond )  K cond  vs (Twet )  K wet  K v  ve  G


vi 
K cond  K wet  K v
 A condition for the validity of the formula is that there will be a
continuously condensation on the cold surface, i.e. Vi  vs(Tcond) , and
that there is a continuously evaporation from the wet surface, i,e, vs(Twet
)  Vi,
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 28

14
Moisture balance for ventilated spaces
Example
 The following data are assumed: Twet = 20 ºC, Tcond = 15 ºC, Ti = 25 ºC
Awet = 2m2, Acond = 1m2, V = 10m3, Te = +3 ºC, = 90% n = 0,5 h-1.

 For the heat transfer coefficient, at the case of natural convection at


interior surfaces and its relation with -value we have the following
expression to use:
c
 c  2  Ta  Ts
1/4 
 a c pa

 The solution becomes:

2  25  20
1/4

 wet   0.0024 m/s


1250
2  25  15
1/4

 cond   0.0028 m/s


1250
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 29

Moisture balance for ventilated spaces


Example/ continued
 The conductance become:
K v  n V  10  0.5 / 3600  0.0014
K cond   cond  Acond  0.0028 1  0.0028
K wet   wet  Awet  0.0024  2  0.0048
 The humidity by volume becomes:

vs (Tcond )  K cond  vs (Twet )  K wet  K v  ve  G


vi  
K cond  K wet  K v
12.82  28  17.28  48  0.9  5.94 14
  14.0 g/m3
28  48  14
 As a control we have to check that condensation and evaporation really are taken place:

vi  vs (Tcond ) and 


vi  vs (15)  12.82 g/m
3

 
 Ok vs (Twet )  vi Mass,
Air
17.28  v (20)  vi g/m3
and Moistures transfer 30

15
Interstitial condensation I
 For the steady-state situation the humidity by volume inside the
structure was assumed to be lower than the humidity by volume at
saturation.
 The following figure shows the case of interstitial condensation. For
this case there will be condensation inside the structure since the
humidity by volume distribution must be lower than the saturated one.

Mass, Air and


Figure 5.26: Interstitial condensation Moisture
during transfersteady-state conditions.
quasi 31

Interstitial condensation II
 For the case in Figure 5.26, i.e. with constant boundary conditions,
there will be one zone (2-3) inside the structure with a humidity
distribution equal to the one given by the saturation levels
corresponding to the temperature distribution.
 Due to the slope of the humidity by volume curve, there will be a flow of
moisture into the condensation zone, and a corresponding one out from
it.
 During these simplified conditions, the net condensation rate will be:

v4  v3 v v
g  v  v 2 1
d34 d12
 There are simplified methods for determining the rates of condensation
and the corresponding rates of drying.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 32

16
Interstitial condensation III
 One of the simplified methods for determining the rates of condensation
based on a quasi steady-state distribution of the type shown above is
the so called 'Glaser Method'.
 This method does not account for thermal capacity and the moisture
capacity of the materials inside the structure; neither does it account for
true climatic variations.
 For a more general solution the moisture balance equation (see below)
and the heat conduction equation (see below) must be treated. In one-
dimensions the moisture equation reads:
 w 
  g  t    v  w
    v  
  c T      T 

x  x  t
 t x  x 
 Various computer programs can handle this equation. The PC-program
lD-HAM has been used in the example below.
Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 33

Interstitial condensation IV

Example:
 Figure 5.27 shows the considered
external wall that will be analyzed.
The interior of the structure has a
homogeneous thermal insulation.
The vapor resistances at the outer,
Zve, and at inner sides, ZVi, of the
structure are varying in the analysis.
True, hourly based climate data are
used (Northern Sweden, Luleå 1962),
with an indoor moisture supply of 4
g/m3, and a constant temperature of
21°C, The results shown in Figure
5.28 tell us that the inner vapor
resistance must be much greater
than the outer one, in order to keep
the relative humidities down, i.e. to Figure 5.27: Structure to be
keep the construction dry. analyzed. Homogeneous inner
thermal insulation layer. The
vapor resistances at the inner and
Mass, Air and Moisture outer
transfer surfaces are varying. 34

17
Interstitial condensation V

Figure 5.28: Results of the simulations in terms of the relative humidity


in the outer insulation layer. The axis for the time is divided into three
months intervals. The simulation covers almost 5 years.

Mass, Air and Moisture transfer 35

18
Lecture 9 Part I
Energy Utilization
Air Distribution Ventilation systems

Blackboard homepage:
lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Taghi Karimipanah
E-mail:
tkh@hig.se
Tel: 073-280 75 47

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 1

Text books used for all part of Lecture 9


1. Per Erik Nilsson (editor), Achieving the Desired Indoor
Climate –Energy Efficiency Aspects of System Design,
2003, Studentlitteratur, ISBN 91-44-03235-8, Printed in
Denmark by Narayana Press, www.studentlitteratur.se.
(Main ref. in this part).
2. Fay C. McQuiston and Jerald D. Parker, Heating,
Ventilating, and Air Conditioning – Analysis and Design,
1994, Fourth Edition, Printed in Singapore 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
2 1 (CIP 93-28394), John Wiley & Sons, Ic., New York.
3. Awbi, H.B. (2003): Ventilation of Buildings, Taylor & Francis,
London (ISBN: 0-415-27056-1)
4. ASHRAE Handbook (2007): HVAC Applications

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 2

1
Types of Air Distribution Systems

 Local Exhaust Ventilation (LEV) Systems


 Piston Flow Systems
 Mixing Flow systems
 Displacement Systems
 Hybrid Systems

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 3

Local Exhaust Systems (LEV)


These are based on the principle of capturing the contaminants at
source before they spread into the room. LEV’s are used in industrial
ventilation for extracting localised sources of hazardous contaminants.
They are rarely used in commercial or public buildings except in
certain zones like kitchens.

Exhaust
Supply

Contaminant source
Air Distribution and vantilation systems 4

2
Local Exhaust Systems (LEV) / cont …

The design of LEV systems is based on the ”Capture Efficiency” which is defined as
the fraction of contaminants that are captured by the LEV system. There are
three types of contaminant sources:

1. Non-buoyant (diffusion) sources: These are sources distributed by the concentration


gradient in the room and affected by source concentration strengths and distribution,
air velocity, turbulence, etc.

2. Buoyant sources: These are affected by the temperature difference between the
source and room and are in the form of plumes.

3. Dynamic sources: These are sources in the form of a jet or particle flow.

The performance of the LEV systems is determined by its “Capture Efficiency” which is
the fraction of contaminant captured by the LEV. The velocity of the exhaust air
which is necessary to capture the contaminant is called the Capture Velocity.
Hence, the ratio between the local exhaust velocity and the velocity of the
contaminant is an important parameter in LEV design.

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 5

Piston Flow Systems


Piston Flow represents a unidirectional flow of air in which outdoor air propels
the contaminated room air ahead of it, i.e. the room air is continuously swept
by outdoor air resulting in little spread of the contaminant. The directions of
possible piston flow is shown.

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 6

3
Piston Flow Systems / cont …
Clean rooms use this method but to be effective the air turbulence in the room must
be minimum. HEPA (high-efficiency particulates air) filters or ULPA (ultra-low
penetration air) filters are used to clean the supply air and the supply velocity is
kept small (< 0.5 m/s) to reduce turbulence but sufficiently large to overcome
buoyant flows from heat sources.

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 7

Piston Flow Systems / cont …


The flow pattern shown produces a linear concentration profile and an Overall
Ventilation Effectiveness, εv = 2. This is defined as:
εv = (ce - c∞)/(cm - c∞)

where ce = concentration in exhaust (ppm)


c∞ = concentration in the supply (ppm)
cm= mean concentration in the room (ppm)

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 8

4
Piston Flow Systems / cont …
Piston Flow Instability:
The presence of obstacles, heat sources, etc. can cause disturbance to the flow in
cases of low air supply velocities. Limits for the stability of upward and downward
flows show that these are dependent on the room Archimedes Number (Ar):

Ar = g H ∆To/ (Tr vo2)

where g = gravitational acceleration (m/s2)


H = ceiling height (m)
∆To = Tr - To = difference between
room and supply temperature (K)
Tr = room temperature (K)
vo = air supply velocity (m/s)

As shown in the figure, Linke (1962) found that


instability occurs when Ar > 46 for downward
piston flow and Ar > 360 for upward supply. More recent results (Wildeboer, 2002)
shows lower ranges of Ar [Ar > 4 ~ 13 for downward flow and Ar > 200 ~ 300 for
upward flow].

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 9

Piston Flow Systems / cont …


Piston Flow Instability / cont …
The figure shows expected flow patterns for upward and downward piston flow (Linke, 1962) in terms of mass
flow rate (in the abscissa) and temperature difference between room and supply air (∆T o). For large mass flows
both supplies produce uniform flow patterns but this gradually breaks down as the flow rate reduces. Due to
opposite buoyancy forces, the disturbance for the downward supply occurs at a higher flow rate than the
upward supply.

The critical air change rate (Nc) for the downward supply is given by:

Nc = 30.4 [qw/H2]1/3 (ac/h)

For the upward supply this is given by:

Nc = 15.3 [qw/H2]1/3 (ac/h)

Which is about half that for a downward supply.

Advantages: high contaminant removal and temperature effectiveness, areas upstream of source can
be kept clean.

Disadvantages: high supply flow rate, large supply devices, expensive


Air Distribution and vantilation systems 10

5
Cleanrooms
ASHRAE’s Handbook gives the following definitions:

Clean space:
A defined area in which particle concentration and environmental conditions
are controlled at or below specified limits.

Cleanroom:
A specially constructed enclosed area with environmental control of
particulates, temperature, humidity, air pressure, air motion, vibration, noise,
viable organisms, and lighting.

The design of cleanrooms covers much more than traditional temperature and
humidity control. This may include control of particle, microbial, electrostatic
discharge (ESD), molecular and gaseous contamination, airflow pattern
control, pressurisation, sound and vibration control, industrial engineering
aspects, and manufacturing equipment layout. The objective of good
cleanroom design is to control these variables while maintaining reasonable
installation and operating costs.

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 11


11

Application of Cleanrooms
The use of and advances in cleanroom technology is growing as
many modern industrial processes require cleaner work
environment. Typical applications are:

• Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industry


• Microelectronic and semiconductor industries
• Aerospace industries
• Hospitals
• Others, e.g. food processing and packaging, medical products,
optical industries, advanced materials, paint spraying, etc.

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 12


12

6
Inside a Cleanroom

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 13


13

Cleanroom Furnishings
• Stainless steel work
benches
• Laminar flow hoods
• Trash receptacles
• Glove boxes
• Desiccators & storage
cabinets
• Step stools & ladders
• Gowning area
products
Air Distribution and vantilation systems 14
14

7
Piston Flow Systems / cont …
Cleanroom Classification

Cleanrooms are classified


according to the number of
particulates that are allowed per
m3 of air (ISO 14644) . Classes
from 1 to 9 are used.

Class 1 corresponds to a total of


10 particles per m3 of size 0.2 μm
or less and Class 9 corresponds
to a total of 3.52 x 107 particles of
size 5 μm or less.

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 15


CLIMACADEMY – Course 3, October 2007
15

Cleanroom Classification/cont…
The following formula is used to calculate the class of a cleanroom:

where: Cn represents the maximum permitted concentration (particles/m3 of air) of


airborne particles that are equal to or larger than the considered particle
size.
Cn is rounded to the nearest whole number.

N is the ISO classification number, which shall not exceed the value of 9.
Intermediate ISO classification numbers may be specified, with 0.1 the
smallest permitted increment of N.

D is the considered particle size in μm.

0.1 is a constant with a dimension of mm.

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 16


16

8
Air Flow Patterns in Cleanrooms
Air turbulence in cleanrooms can have major
influence on the quality and suitability of
the space. The airflow pattern strongly
influences the level of turbulence. There
are many types of airflow patterns but
generally they fall into two categories:

 Unidirectional flow (sometimes known as


“Piston or laminar flow”)
 Non-directional flow (commonly known
as “turbulent flow”).
As shown in the figure Unidirectional (Piston)
flow provides a higher class of cleanrooms
than Non-directional flow.

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 17


17

Mixing Flow Systems


In Mixing Ventilation system the air movement in
the ventilated space is controlled by the momentum
flow from supply openings

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 18

9
Mixing Flow Systems / cont …
This is a common method of ventilation and it is characterised by mixing the
supply air with room air to dilute the contaminants in the room. The mixing
could be achieved using:

High-level wall supply


Advantages: Stagnant area could be
avoided.

Disadvantages: Low Ventilation


Effectiveness (εv < 1.0), dumping of
cold jet may occur.
Ceiling supply

Sill Supply

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 19

Mixing Flow Systems / cont …


Design Consideration
Critical Air Change Rate (Nc)
One of the problems with mixing ventilation is the break away of the ceiling jet into the
middle of the room (dumping) with cold jets. This is related to the room cooling load and
the jet momentum, viz.

3 L
Dh q
Nc 
H = height
2
where
L H Ar
Dh = room hydraulic diameter = 4 Bc H/(B + H)
q = room cooling load (W/m2)
L = room length (m)
B = width
H = room height (m)
Arc = room Archimedes number = g Dh ∆To/(Tr vr2)
∆To = To – Tr = difference between supply & room temp.
Tr = room temp. (K)
Vr = mean room velocity (m/s)

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 20

10
Mixing Flow Systems / cont …
Mean Room Velocity
The mean room velocity (vr) in mixing ventilation is related to the
method of supplying the air into the room, the jet momentum and
the room heating/cooling load.
Effect of Supply Momentum:
– High-Level Wall Supply: vr = 0.8 vo √{Ao/(B H)}

where vo supply velocity (m/s)


Ao air supply area (m2)

– Sill Supply: vr = 0.39 vo0.66 {Ao/(B H)}0.66

– Ceiling Supply:
(i) Linear Diffuser: vr = 0.22 {L2/(L2 + H2)}0.5

(ii) Circular (square) Ceiling Diffuser:


vr = 0.29 L/{0.25 L B + H2)}0.5

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 21

Mixing Flow Systems / cont …


Effect of Load:
The mean velocity in the room (vr) with mixing ventilation can be expressed by:
vr = K q1/3
Temperature
where q = cooling load (W/m2) (oC)
Ceiling Height, H (m)
K = constant that depends 1.5 3.0 6.0 12.0
on ceiling height (H)
given in Table. 7 0.035 0.044 0.056 0.070

27 0.034 0.043 0.055 0.069

The range of room load (based on


experimental results) for radial (ceiling)
supplies and tangential (induction or slot)
supplies are shown in the figure
(K. Fitzner, 1996). Tangential supply velocity
is higher by a factor of π1/3 ≈ 1.5.

Note: in the abscissa the load is in W/m 2 for


Radial flow and W/m for tangential flow.
The latter refer to the length of walls.

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 22

11
Displacement Flow Systems
As with piston flow, this system relies on displacing the room air with fresh air supply
but in a less discreet way. Unlike piston flow, in which the driving force is the
momentum of supply air, here the momentum is low and the buoyancy is dominant.
There are upward and downward displacement ventilation systems but the upward is
more widely used. The distribution of contaminant in the room is shown here.
The air movement in Displacement Ventilation is controlled by buoyancy (temperature
differences)

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 23

Displacement Flow Systems / cont …


Characteristics:
 Low location of supply opening and high location of return opening
 Free convection around the heat sources
 Stratified flow in the room
 Vertical temperature concentration gradients
 Air movement is controlled by buoyancy

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 24

12
Displacement Flow Systems / cont …
Flow Regimes of Wall Displacement Ventilation
Since a wall terminal unit supplies air at a low velocity and temperature below the room air temperature the flow near the
supply unit is stratified which drops and spreads over the floor, see illustration. Devices that supply air radially produce a
faster velocity decay than flat devices.

Three zones can be defines:


Zone I: This is the region close to the inlet device where the flow is governed by the design characteristics
of the device and the initial velocity.
Zone II: This is a buoyant region where the flow accelerates towards the floor due to the temperature
difference between the supply and room air. The potential energy is converted into kinetic energy causing the flow
to spread over the floor.
Zone III: This is the stratified zone where the flow warms up as it reaches the walls and heat sources in the
room and rises upwards taking with it any contaminants present in the room to the extract at high-level.

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 25

Displacement Flow Systems / cont…

Flow Regimes of Wall Displacement Ventilation / cont ..


In Zone II the velocity on the floor is greater than the mean supply velocity from
the air terminal due to the acceleration of the flow by buoyancy. The maximum
velocity on the floor can be expressed as:
Vmax = K vo
where K is dependent on the Archimedes number, i.e.
K = 0.94 √Ar
where Ar = g H ∆T/ (Tr vo2)
∆T = room air temperature at the top of supply device minus the air
supply temperature (K)
vo = supply air velocity (m/s)
H = height of supply device (m)
Tr = zone temperature (K)

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 26

13
Displacement Flow Systems / cont …

Vertical temperature and concentration distribution


in a room with displacement ventilation

Temperature Pollution
Concentration

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 27

Displacement Flow Systems / cont …


Design Considerations (Flow rates)
The convective flow (Vc) due to hot or cold surfaces in the room is obtained using:
Laminar flow: Vc = 2.87 x 10-3 L (Tw – Ta)1/4 H3/4 (m3/s)
Turbulent flow: Vc = 2.75 x 10-3 L (Tw – Ta)2/5 H6/5 (m3/s)

Where Tw = wall temperature (oC)


Ta = room air temperature (oC)
H = surface height (m)
L = surface width (m)

The flow rising from a heat source can be obtained from the plume equations or in general using:
Vp = 0.0061 P1/3 (y + d)5/3 (m3/s)
Where P = convective power (W)
y = distance above the heat source (m)
d = diameter of heat source (m)

To ensure an upward flow in the room, the air supply to the air terminal (V) should be the sum of all the convective flows plus the
fresh air requirement for the room occupants (Vo), i.e.

V = Vc + Vp + Vo

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 28

14
Displacement Flow Systems / cont …

Design Considerations (Neutral Height)


The flow rate (V) into the room should be based on the required Neutral (Stratification)
Height in the room. The Neutral Height (y n) is defined as the height where the net
upward flow of the plumes is equal to the supply rate, i.e.
V = V1 – V2
V3 is not included as it is below the neutral height because the plume height is < y n.

Two flow zones exist in the room: a lower zone with unidirectional upward displacement
flow and an upper recirculation zone. The neutral height therefore is the height in the
room containing mainly fresh air. In the design of displacement systems y n should be at
least equal to the height of the occupied zone, i.e. y n ≥ 1.2 m for seated occupancy and yn
≥1.8 m for standing occupancy.
Air Distribution and vantilation systems 29

Displacement Flow Systems / cont…


Design Consideration (Temperature Stratification)
In addition to estimating the flow rate, the design of displacement systems
also requires the estimation of vertical temperature gradient to
achieve thermal comfort. Experimental data has shown that the
temperature gradient varies linearly with height as shown in the
figure. 3

2,5

The temperature in the room 2


Height (m)

at a height y (Ty) can be 1,5

1
estimated from the figure.
0,5
Here To is the supply Temperature
0

and Te is the extract temperature. 0 0,2 0,4


(Ty-To)/(Te-To)
0,6 0,8 1

Advantages: High ventilation effectiveness (εv > 1.0).


Disadvantages: Low cooling load, not suitable for heating.

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 30

15
Chilled Ceilings
Experience with displacement ventilation has shown that standard low-level supply
systems have a maximum cooling capacity of 40 W/m2 of floor area. In situations
that demand a greater cooling capacity the standard displacement system will not
be adequate for maintaining a displacement flow in the lower zone, which is
necessary for achieving good thermal comfort and air quality. Increased cooling
capacity may be achieved through the use of either cold ceiling panels (up to 100
W/m2 floor area), passive chilled beams (additional 250 W/m), or active cooling
beams (350 W/m) with a displacement system.
The cooling capacity is given by: Q = m C (T o – Ti)
where m = mass flow rate of chilled water (kg/s), C = specific heat capacity of
water (=4.19 kJ/kG K), To and Ti are water outlet and inlet temperatures (oC)
Chilled Ceilings Panels:
Cold ceiling panels consist of a serpentine pipe carrying cold water (≈ 14 oC to avoid
water vapour condensation on the panel surface) attached to perforated flat plate
backed by insulation, see Figure (a). Cooling is provided by convection of cool air
downward and radiation from the panel surface. The convective flow will generate a
mixing zone directly below the ceiling panel, the extent of which is dependent on
the temperature difference between panel surface temperature and local air
temperature. Because a significant area of a suspended ceiling contains these
panels the radiation heat output from the panels is a significant component of the
total cooling capacity of the panels.
Air Distribution and vantilation systems 31

Chilled Ceilings / cont …

Chilled Ceiling Beams:


Chilled ceiling beams consist of copper pipes covered with fins and baffle plates
below the fins to direct the air flow downward, see Figure (b). Most of the
beam cooling is by convection, with radiation being a small component of the
total. These are called passive (or static) cold beams or chilled beams as the
cooling is by natural convection. An active cold beam on the other hand,
contains an air duct that blows air over the finned tubes downward, see Figure
(c).

(a) Chilled Ceiling Panel (b) Passive Chilled Beam


Air Distribution and vantilation systems
(c) Active Chilled Beam
32

16
Comparison between Mixing and Displacement Systems

Difference in Flow Patterns

Mixing
Ventilation

Low-Level
Displacement
Ventilation

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 33

Comparison between Mixing and Displacement Systems


/ cont …

Cooling Load for Mixing Flow


The range of cooling load in W/m2 floor
area is shown in the figure for different
types of mixing systems and this is
compared with the higher cooling load for
piston flow. The cooling load limit for
tangential flow (slot terminals) is about 60
W/m2 and for radial flow (circular
terminals) it is about 100 W/m2. Because
of the larger flow rate for piston flow, the
cooling load is higher than that a mixing
flow can cope with.
Note: 30 m3/hm2 = 8 L/sm2

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 34

17
Comparison between Mixing and Displacement Systems
/ cont …

Cooling Load for Piston/Displacement Flow


Wall DV units are only suitable for small cooling loads
(<40W/m2) and for higher loads chilled ceiling panels or
chilled beams are used to supplement the cooling. The
range of cooling loads are shown in the figure.

Note: 30 m3/hm2
= 8 L/sm2

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 35

Hybrid Ventilation Systems


Impinging Jet Ventilation

Air Innovation AB of Sweden


have developed the Impinging Jet
System (Air Queen®). This uses a
downward jet on to the room
floor thus creating an upward
displacement due to heat sources.
This can cope with larger cooling
loads than displacement flow and
can be used for heating also.

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 36

18
Impinging Jet Ventilation/cont...

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 37

Hybrid Ventilation Systems / cont …

Confluent Jets
Ventilation
Fresh AB of Sweden has
developed the Confluent
Jets (Softflo®) air supply
system.
Air is supplied from a
large number of air nozzle
on a duct at high level or
low level in the room.
The small jets then merge
(confluence) to form a
wall jet on the floor.
Suitable for high cooling
loads > 40W/m2 up to
67W/m2.
The resulting flow in the
room is a combination of
mixing and displacement
flows.

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 38

19
Confluent Jets Ventilation / cont ...

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 39

Hybrid Ventilation Systems / cont …

Personalised Air Supply (PAS)

Using desk-mounted air supply


and control systems.

Can provide better air quality


and be more energy efficient
than conventional supplies.

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 40

20
Contaminant Removal

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 41

VENTILATION AND AIR DISTRIBUTION PARMETERS

Ventilation Effectiveness for Heat Distribution or Removal (t)


This is similar to a heat exchanger effectiveness and is defined by:
(%)
Texhaust ()  Tsup ply ()
t 
 T ()  Tsup ply ()
Ventilation Effectiveness for Contaminant Removal (c)
This is a measure of how effective the ventilation system is in removing internally produced
contamination. It is defined by:
(%)
Cexhaust ()  Csup ply ()
v 
 C ()  Csup ply ()
Mean Age of air
The local mean age of air is the time required for the fresh air to reach a point from the
moment it enters the room, viz. local time constant.

 C p (t )dt
p  
0 C (o)
Air Exchange Index (εp)
n
This is a measure of effectiveness of air delivery to the room which is expressed as: p 
p
where n is the room time constant = 1/Air Change Rate.
Air Distribution and vantilation systems 42

21
Ventilation Standards & Guidelines

Ventilation rates from standards and Handbooks:


Recommended rates for different buildings and human activities can be found in
Standards and Handbooks. These are usually the minimum rates required but may
be too general.

CEN pre-Standard pr ENV 1752:


Deals with: Thermal comfort (operative temperature)
Air Quality (ventilation rates)
Acoustic environment (sound pressure level in dB)
Uses THREE categories of buildings:
A - high level of expectation
B - medium level of expectation
C - moderate level of expectation

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 43

Ventilation Standards & Guidelines/ cont…


ASHRAE’s Ventilation Rates

Over the years, ventilation guides have revised the recommended fresh air
supply rates to building occupants.
The Figure shows the changes in recommended fresh air rates in the USA
during the last 170 years. If anything, this figure shows our lack of
knowledge, even today, of the optimum fresh air rate that a designer is
required to provide a building with.
20

(1895) (1905) (1914) (1922)


Ventilation rate, litres per person

15

Smoking 62-1981
(1981)
10
ASHRAE
ASHRAE 62-73 62-1989R
(1973) (1996)

5 Yaglou ASHRAE
(1936) (1946) (1989)
(1836)
ASHRAE
Standard (1981)
0
1825 1850 1875 1900 1925 1950 1975 2000
Year

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 44

22
Ventilation Standards & Guidelines/ cont…
ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2004 provide two methods for calculating the ventilation rate:

– Ventilation Rate Procedure


– Indoor Air quality Procedure

The Indoor Air quality Procedure is based on the analysis of contaminant sources,
contamination concentration targets, and perceived acceptability targets. However, the
Ventilation Rate Procedure is based on the occupancy category, number of occupants, and
floor area. It is applied to each zone separately and incorporates the Ventilation
Effectiveness (εv).
The Calculation of Outdoor Air Rate for each Zone is obtained as follows:
Calculate the Breathing Zone Outdoor Air Rate (Vbz) using:
Vbz = Pz Rp + Az Ra
Calculate the Zone Outdoor Air Rate using:
VOZ = Vbz/εvz
where Pz is the number of people in the zone
Az is zone area (m2)
Rp , Ra and εvz are found from tables >>>

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 45

ASHRAE 62.1 / cont …

ASHRAE’s Minimum Ventilation Rates for the Breathing Zone

People Outdoor Area Outdoor Default Occupancy Outdoor Flow


Building Air Flow (RP) Air Flow (Ra) Density rate
Type/Zone [l/s/person] [l/s/m2] [person/100 m2) [l/person]
Office Space 2.4 0.3 2.6 8.0

Conference/ 2.4 0.3 26.0 2.9


Meeting Room
Classroom 3.6 0.3 33.2 4.0
Assembly Room 3.6 0.3 51.0 3.8

Retail Sales 3.6 0.6 7.7 7.3

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 46

23
ASHRAE 62.1 / cont …

Air Distribution Effectiveness (εvz) for some Systems

Air Distribution (Ventilation)


Air Distribution System Effectiveness (εvz)

Ceiling Supply (cooling) 1.0

Ceiling Supply (heating with floor return) 1.0

Ceiling Supply (heating with ceiling return) 0.8

Floor displacement system (cooling) 1.0 ~ 2.0

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 47

Design Ventilation Rates

Ventilation Rates based on Occupancy


Vo = G / {c (csp - ci)}
where G = pollution generation rate, ml/s or mg/s
csp = set-point value of the average pollutant concentration in the occupied
zone, ppm or mg m-3
ci = pollution concentration in the supply air, ppm or mg m-3
c = the ventilation effectiveness for contaminant removal
= (ce - ci)/(csp - ci) x 100 (%)

ce = pollution concentration in the exhaust air, ppm or mg m-3

Ventilation Rates based on Pollution:

Vp = G / {c (csp - ci)}

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 48

24
Design Ventilation Rates / cont …
Ventilation Rates based on Heating/Cooling Loads

Vt = Q / {t  Cp (tsp - ti)}


where Q = the energy to be removed or supplied
 = the density of air
Cp = specific heat of air
t = the ventilation effectiveness for thermal energy
= (te - ti)/(tsp - ti) x 100 (%)
t's are the air temperature with the same subscripts as the c's as before.

Design ventilation rate


The design ventilation rate is obtained from:
Vd = Maximum | Vo , Vp , Vt|

Air Distribution and vantilation systems 49

25
Lecture 9 Part II
Energy Utilization
HVAC systems

Blackboard homepage:
lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Taghi Karimipanah
E-mail:
tkh@hig.se
Tel: 073-280 75 47

HVAC systems 1

HVAC Systems

HVAC means Heating, Ventilation and Air


Conditioning.
The main goal for a HVAC system is to provide
proper air flow, heating, and cooling to each
room.
HVAC systems are thermal systems which can be
analyzed by studying the various components.

HVAC systems 2

1
Different types of HVAC System

HVAC system should be


capable for both heating and
cooling of building.
This is because of varying
demands for different spaces.
Heat surplus is dominant part.

HVAC systems 3

Symbols used here

HVAC systems 4

2
HVAC Systems /cont.

 HVAC System may include the following components :


 Air handling units - condition the supply air to the conditioned spaces.
 Fans - provide motive force to move air through a system
 Ductwork, Diffusers and Grilles (supply, return & exhaust) - conduit
for transferring air to and from conditioned spaces
 Heat Exchangers - used to add or reject heat to/from a system.
 Chillers - provide chilled water for cooling coils

HVAC systems 5

HVAC Systems /cont.

 Boilers - provide heating hot water or steam for heating coils. May also
be used to provide steam for humidification.
 Cooling Towers - provide cooling water for refrigeration condensers
such as those in chillers.
 Exhaust Fans - remove air from building from toilet and kitchen areas.
Also remove air from building to induce fresh make up air for
ventilation
 Pumps - provide motive force to move water through chilled water,
condenser water or heating hot water system.

HVAC systems 6

3
HVAC Systems /cont.

 Air Separators - remove entrained air from system to maximize heat


transfer and minimize pump cavitation.
 Expansion Tanks - allow for expansion and contraction of liquid in
hydronic system as temperature and pressures fluctuate
 Cooling Towers - reject heat from refrigeration condensers.
 Controls - used to monitor space conditions and adjust system to adjust
space conditions.

HVAC systems 7

Two different design method for cooling power

HVAC systems 8

4
Selection of HVAC Systems

HVAC systems 9

General HVAC System Types

HVAC systems 10

5
All-air systems

HVAC systems 11

HVAC - System Types


 HVAC systems are characterized as single duct or dual duct systems.
 Single duct systems provide cold (55ºF/ 13ºC) to a space with terminal heat provided at
perimeter zones to allow reheat of air to control space temperature.
 Electric heat is less efficient, but requires less infrastructure, since only conduit must be
routed. No boiler with associated pumps, air separator, expansion tank, etc. is required.
 Hot water heat is more efficient, but requires the addition infrastructure listed above.
 Dual duct systems provide a hot air duct and cold air duct with terminal mixing at each
zone to satisfy space conditions. These systems are not as widely used today, due to
infrastructure cost (I.e. additional ductwork) and the space required to route the second
duct.
 Dual duct systems are less efficient due to leakage of warm air from hot duct, which
provides additional load to space, which must be cooled.

HVAC systems 12

6
HVAC - System Configuration

 Outside air is mixed with return air in a mixing plenum and is routed
through a set of prefilters and final filters to a cooling and heating coil.
 The air passes through a set of sound traps before and after the supply air
fan from which the cooled or heated air is routed to the system.
 The air is routed to a typical terminal unit, a Variable Air Volume Box
(VAV box) which has a motorized control damper which modulates the
flow based upon the space conditions.
 Upon a call for cooling (when the space temperature is above the set point)
the control damper modulates open until design flow is reached.

HVAC systems 13

HVAC - System Configuration/ cont…

 As the space temperature is cooled to set point, the control damper


modulates toward a minimum.
 Upon a call for heating, the control damper modulates to a minimum
position. If the space temperature is still below the set point, then the
heating coil is modulated on.
 The terminal unit may also be specified as a parallel type Fan Powered Box
(FPB), whereas warm air from the ceiling plenum is utilized to provide
heating for a space, to minimize the requirement for reheat from the FPB.
 A series type FPB may be specified for a cold-air type system, where
warmer plenum air is mixed with colder primary air to achieve a 55ºF/
13ºC supply air temperature.

HVAC systems 14

7
HVAC - System Configuration/ cont…

 After the air has been supplied to the space to remove the heat gain from the
space, it returns via return air grilles to the return air fan. The return air fan
has two sets of dampers, one for relief air and one for return air to the supply
fan.
 The amount of relief air is modulated such that the total exhaust air from toilet
and kitchen areas (typically constant volume) plus the relief air is equal to the
outside air requirements:

EA + Relief Air = Outside Air


 The amount of outside air is modulated so that when the outside air
temperature is less than the return air temperature, outside air is brought in
for cooling purposes. This is known as economizer operation.
 The outside air is always equal to the exhaust air and may be greater due to
ventilation requirements.

HVAC systems 15

Constant Air Volume (CAV) Systems

HVAC systems 16

8
Variable Air Volume (VAV) Systems

HVAC systems 17

Air-water Systems

HVAC systems 18

9
Water-air Systems

HVAC systems 19

All-water Systems

HVAC systems 20

10
Unitary Refrigerant-based Systems

HVAC systems 21

Unitary Refrigerant-based Systems/cont..

HVAC systems 22

11
Air Treatment System

 Air treatment has 6 basic elements:


1. Cleaning of both particulate matter and gases form air
2. Mixing of air streams,
3. Heating air,
4. Cooling air,
5. Dehumidifying air, and
6. Humidifying air.

HVAC systems 23

The Design of Air-handling Units

The Northern European Model:

Heating and Indirect Evaporative Cooling

HVAC systems 24

12
The Design of Air-handling Units/cont…

The American Model:

Return Air Dampers, Heating and Cooling

HVAC systems 25

Air Handlers

Air Handlers are configured as either packaged or built-


up units.
Packaged units are used for smaller systems (< 100,000
cfm capacity, typical)
 Cfm - cubic feet per second:
1 cfm = 0.4719x103 [ m3/s]

HVAC systems 26

13
Package Units
 Package Units typically come with forward curved centrifugal fans. The units
can be specified in horizontal or vertical configurations.
 Horizontal application more typical, used for rooftop application (I.e. one to
three story office building). Smaller units can be seen supported from structure
in a mechanical space. Supply and return openings for the unit are usually
located at the ends of the unit.
 Vertical configuration is typical for applications inside mechanical rooms
where space is at a premium. The units are mounted to a concrete house
keeping pad. Supply opening is usually at the top of the unit, with the return at
the bottom.

HVAC systems 27

Package Units /cont…

Package Units add heat to a system with the


following:
 Hot Water or Steam Heat - via a boiler loop
 Natural Gas - known as a “Gas-pack unit”

 Heat Pump
 Heat pump systems are attractive since they can provide cooling in summer and
heating in winter.

HVAC systems 28

14
Built-Up Units

Built-up units must typically have all their


components specified:
 Fan type
 Pre and Final Filter type and size
 Sound Trap type and size
 Cooling coil size and capacity

 Heating coil size and capacity

HVAC systems 29

Selection of Airflow Rates in HVAC Systems

Generally, we use one of the following basic factors for the


most types of buildings:

 Heat surplus removal form the space to achieve an acceptable thermal


comfort level;
 Airborne pollutant removal to achieve an acceptable air quality level;
and
 Providing the space with a supply air needed to cover the above
ventilation requirements.

HVAC systems 30

15
Air change rates (ACH)

Air change rate per hour:

Air flow rate (m3 /h)


ACH   [l / h]
Room volume (m3 )
ACH need for different control purposes and different
types of buildings are summarised in the table 8.1, page
401 of the book.

HVAC systems 31

HVAC ENERGY
HEATING AND COOLING LOADS
Total Load = ma (hr – hs) & Sensible Load = ma (Tr – Ts)
1. Fan Power
Fan input power = q p / (f m)

where q = air flow rate (m3/s); p = pressure losses (Pa); f and m are fan and
motor
efficiency respectively

System pressure losses, p  q2

 Fan power  q3

Constant Air Volume (CAV) systems use the same fan power irrespective of
cooling or heating load.

Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems use variable airflow and can save energy
through:

(i) reduced air flow rates


(ii) reduced reheat requirements

HVAC systems 32

16
HVAC ENERGY /cont…
For low turndown ratios Variable Volume and Temperature (VVT) systems
or Fan Assisted Terminal VAV (FAT VAV) systems can be used.

It is known that the widely used high-level supplies need much more fan
power than those for low-level supplies. To maintain an acceptable limit of
CO2 concentration (e.g. 1000 p.p.m.) the traditional ventilation guides
recommend 8 l/s/ person for low-level and 10 l/s/ person for a high-level
supplies, i.e. a factor of 1.25. It is known that the following relations exist
between the flow rate (q), pressure difference (p) and the fan power (E):
p  q2
E  q3
Thus, p for a high-level supply is higher by a factor of 1.252 =1.56 (i.e.
56%) and the fan power (E) by a factor of 1.253 =1.95, which gives 95%
difference in the energy consumption. In addition, the supply velocity and
hence the supply dynamic pressure for high level supplies are much
larger than for low-level supplies. This gives an additional difference in
the power consumption between the two systems in addition to the larger
flow requirements just described.
HVAC systems 33

2. Cooling and Heating Energy (Q  t)

Cooling
 Large t means low relative humidity in room
 Large t requires more energy to cool the supply air
 Systems more energy efficient if t is small

Energy Saving with Cooling:

 Economiser Cycle
 Evaporative Cooling
 Heat Recovery from Exhaust Air

Heating
 Large t requires a high-grade heat source
 Low t can be obtained using low-grade heat sources (e.g. solar energy)

Energy Saving with Heating:

 Heat recovery
 Heat pumps
 Solar heating
HVAC systems 34

17
Reducing Ventilation Energy

 Tighter building construction and quality control


 Room temperature control:
Setting lower room temperature in winter and higher in the
summer. Up to + or - 2.4 oC from comfort standards values may
be tolerated.
 Good balancing of ventilation system specially during
commissioning
 Use of air-to-air heat recovery
 Demand-control ventilation
 Using energy efficient air distribution systems

HVAC systems 35

Reducing Ventilation Energy/Cont…


Air-to-Air Heat Recovery
Ventilation energy is 30 ~ 60% of the total building
energy use. Air-to-air heat recovery systems can
cut this to 10 ~ 20% for all outdoor air systems.

Typical systems are:


 Plate heat exchangers

 Thermal wheels

 Heat pipes

ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2001 specifies heat


recovery systems on outdoor air systems delivering
> 2.4 m3/s. Evaporative Plate Heat
Exchanger Banks
Air King®

HVAC systems 36

18
Reducing Ventilation Energy/Cont…

flat plate heat exchanger Rotating heat exchanger

HVAC systems 37

Demand Control Ventilation (DCV)

 Using CO2 controllers for controlling dampers, etc. to regulate outdoor


air supply rates according to demand.

 Field experience show that actual occupancy is 25 ~ 75% lower than


design values.

 DCV can reduce ventilation loads by 10 ~ 30%.

HVAC systems 38

19
NATURAL VENTILATION

Flow due to wind and buoyancy through cracks in the building envelope or
purposely installed openings.

Single-Sided Ventilation: limited to zones close to the openings


Cross-Ventilation: two or more openings on opposite walls - covers a larger
zone than the single-sided
Stack Ventilation: buoyancy-driven gives larger flows
Windcacthers: wind and buoyancy driven - effective in warm and temperate
climates
Solar-Induced Ventilation: using the sun to heat building elements to increase
buoyancy - more effective in warm climates

HVAC systems 39

Single-Sided Ventilation

The depth should be < 2.5 H

The depth should be < 5 H

HVAC systems 40

20
Fans

Fan Types are comprised of


the following:
 Axial Fans
 Centrifugal Fans

HVAC systems 41

Fans Cont…
 Axial Fans are essentially propellers mounted with small clearances to the housing or duct. They
develop static pressure by changing the air-flow velocity. Axial fans can be sub-characterized into the
following:
 Propeller fans - these are typically used only for exhaust and make-up air duty where system static
pressure requirements are 125 Pa or less. Though they are typically light and inexpensive, they are the
least efficient (~50%) and most noisy axial fans
 Tube axial fans - generally are known as duct fans, provide up to 750 Pa pressure. They are recognized
by their hub diameters, which are less than 50% of the tip-tip diameter. They have 4 to 8 blades with a
low clearance between the blade tips and the surrounding duct. Fan efficiency is approximately 75-80%
 Vane axial fans - provide up to 2300 pa pressure. They can be distinguished from tube axial fans by
their hub diameters, which are greater than 50% of the tip-to-tip diameter. They also have vanes
downstream of the fan to straighten air-flow and recover rotational kinetic energy.
 Vane axial fans - typically have as many as 24 blades with cross-sections similar to airfoils. Their
efficiencies are typically 85-90%

HVAC systems 42

21
Fans Cont…

Centrifugal Fans develop static pressure by imparting


centrifugal force on rotating air, similar to a centrifugal
pump. Centrifugal fans can be sub-characterized into the
following:
 Forward curved centrifugals
 Backward curved centrifugals

HVAC systems 43

Fans Cont…
Forward curved centrifugals are most widely used for
built-up units.
 Operate at low speed
 Quieter operation.
 Used for high temperature applications
 Efficiencies of 70-75%

 Backward curved centrifugals are quiet, medium to high


volume and pressure units.
 Develop greater pressure than forward curved fans at same speed.
 Noiser than forward curved fans
 Efficiencies of 80-90%

HVAC systems 44

22
Fans Cont…

Radial centrifugals have straight blades which are neither


forward or backward curved.
 Workhorse of most industrial exhaust applications.

 High noise, high temperature, low efficiency (65-70%)

HVAC systems 45

The efficiency of radial fans with forward and backward curved blades
Compare both the
range of flow rate and
efficiency!

HVAC systems 46

23
Fans - Variable Flow Rate

 Air conditioning rates vary with time. Systems are sized for peak loading, which
typically occurs in the afternoon.
 Systems are able to vary flow rate of air to save energy when maximum cooling is
not required. Systems are able to reduce flow down to required ventilation rates.
 Variable flow rates can be utilized when initial and final system capacity differ
significantly.
 Building has initial partial occupancy.
 Variable flow rates can be achieved through the use of variable frequency drives,
variable blade pitch, inlet vanes or discharge dampers.
 Variable frequency drives are the most common form of flow control for centrifugal
and inline fans.

HVAC systems 47

Fans - Variable Flow Rate

 Variable blade pitch is used with vane axial fans. This form of flow control
is actually more efficient than the use of a variable speed drive for vane
axial fans.
 Inlet vanes were the common method of flow control before variable
frequency drives became common.
 Inlet vanes pre-spin and throttle the air prior to its entry into the fan
wheel.
 Inlet vanes are relatively inefficient, noisy and non-linear in response.
 Discharge dampers were also common before the advent of variable
frequency drives.
 Discharge dampers increase friction loss, are noisy and also non-linear in
response

HVAC systems 48

24
Air Distribution Systems

HVAC systems 49

Energy Efficient Air Distribution System

The following conditions must be obtained to achieve an


energy efficient air distribution system:
 Energy efficient fans and their motors
 Well designed connections between the fans and the duct system;
 Low pressure drops for components in air-handling units,
 Low pressure drops in elements of the duct system, e.g. attenuators and re-
heaters;
 Low pressure drops in the duct system as a whole, particularly in elements
such as tees, wyes, and elbows; and
 Tight ducts and air-handling units.

HVAC systems 50

25
Energy Efficient Air Distribution System/cont…
A simple way to express the potential to reach a low fan
energy use in an air distribution system is to use the specific
fan power (SFP), defined as:

Wt
SFP 
V
where
SFP = Specific fan power of the air distribution system, kW/(m 3 /s)
Wt = Power of all the fans in the air distribution system, kW
V = Uually the the largest of the supply or exhaust airflow
rates (in the USA and the UK the supply airflow rate), m 3 /s

HVAC systems 51

Specific Fan Power of the Individual Fan (SFPI)

Should the total efficiency of the fans in


the system be increased or should the
pressure drops in the system be reduced?
This can be answered from a strictly
technical point of view by studying SFPI.

V I ptot
I

totI ptot
I I
Wt
SFPI   
V I
V I
totI
where
SFPI = Specific fan power of the individual fan, kW/(m 3 /s)
WtI = Power of the individual fan, kW
V I = Airflow rate through the individual fan, m 3 /s
ptotI  Total pressure rise of the individual fan, kPa
totI  Total efficiency of the individual fan, including the
fan-motor drive, motor and sometimes also the
motor drive, unitless
HVAC systems 52

26
Requirements for minimum fan efficiency

HVAC systems 53

Fan-motor drive and its loss

HVAC systems 54

27
Fan inlet

HVAC systems 55

Fan outlet

HVAC systems 56

28
Pressure Drops in Air-handling Units

HVAC systems 57

Pressure drops in main to branch junctions

HVAC systems 58

29
Pressure drops in elbows

HVAC systems 59

Selecting a fan by using all pressure drops

HVAC systems 60

30
References
1. Per Erik Nilsson (editor), Achieving the Desired Indoor
Climate –Energy Efficiency Aspects of System Design,
2003, Studentlitteratur, ISBN 91-44-03235-8, Printed in
Denmark by Narayana Press, www.studentlitteratur.se.
(Main ref. in this part).
2. Fay C. McQuiston and Jerald D. Parker, Heating,
Ventilating, and Air Conditioning – Analysis and Design,
1994, Fourth Edition, Printed in Singapore 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
2 1 (CIP 93-28394), John Wiley & Sons, Ic., New York.
3. Awbi, H.B. (2003): Ventilation of Buildings, Taylor & Francis,
London (ISBN: 0-415-27056-1)
4. ASHRAE Handbook (2007): HVAC Applications

HVAC systems 61

31
Lecture 9 Part III
Energy Utilisation
Psychrometrics and Mollier charts

Blackboard homepage:
lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Taghi Karimipanah
E-mail:
tkh@hig.se

Tel: 073-280 75 47

Psychrometrics

Psychrometry I

 The atmosphere is a mixture of air (oxygen and


nitrogen) and water vapour.
 Psychrometry is the study of moist air and of the
changes in its conditions.
 It is significant in terms of human comfort and
health, is a major consideration in fabric design and
air conditioning systems, and is important in
material drying, the operation of industrial processes
and the growth of plants.

Psychrometrics

1
Psychrometry II

 Moist air is a mixture of dry air and water vapour. Dalton’s Law
states that the pressures of the constituent elements of a gas
mixture behave independently. This means that atmospheric
pressure P is a combination of both air pressure Pa and vapour
pressure Ps.
P=Pa +Ps (Pa) (1)
 The atmosphere contains a maximum of about 5% water vapour
by weight, dependent on local weather conditions. Water
vapour is invisible and can be liquefied by compression. Note
that steam and mist are actually water droplets suspended in
air, NOT water vapour.

Psychrometrics

Properties of Moist Air I

 Air at a particular temperature and pressure can hold a finite


quantity of water vapour. This capacity to hold water is strongly
dependent upon temperature, with warm air holding more
moisture than cold. Air holding its maximum capacity of water
vapour is said to be saturated.
 In an enclosed space the moisture held in air is continuously
evaporating and condensing. In equilibrium conditions, the
evaporation rate equals the condensation rate.
 Below the saturation point: condensation rate < evaporation
rate; above the saturation point: condensation rate =
evaporation rate.
 If the air is cooled further then moisture will condense out of
the air. This condensation will occur at a surface, inside a
material or around dust particles (cloud or fog).

Psychrometrics

2
Properties of Moist Air II

 Moist air (Humid air) can be said to be a mixture of


two ideal gases - dry air (d.a.) and water vapor.
 The dry air can be treated as one component since
its composition does not change in the temperature
and pressure interval considered here.
 Dry air can be assumed to consist of:
 Nitrogen: 78 % by volume, M=28 kg/kmol
 Oxygen: 21 % by volume, M=32 kg/kmol
 Argon: 1 % by volume, M=40 kg/kmol
 Mean molecular weight of dry air, M=29 kg/kmol

Psychrometrics

Properties of Moist Air III

The amount of water in humid air can


be expressed in several ways:
Relative humidity, 
Water content, xw
Dew point
Dry, and wet bulb temperature

Psychrometrics

3
Properties of Moist Air IV
 The pressure of the water vapour in a sample of saturated air is
the SATURATED VAPOUR PRESSURE, Pss: units (Pa).
 In an unsaturated mixture, the pressure associated with the
volume of water vapour is the VAPOUR PRESSURE, Ps: units
(Pa).
 In a sample of moist air the mass of water vapour (ms, kg)
divided by the mass of dry air (ma, kg) is the MOISTURE
CONTENT, g, of the air (units kg/kg or kg/kg da). Sometimes,
charts use g/kg dry air as the units.

ms
g= (2)
ma

Psychrometrics

Psychrometric Chart I
 The psychrometric chart graphically represents the interrelation of
air temperature and moisture content and is a basic design tool
for building engineers and designers.
 Several terms must be explained before the charts can be fully
appreciated:
 Absolute humidity (AH) is the vapour content of air, given in
grams or kg of water vapour per kg of air, i.e. g/kg or kg/kg. It is
also known as moisture content or humidity ratio. Air at a given
temperature can support only a certain amount of moisture and no
more. This is referred to as the saturation humidity.
 Relative humidity (RH) is an expression of the moisture content of
a given atmosphere as a percentage of the saturation humidity at
the same temperature.
 Wet-bulb temperature (WBT) is measured by a hygrometer or a
sling psychrometer and is shown as sloping lines on the
psychrometric chart. A status point on the psychrometric chart
can be indicated by a pair of dry-bulb temperature (DBT) and WBT.
Psychrometrics

4
Psychrometric Chart II

 Specific volume (Spv) , in m3/kg, is the reciprocal of density and


is indicated by a set of slightly sloping lines on the
psychrometric chart.
 Enthalpy (H) is the heat content of unit mass of the
atmosphere, in kJ/kg, relative to the heat content of 0 ºC dry air.
It is indicated on the psychrometric chart by a third set of
sloping lines, near to, but not quite the same as the web-bulb
lines. In order to avoid confusion, there are no lines shown, but
external scales are given on two sides.
 Sensible heat (Qsen) is the heat content causing an increase in
dry-bulb temperature.
 Latent heat (Qlat) is the heat content due to the presence of
water vapour in the atmosphere. It is the heat which was
required to evaporate the given amount of moisture.

Psychrometrics

Psychrometric Chart III

 The main assumption in psychrometrics is that humid air can


be treated as a mix of two gases, dry air and water vapour
(steam). Dry air consists of the following components:

 The amount of water vapour in humid outdoor air varies from


nearly zero to a maximum of approximately 0.03 kg water/kg dry
air (30 g water/kg dry air). Consequently, water vapour is a very
small part of the humid air, but it is a vital part when analysing
air treatment processes.

Psychrometrics

5
Psychrometric Chart IV

 The main principles underlying the construction of


the psychrometric chart are three:
1. When adding or removing heat, the change of the state of
the humid air must be clearly represented. Since this is an
analysis of an open thermodynamic system, the
thermodynamic quantity of enthalpy, h, corresponds to the
energy content of the humid air. Consequently, enthalpy
should be selected as one of the principal axes of the
chart.
2. In addition to heat, water can be added to, or removed
from, the humid air. Consequently, the humidity ratio. x, is
the natural choice for the second principal axis.
3. The chart should have such a ratio between height and
width that the size of it is practical. This is accomplished
by selecting an oblique-angle for the enthalpy axis.
Psychrometrics

Psychrometric Chart V

 The enthalpy of one kilogram or dry air containing x kilograms of


water vapour (totally 1 + x kilogram humid air) h is:

h=h +x  h =c  t+x   r +c  t 
a w pl 0 pw
Where:
h = enthalpy of humid air, kJ/kgdry air, ha = enthalpy of dry air, kJ/kgdry air
hw = enthalpy of water vapour, kJ/kgwater ,
x = humidity ratio, kgwater/ kgdry air (also known as 'W' in American or British literature)
Cpl = specific heat of dry air = 1.01 kJ/(kg °C) at temperatures between -20°C and +60
°C. the specific heat of dry air at atmospheric pressure is almost constant and
equal to approximately 1.01 kJ/(kg °C).
r0 = vaporization enthalpy of water at a specified Temperature, kJ/kg (e.g. 2.502 kJ/kg
at 0 °C and 2.432 kJ/kg at 30°C)
Cpw = specific heat of water vapour = 1.86 kJ/(kg °C) at temperatures between -20°C
and +60 °C, the specific heat of water varies between 1.846 and 1.867 kJ/(kg °C)
which gives typical (and rounded) value of 1.86 kJ/(kg °C).
t=temperature of humid air, °C.
Psychrometrics

6
Psychrometric Chart VI

 The saturation pressure of water determines the maximum


possible amount of water vapour in humid air. There is a direct
relation between the saturation pressure and the humidity ratio.
In the psychrometric chart, the curve for the humidity ratio at
saturation of water vapour is given for all temperatures. In
addition, curves are also given for the relative humidity (the
ratio of the actual partial pressure of the water vapour to the
saturation pressure), expressed in percentage. Consequently.
the saturation curve is denoted 100 %.
 Furthermore, the humidity ratio at saturation is a function of the ratio
of the saturation pressure to the atmospheric pressure. This means
that the humidity ratio at saturation is also a function of the altitude.
Consequently, the ASHRAE psychrometric chart exists in editions for
four altitudes: (1) sea level (101.325 kPa); (2) 750 m-altitude (92.634
kPa); (3) 1,500 m altitude (84.556 kPa); and (4) 2,250-m altitude (77.058
kPa),
Psychrometrics

Differences between Psychrometric Chart and


Mollier Chart I
 The Mollier Diagram (or the Continental European Mollier chart)
is the European version of the Anglo-American Psychrometric
Chart (ASHRAE/CIBSE chart, also known as the Carrier chart).
 They are identical in content but not in appearance.
 The difference between the two charts is the orientation of the
two principal axes.
 Both psychrometric and Mollier charts are valuable
visualisation aid for the HVAC engineer when analysing air
treatment processes in practice.
 It is possible to transform the Mollier Diagram into the
Psychrometric Chart.

Psychrometrics

7
Differences between Psychrometric Chart and
Mollier Chart II
 The Psychrometric Chart is the same as the Mollier diagram,
first reflected in a vertical mirror and then rotated through 90
degrees:

Source:Tim Padfield,
January 1996

Psychrometrics

Mollier Chart I

 The Mollier chart, also called the h-x diagram, is based on the
relationship between heat content and water vapour content of air.
 The heat, or energy, content is difficult to measure directly, so the
diagram is cunningly distorted to give the illusion of being based on
the relationship between temperature and relative humidity and water
vapour content.
 Temperature is easy to measure, relative humidity is considered by
some people to be easy to measure and so the diagram is transformed
into a useful tool.
 The water vapour concentration is expressed in the Mollier diagram as
kg/kg of dry air.
 The concentration limit in these units is not fixed: it depends on the air
pressure. The process of water vaporisation is, however, quite
independent of air pressure.
 The equilibrium water vapour concentration over a water surface
depends only on the temperature.

Psychrometrics

8
Mollier Chart II
 In the Mollier Chart
the humidity ratio is
on the x-axis, while
enthalpy is on an
inclined y-axis.
 The Continental
European Mollier
psychrometric
chart is shown in
the figure.

Psychrometrics

Mollier Chart III


 In Mollier chart shown before, a vertical help-axis, showing the dry bulb
temperature, is constructed at x = 0 kg/kg.
 The numeric value of the enthalpy at x = 0 kg/kg is in practice the same as
the dry-bulb temperature, since the enthalpy becomes equal to 1.01 t for x
=0.
 The lines for constant dry-bulb temperature, t, have an inclination of cpw
.t.x in relation to the horizontal x-axis. In the normal range of air
temperature, -20°C to 40°C, the angle or inclination is small.
 The enthalpy lines (y-axis) are assigned a value of 0 kJ/kg at the dry-bulb
temperature 0 °C and an oblique angle of 2,502 x downward to the right in
relation to the x-axis.
 In addition to the enthalpy lines, there are nearly parallel dashed lines
showing the wet bulb temperature, tw.
 The angle of inclination of the wet-bulb temperature lines is dh/dx = cw. tw
where the specific heat of water (cw ) is equal to 4.18 kJ/kg °C.
 Consequently, in the normal temperature range up to 40 °C wet-bulb
temperature, the inclination of the wet-bulb is smaller than about 160
kJ/kg. Compared with the inclination of the enthalpy lines, this is a small
angle. Psychrometrics

9
Examples Mollier Chart I

Heat 0,2 m3/s air of a climate 10ºC and 25%


RH to 20 ºC. What is the enthalpy of air, wet-
temperature, dew-point, absolute moist
content and relative humidity (RH) after
heating and supplied heat-energy?

Psychrometrics

Examples Mollier Chart II

Psychrometrics

10
Examples Mollier Chart III

 Heat-power in kW

 Mass-flow water in kg/s

 Absolute moist content in kg/kg

 Enthalpy (kWs/kg) or kJ/kg

 Volume flow is in m3 /s and density in kg/m3.

Psychrometrics

ASHRAE/CIBSE Chart
 In the ASHRAE/CIBSE Chart, see figure below, the humidity ratio is shown on
the y axis. The dry-bulb temperature i given as a horizontal help-axis at x = 0.
In the British CIBSE psychrometric chart the line at 30°C dry-bulb temperature
is assigned as vertical. The enthalpy lines are inclined upwards to the left. In
addition, there are also nearly parallel dashed lines for the wet-bulb
temperatures in the same way as in the Continental European Mollier chart.

Psychrometrics

11
Air Heating Treatment I
 Air heating is the simplest air treatment process. Only heat is
supplied to the air, which means that the humidity ratio is
constant both upstream and downstream of the heating coil.
The healing coil can be supplied with hot water or steam. it can
also be an electric direct-resistance heating coil.

(I)

Psychrometrics

Air Heating Treatment II


 Example: Figure shows the heating process in the psychrometric
charts (Mollier and ASHRAE/CIBSE charts) from t1 = -5°C to t2 = 20°C.
The humidity ratio is constant: X1 = X2 = 2 g/kg.

Psychrometrics

12
Air Cooling and Dehumidifying I
 Air cooling and dehumidification can be obtained by different types of
cooling coils.
 In a direct-expansion cooling coil (DX- coil), the surface temperature is
more or less the same in the whole coil because of evaporation of a
refrigerant medium in the tubes inside the coil. Small temperature
differences exist between the surface of the pipes and various parts of
the fins in the coil. However, if chilled water is used in the tubes of the
coil, the temperature over the coil surface varies more.
 Depending on the type or cooling coil and how it is dimensioned, the
state of the air leaving the coil, h2, will differ. The cooling power on the
air side of the coil is calculated as:
(II)

Psychrometrics

Air Cooling and Dehumidifying II


 Example: Direct-expansion (DX) Cooling Coil
 We want to show the process for cooling of air to t2 = 15°C in a direct-
expansion cooling coil with an evaporation temperature of tevaporation =5
°C. The state of the upstream air is t1= 27 °C and x1=11 g/kg.

 The process is shown in Mollier and psychrometric charts in the next


page.

Psychrometrics

13
Air Cooling and Dehumidifying III
 Example: Direct-expansion (DX) Cooling Coil (continued)

Psychrometrics

Air Cooling and Dehumidifying IV


 Example: Direct-expansion (DX) Cooling Coil (continued)
 As we showed before, the air side of the coil is assumed to be
wet, due to condensation of water vapour in the air.
 The reason for condensation is that the dew-point of the
incoming air is higher than the surface temperature
(evaporation temperature).
 Thus, the air in contact with the cold surfaces is cooled to
evaporation temperature and condenses. Therefore, the state of
the air next to the surfaces can be represented on the
saturation curve at the evaporation temperature in the
psychrometric charts.
 However, not all of the air is in contact with the cold surfaces,
which means that the outgoing air is a mixture of the incoming
(unchanged) air and the air cooled by the surfaces.

Psychrometrics

14
Air Cooling and Dehumidifying V
 Example: Chilled-water Cooling Coils
 We want to show the process for cooling of air to t2 = 15°C in a chilled-
water coil. The inlet water temperature is tw1 =6 °C and the outlet water
temperature is tw2 =12 °C. The coil is connected in a counterflow
mode. The state of the upstream air is t1= 27 °C and x1=11 g/kg.

 The process is shown in Mollier and psychrometric charts in the next


page.

Psychrometrics

Air Cooling and Dehumidifying VI


 Example: Chilled-water Cooling Coils (Continued)

Psychrometrics

15
Air Cooling and Dehumidifying VII
 Example: Chilled-water Cooling Coils (Continued)
 The process was illustrated in the psychrometric chart by dividing the
temperature difference between the upstream air and the downstream
air into three parts.
 The water temperature along the saturation curve is divided in the
Same way.
 The change in the state of the air tends towards the end of each part of
the water temperature on the saturation curve.
 In a counterflow coil, the change of the air state is first towards the
outlet water temperature, tw2, whereas in a parallel flow coil the change
is first towards the inlet water temperature tw1.
 This means that a counterflow coil has a greater capacity to
dehumidify the air; thus capacity is related to the heat exchanger area
of the coil.

Psychrometrics

Air Cooling and Dehumidifying VIII


 Example: Dry Cooling
 If the surface temperature of the cooling coil is above the dew-
point or the humid air, it cannot be dehumidified.
 Using the Figure for chilled-water coils as an example, if the
state or the incoming air is t1= 27 ºC and = 5 g/kg, the dew-point
of the air is 4 °C (i.e. the temperature on the saturation curve for
x1) , which is below the lowest water temperature of the cooling
coil.
 Consequently, the incoming air cannot be dehumidified and is
cooled at the constant humidity ratio, x, to t2:= 15°C.

Psychrometrics

16
Air Cooling and Dehumidifying IX
 Example: Dry Cooling (continued)
 The heat release caused by condensation is called latent heat,
while heat affecting only temperature (not the humidity ratio) is
called sensible heat. It should be pointed out that when there is
no condensation, the general equation (II) as shown before,
that applies for both latent and sensible heat then becomes
equation (I), which applies only to sensible heat.
 Although the cooling process is controlled by the coolant fluid
temperature, it is the dew-point that determines whether
condensation occurs or not. The dew-point is the lowest
temperature a given air state condition, with a specific humidity
ratio (moisture content), can reach without losing humidity.

Psychrometrics

Air Cooling and Dehumidifying X


 Example: Dry Cooling (continued)
 If the coolant fluid temperature is below the dew-point of the airflow. then
condensation will occur.
 The lower the coolant fluid temperature, the more the air will be dehumidified. The
following Figure shows the relationship between dew-point temperature, air
temperature and relative humidity.
 The figure ,shows that to avoid condensation, the surface temperature must rise
with both the relative humidity and the air temperature.

Dew-point temperature.
Psychrometrics

17
Mixing of Air Streams I
 Example: Mixing Dampers and Return Air Dampers
 The mixing of air streams takes place in mixing dampers and in return air
dampers. The main reason for mixing is to save either heating or cooling
energy.
A mass and energy balance of the air
streams gives the enthalpy of the mixed one:

Psychrometrics

Mixing of Air Streams II


 The figure shows the mixing of two air streams, with the condition
h1 (-5°C, 1 g/kg) and h2 (27 °C, 9 g/kg), to reach a temperature after
mixing of tmix = 15 °C.

Psychrometrics

18
Humidifiers I
 As the name implies, humidifiers are used primarily for
humidifying the air.
 However, certain types of humidifiers are mainly used for
cooling the air, this also includes an increase of the moisture
content.
 When a humidifier is used to lower the dry bulb temperature
of the air, it is called an evaporative cooler.
 The energy needed to vaporise water to steam must always
be supplied in one way or the other.
 For humidifiers with re-circulating water, the air must be
heated to reach the desired temperature.
 For steam humidifiers, the steam must be produced in an
electric or fuel fired boiler.

Psychrometrics

Humidifiers II
 Humidifiers with Recirculating Water:

 Recirculating water humidifiers usually have a wet pad through


which the air passes.
 The pad is wetted by pumping water from a pan in the bottom or the
humidifier.
 Since some of the circulating water is evaporating, the remaining
circulating water becomes saturated over time with salts.
 A certain amount of fresh water must be added to the pan at the
same time as some water is bled from the pan to ensure the water
quality.
 In the water standing in the pan, micro-organisms may grow and
cause problems such as humidifier fever. However, the temperature
of the water is normally too low for legionella to grow.

Psychrometrics

19
Humidifiers III
 Humidifiers with Recirculating Water (continued):
 Since the circulating water becomes the wet-bulb
temperature of the air, the process follows the line of the
constant wet-bulb temperature.
 These lines are approximately parallel to those of constant
enthalpy, at least for the stale of the air that is of interest in
HVAC applications.
 The angle of inclination of the wet-bulb temperature lines is
dh/dx = cw.tw, where the specific heat of water is cw = 4.18
kJ/kg ºC. Consequently, in the normal temperature range up
to 30 °C to 40 °C wet-bulb temperature, the inclination of the
wet-bulb line is less than about 160 kJ/kg.

Psychrometrics

Humidifiers IV
 Humidifiers with Recirculating Water (continued):
 The figure shows humidifying of air with recirculating water for the
conditions t1 = 27 ºC and x1 = 1 g/kg to x2 = 6 g/kg.

Psychrometrics

20
Humidifiers V
 Humidifiers with Recirculating Water (continued):
 The efficiency of a humidifier depends on the depth and area of the
wetted pad and the airflow rate through lt. Normally, the efficiency of
the humidifier is 70 % or 90 %; this is defined as the ratio of the
difference between two humidity ratios:
 The humidity ratio after and before the humidifier (x2 –x1) to the
maximum difference in humidity ratio (x at the saturation curve at the
extension of the process line minus x1).

x2  x1
hum 
xsta  x1
Where
ηhum =humidifier efficiency, %
x1 =humidity ratio before the humidfier, kg water /kg dry air
x 2 =humidity ratio after the humidfier, kg water /kg dry air
x sat =the saturation curve at the extension of the process line, kg water /kg dry air
Psychrometrics

Humidifiers VI
Humidifiers with Steam:
In a humidifier with steam, the steam is
induced into the air stream to humidify the air.

 Example:
 Slightly overheated steam ( 100°C to 110°C) somewhat above
atmospheric pressure has an enthalpy of nearly 2 700 kJ/kg.
 Since the enthalpy curves have an inclination of 2502 x, the induction
of steam heats the air somewhat. In practice this heating is usually
negligible.
 Figure A2.9 (next page) shows humidifying of air with steam, for the
conditions t1 =15°C and x1 =2 g/kg to x2 =9 g/kg.

Psychrometrics

21
Humidifiers VII
Humidifiers with Steam (continued):

Figure A2.9 Humidifying with steam shown in the Continental European (Mollier) and the
American/British (ASHRAE/CIBSE) psychrometric chart.
Psychrometrics

Humidifiers VII
Humidifiers with Spray Water:
The first really successful commercial air conditioning
plants (1904 -1907) in the USA, designed by Willis
Carrier, used cooled water at a controlled temperature in
a spray-type air washer for all the air treatment, which is
Carrier's device for dew-point control. As Professor
Hermann Rietschel, of Berlin, showed as early as 1894,
air can be dehumidified in an air washer. provided the
temperature of the supply water is below the dew-point
of the incoming air. Simply by circulating the water. the
air can be humidified in the same way as in a humidifier
with recirculating water.

 Example: Figure A2.10 (next page) shows the treatment of air for the
conditions t1 =25°C and x1 =10 g/kg in an air shower for two cases:
A. The water feed to the air washer has a constant temperature of 10°C; and
B. The water IS fully recirculated in the air washer and is not cooled, i.e. it
becomes the wet-bulb temperature of the incoming air.
Psychrometrics

22
Humidifiers VIII
Humidifiers with Spray Water (continued):

Figure A2.10 Air treatment in an air washer for two cases in the Continental European (Mollier)
and the American/British (ASHRAE/CIBSE) psychrometric chart. A. Feed of 10 ºC, and
B. Fully recirculated water
Psychrometrics

23
Lecture 10 Part I
Energy Utilization
Refrigeration Systems

Blackboard homepage:
lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Taghi Karimipanah
E-mail:
tkh@hig.se
Tel: 073-280 75 47

Refrigeration Systems 1

Vapour Compression Systems

Historical aspects of vapor compression cycles


 By the 1930's, vapour compression refrigeration cycles and a growing
electricity infrastructure brought mechanical refrigeration to the
consumption.
 Currently, electric motor driven vapour compression refrigeration
cycles dominate air conditioning, heat pump, and refrigeration
applications.
 The vapour compression cycle's principle of operation is relatively
simple.
 A working fluid (i.e. ammonia) is boiled in an evaporator at a pressure
and hence temperature, TL, low enough to provide cooling.
 A work driven compressor (usually electrical work) then increases the
pressure of the working fluid vapour allowing it to condense and
reject heat at a temperature that of the surroundings, TM.
 Having rejected its heat of condensation and condensed the working
fluid liquid is then expanded (via an expansion valve) back into the
evaporator where it can again provide cooling at a low temperature.
Refrigeration Systems 2

1
Vapour Compression Systems

Figure 1-1: The Vapour-Compression Cycle


Refrigeration Systems 3

Vapour Compression Systems

Figure 1-2: Thermally Driven Heat Pump


Refrigeration Systems 4

2
Vapour Compression Systems
Heat Pump, operating as a refrigerator, or air conditioner, the desired product,
QL, is provided by QH which is the driving energy source. Thus, the efficiency of
a three temperature thermally driven refrigerator, also known as the cooling
coefficient of performance (COP), is defined as:

QL
COPC 
QH
1st and 2nd Law:
QL  QH  QM  0
QL QH QM
  0
TL TH TM
 T  TM   TL 
 COPC ,rev   H  
 TH   TM  TL 
Refrigeration Systems 5

Vapour Compression Systems

The reversible COP of the heating cycle is a combination of the efficiency of a


Carnot heat engine operating between TH and TL and the COP of a Carnot heat
pump operating between TL and the middle temperature at reservoir, TM. As
heaters, however, direct thermally driven cycles offer the advantage of providing
the waste heat of the heat engine to the space needing heat.

QM
For heating: COPH 
QH
Comining all this relations:
 T  TL   TM 
 COPH ,rev   H    1  COPC ,rev
 TH   TM  TL 

Refrigeration Systems 6

3
Vapour Compression Systems

Figure 1-3: Dual Pressure Direct Thermally Driven Heat Pump

Refrigeration Systems 7

Vapour Compression Systems

1-4: The Ammonia-Water-Hydrogen Cycle


Refrigeration Systems 8

4
Vapour Compression Systems

Figure 1-5: The Einstein Refrigeration Cycle


Refrigeration Systems 9

Vapour Compression Systems

 Vapour compression cycles are the most common


form of refrigeration systems.
 These cycles are based on the concepts of:
 Latent heat
 Fluid boiling points increase with pressure

1. Low pressure liquid in evaporator is


caused to boil at low temperature by
heat transfer from "cold space"
2. Vapour compressed – increases
pressure and temperature
3. High temperature vapour transfers heat
to environment – vapour condenses
4. Liquid cools and pressure falls as it
passes through the expansion valve –
back to (1)

Refrigeration Systems 10

5
Vapour Compression Systems
 The working fluid is a critical "component" of vapour
compression schemes. An ideal fluid's properties would
include:
 Good heat transfer properties
 High latent heat
 Appropriate pressures for the operating temperature
 Chemical stability
 Low toxicity
 Low fire risk
 A wide range of fluids were developed BUT many were
Chlorofluorocarbon compounds, (CFCs). The manufacture of
these has been phased out because of environmental
concerns.
 A replacement group of fluids, hydrochlorofluorocarbon
compounds, HCFCs, are being used as a temporary measure.
A refrigerant called R22 is the most common example.
Refrigeration Systems 11

Vapour Compression Systems


 The long-term replacement for CFCs has been expected to
be Hydrofluorocarbon compounds (HFCs). The best
known is Refrigerant R134A. However, there is pressure to
limit the use of HFCs. The UK Government, for example,
does not regard HFCs as a sustainable technology in the
long term.
 Vapour compression systems are well established but
there are niche markets for absorption cycles, air cycles
and Stirling cycle devices.
 Difficulties over the long term availability of working fluids
for vapour compression systems might stimulate interest
in other systems.
 There is wide ranging research into refrigeration systems.
The available evidence suggests that the Borealis
refrigerator should be attractive in the near future.
Refrigeration Systems 12

6
Vapour Compression Systems

 Absorption Cycles

Refrigeration Systems 13

Vapour Compression Systems

Absorption Cycles:
 The absorption cycle refrigerator is a potential competitor
to vapour compression systems in the short term. Very
popular in Japan for air conditioning applications and for
use in boats and caravans.
 The COP is typically less than 1, i.e. much lower than
vapour compression systems, but it uses heat rather than
mechanical energy as the high grade energy input. Heat
is much cheaper.
 The choice of the fluids is critical. Common pairs are:
 Water(refrig.)/Aqueous LiBr (absorbent)
 Ammonia (refrig.)/ Water (absorbent)

Refrigeration Systems 14

7
Vapour Compression Systems

Gas Cycle Refrigeration


 Many forms of gas cycle refrigeration are possible but the most
common is the reversed Brayton working in open cycle with air as
the working fluid.
 Less efficient than vapour compression systems but the difference
reduces as the output temperature falls. Similar performance at
less than about –70°C
 No refrigerants and simple construction
 Mature technology – often used for aircraft air conditioning – but
no large scale systems appear to be available commercially

Refrigeration Systems 15

Vapour Compression Systems


Stirling Cycle
 The Stirling cycle has the same efficiency as the Carnot cycle
under equivalent conditions but it provides a better basis for a
practical design. However, practical devices operate only
approximately as Stirling cycles and their implementation has been
disappointing.
 The working fluid is usually helium – no problems with refrigerants

Refrigeration Systems 16

8
Vapour Compression Systems
Basic operation of a Stirling cycle refrigerator as follows:
 Process 1→ 2 The displacer remains stationary and the piston descends.
The gas expands and its pressure falls. The gas temperature is cold but it
remains constant because of heat transfer from the cold space.
 Process 2→ 3 The displacer descends and the piston rises. The gas is
maintained at constant volume and it passes through the regenerator which
is hotter than the gas. The gas heats up due to heat transfer from the
regenerator and its pressure rises; the regenerator cools.
 Process 3→ 4 The displacer remains stationary and the piston rises. The
gas is compressed and its pressure rises. The gas is hot and remains at
constant temperature because of heat transfer to a heat sink.
 Process 4→ 1 The displacer rises and the piston descends. The gas is
maintained at constant volume and it passes through the regenerator which
is colder than the gas. The gas cools due to heat transfer to the regenerator
and its pressure falls; the regenerator heats up.
 Stirling cycle refrigerators can produce cryogenic temperatures and are
commercially available with capacities up to about 25kW. The concept has
produced many variants and it is the subject of much R&D.

Refrigeration Systems 17

Vapour Compression Systems


Thermionic refrigeration:
 Thermionic emission is the passage of electrons through a vacuum under
the action of an electric charge. Electrons flow from a negatively charged
pate, the cathode, to a positively charged plate, the anode.
 During Thermionic emission, the anode heats and the cathode cools. The
process can occur at low temperatures and this forms the basis of a
refrigerator.

Refrigeration Systems 18

9
Vapour Compression Systems

Thermionic refrigeration:
 The concept has been developed by a company called
Borealis – sometimes referred to as the Borealis
refrigerator.
 The system is refrigerant free, with no moving parts and
suitable for modular construction. Temperatures as low
as –80°C are technically possible but developments are
based on domestic refrigerator temperatures.
 There are problems with the chemical stability of
electrode materials and with the production of the chip
because of the small gap.
 Publicity has suggested that mass production would be
possible by 2000.

Refrigeration Systems 19

Vapour Compression Systems


Magnetic refrigeration:
 Based on the magneto-calorific effect – some materials
heat up when they are magnetised and cool down when
demagnetised.
 Used for many years to produce cryogenic temperatures
but recent developments may allow effective devices to
operate at domestic refrigerator levels.
 NOTE: Work must be supplied to "drive" the magnetic
material through the cycle.
 Devices are expected to have high efficiency but also high
capital cost.
 No refrigerants
 Capacities up to 50kW are being considered
 Best suited to "large" plant with high utilisation
Refrigeration Systems 20

10
Vapour Compression Systems

Magnetic refrigeration:

Refrigeration Systems 21

Vapour Compression Systems


Other Refrigeration Systems:
 Gifford-McMahon – similar concept to the Stirling cycle, successful as a low
capacity cryogenic device
 Pulse Tube – various forms with different names. Thermodynamically
similar to a Stirling cycle but compression and expansion created by
pressure waves in a tube.
 Optical cooling - based on the promotion of electromagnetic radiation with
incident radiation such the energy of the emitted photons is greater than
that of those received. This causes cooling to occur.
 Vortex Tubes - Converts a stream of compressed air into two outlet
streams, one hotter and the other colder than the inlet stream. A simple,
well established technology but low capacity, typically less than 1kW.
 Vuilleumier Refrigeration A Stirling cycle type device but simpler
mechanically. However, it requires an input of high grade heat as well as
mechanical energy. Reasonably efficient, safe working fluid, quiet but it has
been developed only to the experimental stage.
 Malone Refrigeration A Stirling cycle device but using liquid near its critical
point rather than a vapour as the working fluid. Primitive prototypes only
but is intended as a efficient, compact design with a safe working fluid.

Refrigeration Systems 22

11
Vapour Compression Systems

Real steam power cycles


 Superheated steam cycle
 Steam entering turbine is superheated.
 Achieved using separate boiler called a superheater.
 Keeps turbine exit steam in superheated/high-quality region.
 Reheat
 Multiple turbines used with re-heating in between.
 Supercritical steam cycle
 Steam is superheated avoiding wet region – passes through
supercritical region of phase diagram.
 Preheating
 Heat recovered from steam to pre-heat water entering boiler.

Refrigeration Systems 23

Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 24
Source: www.eere.energy.gov

12
Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 25
Source: ThermoNet

Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 26
Source: ThermoNet

13
Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 27
Source: ThermoNet

Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 28
Source: ThermoNet

14
Vapour Compression Systems

Process Table for Ideal Vapor-Compression Cycle


Process Component Key Rel'n Energy Balance
1->2 Compressor s2 = s1 wIN,COMPR = h2 - h1
2->3 Condenser P3= P2 qOUT,COND = h2 - h3
Throttling
3->4 h4= h3 h4 = h3
Device
4->1 Evaporator P1= P4 qIN,EVAP = h1 - h4

Refrigeration Systems 29
Source: ThermoNet

Vapour Compression Systems

State Table for Ideal Vapor-Compression Cycle


State T P h s x Phase
Saturated
1 TMIN PMIN s1 1
Vapor
Superheated
2 TMAX PMAX = s2 -
Vapor
Saturated
3 = P2 h3 0
Liquid
Saturated
Liquid-
4 = T1 = P1 = h3 0<x<1
Vapor
Mixture

Refrigeration Systems 30
Source: ThermoNet

15
Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 31
Source: ThermoNet

Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 32
Source: ThermoNet

16
Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 33
Source: ThermoNet

Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 34
Source: ThermoNet

17
Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 35

Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 36

18
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Refrigeration Systems 37

Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 38

19
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Refrigeration Systems 39

Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 40

20
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Refrigeration Systems 41

Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 42

21
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Refrigeration Systems 43

Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 44

22
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Refrigeration Systems 45

Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 46

23
Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 47

Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 48

24
Vapour Compression Systems

Refrigeration Systems 49

Absorption Chillers Process I

 An absorption chiller process works almost in the


same way as a compressor chiller process, but there
is a crucial difference.
 The pressure increasing device is not a compressor,
but a pump.
 This is possible because the gas from the evaporator
is dissolved in a saline solution in the absorber, from
which some heat is extracted.
 The solution is then pumped to the generator, where
heat is added to desorb the refrigerant gas from the
solution.

Refrigeration Systems 50

25
Absorption Chillers Process II

 The high-pressure and high-temperature refrigerant gas then


enters the condenser, while the rest of the saline solution
(strongly absorbant) is transported back to the absorber through
an expansion valve, which lowers the pressure.
 Absorption chillers use heating power instead of electrical power
to generate cooling.
 Although some electricity is obviously required to run the pump
in the process, the amount is more or less insignificant.
 In this context, the term "compressor chiller" is used to
distinguish this process from an absorption chiller process.

Refrigeration Systems 51

Absorption Chillers Process III


 There is usually a heat exchanger between the absorber and the
generator, since the strong solution is much warmer than the weak
one.
 The Figure below shows the Carre´ absorption process, which is the
one most commonly used.
 Usual refrigerants in (Carre´) absorption chillers are water dissolved in
a lithium-bromide solution or ammoniac dissolved in water.

Refrigeration Systems 52

26
The Coefficient of Performance I
 For heat pumps and chillers. a factor called the coefficient of
performance (COP) is used to define the relationship between the
useful cooling or heating power and the required power input.
 the coefficients of performance for heat pump, compressor chiller
and absorption chiller processes are defined according to equations
below:

Refrigeration Systems 53

The Coefficient of Performance II


 The distinction of COPs
between the compressor
processes (heat pumps and
compressor chillers) and the
thermal process (absorption
chiller) is made by the
subscript "h" to the latter
process.
 Between the compressor From the figure a balance of power
processes there is also a gives the following relationship
distinction, expressed by the between heat pump and compressor
chiller processes.
subscripts" 1" for heat pump
processes and "2" for chiller
processes, referring to the
side of the process that is of
interest.
Refrigeration Systems 54

27
The Coefficient of Performance III
 To give an idea of common values of COP. an introduction to the
concept of the Cornot process is needed.
 The Carnot process is a theoretical heat pump or chiller process
without any losses. Such a process could be used to derive a
theoretical coefficient of performance:

Refrigeration Systems 55

The Coefficient of Performance IV


 The relationship between the COPc and the actual COP is
defined as the Carnot efficiency according to:

 The Carnal efficiency is usually abollt 0.4 -0.6 (Granryd, 1998),


if all losses are accounted for.
 The larger the machines are and the higher the evaporator
temperature, the higher the value of the Carnot efficiency will
be.
Refrigeration Systems 56

28
The Coefficient of Performance V
 Using the Carnot efficiency, the COP factors can be expressed by
temperatures and efficiencies.
 In this context, a corresponding Carnot efficiency is applied to the
absorption chiller process as well, and denoted by c1,h.

Refrigeration Systems 57

The Coefficient of Performance VI


 With a Carnot efficiency
of 0.5, The adjacent could
be drawn, illustrating
how the COPs depend on
the process
temperatures.
 The COP of a heat pump
or a chiller rises as the
temperature difference
between evaporator and
condenser decreases.
 The concept is, therefore,
that heat should be
provided to a heat pump
at the highest possible
temperature level, while
heat should be emitted
from a chiller at the
lowest possible
temperature level.
Refrigeration Systems 58

29
Lecture 10 Part II
Energy Utilization
Refrigeration Systems

Blackboard homepage:
lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Taghi Karimipanah
E-mail:
tkh@hig.se
Tel: 073-280 75 47

Refrigeration Systems 1

Vapour Compression Components

Refrigerants

Refrigeration Systems 2

1
Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 3

Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration System Performance Improvement

Refrigeration Systems 4

2
Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 5

Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 6

3
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Refrigeration Systems 7

Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 8

4
Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 9

Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 10

5
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Refrigeration Systems 11

Vapour Compression Components

The effect of a liquid-suction heat exchanger on refrigeration


capacity can be quantified in terms of a relative capacity change
index (RCI) as defined in equation:

Refrigeration Systems 12

6
Vapour Compression Components

System capacity change as function of the liquid-suction heat exchanger effectiveness


ignoring corrections for system mass flow rate changes
Refrigeration Systems 13

Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 14

7
Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 15

Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 16

8
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Refrigeration Systems 17

Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 18

9
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Refrigeration Systems 19

Vapour Compression Components

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10
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Vapour Compression Components

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11
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Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 24

12
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Refrigeration Systems 25

Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 26

13
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Refrigeration Systems 27

Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 28

14
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Refrigeration Systems 29

Vapour Compression Components

Source: Advanced Reciprocating Compression Technology (ARCT)


Refrigeration Systems 30

15
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Source: Advanced Reciprocating Compression Technology (ARCT)


Refrigeration Systems 31

Vapour Compression Components

Source: Advanced Reciprocating Compression Technology (ARCT)


Refrigeration Systems 32

16
Vapour Compression Components

Source: Advanced Reciprocating Compression Technology (ARCT)


Refrigeration Systems 33

Vapour Compression Components

Source: Advanced Reciprocating Compression Technology (ARCT)


Refrigeration Systems 34

17
Vapour Compression Components

Source: Advanced Reciprocating Compression Technology (ARCT)


Refrigeration Systems 35

Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 36

18
Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 37

Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 38

19
Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 39

Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 40

20
Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 41

Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 42

21
Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 43

Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 44

22
Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 45

Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 46

23
Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 47

Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 48

24
Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 49

Vapour Compression Components

Refrigeration Systems 50

25
Vapour Compression Components

Source: BRE, UK Refrigeration Systems 51

Vapour Compression Components

Source: BRE, UK Refrigeration Systems 52

26
Vapour Compression Components

Source: BRE, UK Refrigeration Systems 53

Vapour Compression Components

Source: BRE, UK Refrigeration Systems 54

27
Vapour Compression Components

Source: BRE, UK Refrigeration Systems 55

Vapour Compression Components

Source: BRE, UK Refrigeration Systems 56

28
Vapour Compression Components

Source: BRE, UK Refrigeration Systems 57

Vapour Compression Components

Source: BRE, UK Refrigeration Systems 58

29
Vapour Compression Components

Source: TNO Refrigeration Systems 59

Vapour Compression Components

Source: TNO Refrigeration Systems 60

30
Lecture 10 Part III
Energy Utilization
Refrigeration Systems

Blackboard homepage:
lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Taghi Karimipanah
E-mail:
tkh@hig.se
Tel: 073-280 75 47

Refrigeration Systems 1

Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 2

1
Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 3

Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 4

2
Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 5

Absorption Cooling Systems

Classification of Refrigeration Cycles


 Mechanically Driven Cycles
 Vapor Compression Cycle
 Heat Driven Processes
 Carré Process
 Platen-Munters Process
 Ejector Cycle
 Adsorption Processes
 Expansion Cycles
 Joule Cycle
 Stirling Cycle
 Hilsch Tube (Ranque Vortex Tube)
 Thermoelectric Processes
 Peltier Process

Refrigeration Systems 6

3
Absorption Cooling Systems

Carré Processes

Refrigeration Systems 7

Absorption Cooling Systems

Carré Processes

Refrigeration Systems 8

4
Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 9

Absorption Cooling Systems

Platen-Munters Processes

Refrigeration Systems 10

5
Absorption Cooling Systems

Platen-Munters Evaporator

Refrigeration Systems 11

Absorption Cooling Systems

Platen-Munters Absorbator

Refrigeration Systems 12

6
Absorption Cooling Systems

Platen-Munters Thermosyphon Pump

Refrigeration Systems 13

Absorption Cooling Systems


Platen-Munters Process

Refrigeration Systems 14

7
Absorption Cooling Systems

Expansion Cycles

Refrigeration Systems 15

Absorption Cooling Systems

Joule Cycle

Refrigeration Systems 16

8
Absorption Cooling Systems
Joule Cycle

Refrigeration Systems 17

Absorption Cooling Systems

Joule Cycle

Refrigeration Systems 18

9
Absorption Cooling Systems

Joule Cycle

Refrigeration Systems 19

Absorption Cooling Systems

Joule Cycle

Refrigeration Systems 20

10
Absorption Cooling Systems

Joule Cycle

Refrigeration Systems 21

Absorption Cooling Systems

Joule Cycle - Applications

Refrigeration Systems 22

11
Absorption Cooling Systems

Peltier Process

Refrigeration Systems 23

Absorption Cooling Systems

Peltier Process

Refrigeration Systems 24

12
Absorption Cooling Systems

Peltier Process

Refrigeration Systems 25

Absorption Cooling Systems

New materials bring new hope

Refrigeration Systems 26

13
Absorption Cooling Systems

New materials bring new hope

Refrigeration Systems 27

Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 28

14
Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 29

Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 30

15
Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 31

Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 32

16
Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 33

Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 34

17
Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 35

Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 36

18
Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 37

Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 38

19
Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 39

Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 40

20
Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 41

Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 42

21
Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 43

Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 44

22
Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 45

Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 46

23
Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 47

Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 48

24
Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 49

Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 50

25
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Refrigeration Systems 51

Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 52

26
Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 53

Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 54

27
Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 55

Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 56

28
Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 57

Absorption Cooling Systems

Refrigeration Systems 58

29
Lectures 11, 12 and 13

Energy Utilisation

Blackboard homepage:
lms.hig.se

Prepared by:
Taghi Karimipanah
E-mail:
tkh@hig.se
Tel: 073-280 75 47

Energy efficient uildings 1

Some changes in lectures


As mentioned before, the following items were
included in lecture 6:
Power and Energy
Visualisation and Estimation of Power and Energy
Duration Diagrams

Energy efficient uildings 2

1
Towards Energy Efficient Buildings I
 There are a large number of technologies that have the potential to improve
energy efficiency in buildings.
 The technologies which may achieve energy savings in future are:
1) Solid state lighting - Inorganic and organic light emitting diodes that replace
incandescent and fluorescent lighting in a broad variety of end-uses
2) Advanced geothermal heat pumps - Selective water sorbents and other
technologies that greatly reduce the capital cost and land requirements for
geothermal heat pumps in residential and commercial sectors
3) Integrated energy equipment - Multi-function (cooling, heating, hot water,
dehumidification) and packaged combined heat and power technologies
that integrate multiple energy services into single pieces of equipment to
lower cost and increase efficiency
4) Efficient operations technologies - Information technologies to improve the
functioning of energy-using equipment on an ongoing basis within
buildings
5) Smart roofs - Nano- and micro-technologies that change the reflectance and
infra-red emissivity of roof materials as a function of temperature to retain
heat in winter and reflect heat in summer.

Energy efficient uildings 3

Towards Energy Efficient Buildings II


 Design strategies for energy-efficient buildings include reducing
loads, selecting systems that make the most effective use of
ambient energy sources and heat sinks and using efficient
equipment and effective control strategies.
 An integrated design approach is required to ensure that the
architectural elements and the engineering systems work
effectively together.
 A simple strategy for reducing heating and cooling loads is to
isolate the building from the environment by using high levels of
insulation, optimizing the glazing area and minimizing the
infiltration of outside air. This approach is most appropriate for
cold, overcast climates.
 A more effective strategy in most other climates is to use the
building envelope as a filter, selectively accepting or rejecting solar
radiation and outside air, depending on the need for heating,
cooling, ventilation and lighting at that time and using the heat
capacity of the building structure to shift thermal loads on a time
scale of hours to days.
Energy efficient uildings 4

2
Towards Energy Efficient Buildings III
 The energy use of a building also depends on the behaviour and
decisions of occupants and owners.
 Classic studies at Princeton University showed energy use
variations of more than a factor of two between houses that were
identical but had different occupants (Socolow, 1978).
 Levermore (1985) found a variation of 40% gas consumption and
54% electricity consumption in nine identical children’s homes in
a small area of London. When those in charge of the homes knew
that their consumption was being monitored, the electricity
consumption fell.
 Behaviour of the occupants of non-residential buildings also has a
substantial impact on energy use, especially when the lighting,
heating and ventilation are controlled manually (Ueno et al.,
2006).

Energy efficient uildings 5

Towards Energy Efficient Buildings IV


 Evaluation of the opportunities to reduce energy use in buildings
can be done at the level of individual energy-using devices or at
the level of building ‘systems’ (including building energy
management systems and human behaviour).
 Energy efficiency strategies focused on individual energy-using
devices or design features are often limited to incremental
improvements.
 Examining the building as an entire system can lead to entirely
different design solutions. This can result in new buildings that
use much less energy but are no more expensive than
conventional buildings.

Energy efficient uildings 6

3
Towards Energy Efficient Buildings V
 The efficiency of equipment in buildings continues to
increase in most industrialized and many developing
countries, as it has over the past quarter-century.
 Increasing the efficiency – and where possible reducing the
number and size – of appliances, lighting and other
equipment within conditioned spaces reduces energy
consumption directly and also reduces cooling loads but
increases heating loads, although usually by lesser amounts
and possibly for different fuel types.
 At the early design stages, key decisions – usually made by
the architect – can greatly influence the subsequent
opportunities to reduce building energy use.
 These include building form, orientation, self-shading, height-to-
floor-area ratio and decisions affecting the opportunities for and
effectiveness of passive ventilation and cooling.

Energy efficient uildings 7

Towards Energy Efficient Buildings VI

.

Comparison between typical energy demands in Swedish dwellings (Persson, 2002).

Energy efficient uildings 8

4
Towards Energy Efficient Buildings VII
.

Energy efficient uildings 9

Towards Energy Efficient Buildings VIII


.

Energy efficient uildings 10

5
Towards Energy Efficient Buildings IX
From Annex Directive: I

Energy efficient uildings 11

Towards Energy Efficient Buildings X


From Annex Directive: II

Energy efficient uildings 12

6
Towards Energy Efficient Buildings XI
.

Energy efficient uildings 13

Towards Energy Efficient Buildings XII


Energy Demand in 2000 in the European Union:
 Importance of Energy Saving in Building Sector!

Energy efficient uildings 14

7
Example sheet for power and energy
calculations I

Calculating power
voltage amperes
Hair dryer 120 volts 1.25 amps
Heater 120 volts 10 amps
Toaster 120 volts 1.1 amps
Computer monitor 120 volts 1.5 amps
Refrigerator (small) 120 volts 1.2 amps
Power = voltage x amperes P=VxI
Example
1. Hair dryer P= 120 x 1.25
p= 150 watts

Energy efficient uildings 15

Example sheet for power and energy


calculations II
Calculating Energy
Power Time
Lamp 100 watts 5 hours
Television 200 watts 4.5 hours
Microwave 1500 watts .25 hours
Range 2800 watts 1 hours
Stereo 120 watts 1.5 hours
Energy = power x time E= P x T
Example Kilowatt hour = 1000 watts per hour
1.Lamp E= 100 X 5 kWh= 500/1000
E= 500 kWh= .5 kWh/day

Cost of oreration
cost = kWh X cost/kWh
Example
cost = .5 x .12
Energy efficient uildings 16
cost = .06 per day

8
Energy Analysis Tools I
 Not only do energy analysis software programs have varying
levels of accuracy; they are also intended to be used at different
phases of the design process; and require very different levels
of effort and cost. Most energy analysis tools can be classified
as being one of four generic types.
 Note: The software examples listed are meant to be indicative,
not exhaustive.
 Screening Tools for use primarily during budgeting and
programming of retrofits:
 FRESA
 FEDS
 ASEAM

Energy efficient uildings 17

Energy Analysis Tools II

Architectural Design Tools for use primarily during


programming, schematics, and design development
of new construction and major retrofit:
 ENERGY-10
 Building Design Advisor
 Energy Scheming

Economic Assessment Tools for use throughout the


design process:
 BLCC
 Quick BLCC

Energy efficient uildings 18

9
Energy Analysis Tools III
 Load Calculation and HVAC Sizing Tools for use primarily
during design development and construction documentation of
new construction and major retrofit:
 HAP
 TRACE
 DOE-2
 BLAST
 VisualDOE
 EnergyPlus

Energy efficient uildings 19

Energy Saving Mechanisms for Building


Some energy-saving techniques may be used to
reduce building energy use:
 Organizing the building configuration and massing to
reduce loads.
 Reducing cooling loads by eliminating undesirable solar
heat gain.
 Reducing heating loads by using desirable solar heat gain.
 Using natural light as a substitute for (or complement to)
electrical lighting.
 Using natural ventilation whenever possible.
 Using more efficient heating and cooling equipment to
satisfy reduced loads.
 Using computerised building control systems.

Energy efficient uildings 20

10
Energy Efficient Designing of Air Conditioning I

 In the simplest HVAC systems, heating or cooling is


provided by circulating a fixed amount of air at a sufficiently
warm or cold temperature to maintain the desired room
temperature.
 The rate at which air is circulated in this case is normally
much greater than that needed for ventilation to remove
contaminants.
 During the cooling season, the air is supplied at the coldest
temperature needed in any zone and reheated as necessary
just before entering other zones.

Energy efficient uildings 21

Energy Efficient Designing of Air Conditioning II

 There are a number of changes in the design of HVAC


systems that can achieve dramatic savings in the energy use
for heating, cooling and ventilation. These include:
 (i) using variable-air volume systems so as to minimize
simultaneous heating and cooling of air;
 (ii) using heat exchangers to recover heat or coldness from
ventilation exhaust air;
 (iii) minimizing fan and pump energy consumption by controlling
rotation speed;
 (iv) separating the ventilation from the heating and cooling
functions by using chilled or hot water for temperature control and
circulating only the volume of air needed for ventilation;
 (v) separating cooling from dehumidification functions through the
use of desiccant dehumidification;

Energy efficient uildings 22

11
Energy Efficient Designing of Air Conditioning III

 (vi) implementing a demand-controlled ventilation system in which


ventilation airflow changes with changing building occupancy which
alone can save 20 to 30% of total HVAC energy use (Brandemuehl
and Braun, 1999);
 (vii) correctly sizing all components; and
 (viii) allowing the temperature maintained by the HVAC system to
vary seasonally with outdoor conditions (a large body of evidence
indicates that the temperature and humidity set-points commonly
encountered in air-conditioned buildings are significantly lower than
necessary (de Dear and Brager, 1998; Fountain et al., 1999), while
computer simulations by Jaboyedoff et al. (2004) and by Jakob et al.
(2006) indicate that increasing the thermostat by 2°C to 4°C will
reduce annual cooling energy use by more than a factor of three for
a typical office building in Zurich, and by a factor of two to three if
the thermostat setting is increased from 23°C to 27°C for night-time
air conditioning of bedrooms in apartments in Hong Kong (Lin and
Deng, 2004). Energy efficient uildings 23

Energy Efficient Designing of Air Conditioning IV

 Additional energy savings can be obtained in ‘mixed-mode’


buildings, in which natural ventilation is used whenever
possible, making use of the extended comfort range
associated with operable windows, and mechanical cooling
is used only when necessary during periods of very warm
weather or high building occupancy.
 The following are alternatives to conventional HVAC systems
in commercial buildings that together can reduce the HVAC
system energy use by 30 to 75%. These savings are in
addition to the savings arising from reducing heating and
cooling loads:
 Radiant chilled-ceiling cooling
 Displacement ventilation

Energy efficient uildings 24

12
Energy Efficient Designing of Air Conditioning V

 Radiant chilled-ceiling cooling:


 A room may be cooled by chilling a large fraction of the ceiling by
circulating water through pipes or lightweight panels. Chilled
ceiling (CC) cooling has been used in Europe since at least the mid-
1970s.
 Significant energy savings arise because of the greater
effectiveness of water than air in transporting heat and because the
chilled water is supplied at 16°C to 20°C rather than at 5°C to 7°C.
 This allows a higher chiller COP when the chiller operates, but also
allows more frequent use of ‘water-side free cooling,’ in which the
chiller is bypassed altogether and water from the cooling tower is
used directly for space cooling.
 For example, a cooling tower alone could directly meet the cooling
requirements 97% of the time in Dublin, Ireland and 67% of the time
in Milan, Italy if the chilled water is supplied at 18°C (Costelloe and
Finn, 2003).
Energy efficient uildings 25

Energy Efficient Designing of Air Conditioning VI

 Displacement Ventilation:
 Conventional ventilation relies on turbulent mixing to dilute room
air with ventilation air.
 A superior system is ‘displacement ventilation’ (DV) in which air is
introduced at low speed through many diffusers in the floor or
along the sides of a room and is warmed by internal heat sources
(occupants, lights, plug-in equipment) as it rises to the top of the
room, displacing the air already present.
 The thermodynamic advantage of displacement ventilation is that
the supply air temperature is significantly higher for the same
comfort conditions (about 18ºC compared with about 13ºC in a
conventional mixing ventilation system).
 It also permits significantly smaller airflow.

Energy efficient uildings 26

13
Building Energy Management Systems I
 In a wider sense, the concept of energy management can be
described as the continuous management of energy related
issues leading to an efficient use of energy, from both economic
and environmental viewpoints.
 To facilitate the concept raises questions of quite a different
nature: establishment or company energy policies, education of
personnel. energy auditing, contacts with consultants,
establishment and measurement of indoor climate parameters,
etc.
 As early as during the design phase of new buildings, these
questions should be dealt with.
 It is at this stage that the building can be designed to facilitate
the later work with energy management, e.g. by taking into
consideration the future options to make rational measurements
of energy.
 However. Here we concentrate on existing buildings and how to
handle their use of energy.
Energy efficient uildings 27

Building Energy Management Systems II

At the early stage or implementing an energy


management programme, the company management
should do as follows (ASHRAE Handbook, 1995 and
Turner, 1997):
 Establish a cost centre within the company.
 Define limits of the responsibilities,
 Appoint one person responsible for the programme,
 Assign the programme resources,
 Be sure that information about the programme is made known
throughout the company,
 Draw up guidelines for how the cost effectiveness of the
programme shall be measured,
 Establish clear targets for the programme, and
 Decide how 10 determine whether the targets are met.

Energy efficient uildings 28

14
Building Energy Management Systems III
 BEMSs are control systems for individual buildings or
groups of buildings that use computers and distributed
microprocessors for monitoring, data storage and
communication (Levermore, 2000).
 The BEMS can be centrally located and communicate over
telephone or Internet links with remote buildings having
‘outstations’ so that one energy manager can manage many
buildings remotely.
 With energy meters and temperature, occupancy and lighting
sensors connected to a BEMS, faults can be detected
manually or using automated fault detection software
(Katipamula et al., 1999), which helps avoid energy waste
(Burch et al., 1990). With the advent of inexpensive, wireless
sensors and advances in information technology, extensive
monitoring via the Internet is possible.
Energy efficient uildings 29

Building Energy Management Systems IV


 Estimates of BEMS energy savings vary considerably: up to
27% (Birtles and John, 1984); between 5% and 40%
(Hyvarinen, 1991; Brandemuehl and Bradford, 1999;
Brandemuehl and Braun, 1999; Levermore, 2000); up to 20%
in space heating energy consumption and 10% for lighting
and ventilation; and 5% to 20% overall (Roth et al., 2005).
 When a person is appointed to be responsible for the energy
management programme, it is necessary that this should not
simply be added to his or her ordinary tasks. This person
must have the necessary time made available to efficiently
carry out the new tasks. The person must also have the
leadership and other skills to carry out the tasks of this
position. If the leader appointed lacks any skills needed,
training should be provided.

Energy efficient uildings 30

15
Building Energy Management Systems V

 To be able to carry out all related duties, the


person appointed for energy management should
be competent in, for example:
 The energy system of the building, both design and function;
 Electricity tariff structures and, when needed, tariff
structures for district heating and/or cooling:
 Understanding when energy audits are necessary; and
 Oral and writing communication skills.

Energy efficient uildings 31

Building Energy Management Systems VI


 Major stages in introducing and carrying out an energy management programme:

Energy efficient uildings 32

16
Energy Audit for Buildings I

 The term energy audit is commonly used to describe a


wide variety of energy-related functions.
 Definitions range from a very simple and inexpensive
process to one of high complexity, involving a detailed
data analysis of simulated energy use, along with
microeconomic numbers.
 Audits can be performed on all facility types and may
include the entire facility or be limited to targeted areas of
the facility, specific equipment or isolated processes/
systems.

Energy efficient uildings 33

Energy Audit for Buildings II

 Audits should include the following:


 Data Acquisition. Identify where and how a facility, process
or equipment uses energy, along with the costs and utility
issues affecting the energy consumption.
 Data Analysis. Perform analysis to identify Energy
Conservation Measures ECMs, which, when implemented,
will make the energy usage more efficient, less expensive
and/or more environmentally friendly.
 Recommendations. Present a final report detailing what was
found, areas for improvement and recommended actions,
usually accompanied with some type of economic
justification.

Energy efficient uildings 34

17
Energy Audit for Buildings III
 The energy audit in a building is a feasibility study.
 For it not only serves to identify energy use among the
various services and to identify opportunities for energy
conservation, but it is also a crucial first step in establishing
an energy management programme.
 The audit will produce the data on which such a programme
is based.
 The study should reveal to the owner, manager, or
management team of the building the options available for
reducing energy waste, the costs involved, and the benefits
achievable from implementing those energy-conserving
opportunities (ECOs).

Energy efficient uildings 35

Energy Audit for Buildings IV


 Instead, the energy management programme is a systematic
on-going strategy for controlling a building's energy
consumption pattern.
 It is to reduce waste of energy and money to the minimum
permitted by the climate the building is located, its functions,
occupancy schedules, and other factors.
 It establishes and maintains an efficient balance between a
building's annual functional energy requirements and its
annual actual energy consumption.

Energy efficient uildings 36

18
Energy Audit for Buildings V

 STAGES IN ENERGY PROGRAMME: I


 The energy audit may range from a simple walk-through
survey at one extreme to one that may span several phases.
 These phases include a simple walk-through survey,
followed by monitoring of energy use in the building
services, and then model analysis using computer
simulation of building operation.
 The complexity of the audit is therefore directly related to the
stages or degree of sophistication of the energy
management programme and the cost of the audit exercise.

Energy efficient uildings 37

Energy Audit for Buildings VI


 STAGES IN ENERGY PROGRAMME: II
 The first stage is to reduce energy use in areas where energy is
wasted and reductions will not cause disruptions to the various
functions.
 The level of service must not be compromised by the reduction
in energy consumed.
 It begins with a detailed, step-by-step analysis of the building's
energy use factors and costs, such as insulation values,
occupancy schedules, chiller efficiencies, lighting levels, and
records of utility and fuel expenditures.
 It includes the identification of specific Energy-Conserving
Opportunities ECOs, along with the cost-effective benefits of
each one.

Energy efficient uildings 38

19
Energy Audit for Buildings VII
 STAGES IN ENERGY PROGRAMME: III
 The completed study would provide the building owner with a
thorough and detailed basis for deciding which ECOs to
implement, the magnitude of savings to be expected, and the
energy conservation goals to be established and achieved in
the energy management programme.
 However, the Energy-Conserving Opportunities, ECOs, may
yield modest gains.
 The second stage is to improve efficiency of energy conversion
equipment and to reduce energy use by proper operations and
maintenance.
 For this reason, it is necessary to reduce the number of
operating machines and operating hours according to the
demands of the load, and fully optimize equipment operations.

Energy efficient uildings 39

Energy Audit for Buildings VIII


 STAGES IN ENERGY PROGRAMME: IV
 Hence the Energy-Conserving Opportunities, ECOs, for second
stage would include the following:
 Building equipment operation,
 Building envelope,
 Air-conditioning and mechanical ventilation equipment and
systems,
 Lighting systems,
 Power systems, and
 Miscellaneous services.
 The first two stages can be can be implemented without
remodelling buildings and existing facilities.

Energy efficient uildings 40

20
Energy Audit for Buildings IX
 STAGES IN ENERGY PROGRAMME: V
 The third stage would require changes to the underlying
functions of buildings by remodelling, rebuilding, or
introducing further control upgrades to the building.
 This requires some investment.
 The last stage is to carry out large-scale energy reducing
measures when existing facilities have past their useful life, or
require extensive repairs or replacement because of
obsolescence.
 In this case higher energy savings may be achieved.
 For these last two stages, the audit may be more extensive in
order to identify more ECOs for evaluation, but at an increased
need for heavier capital expenditure to realize these
opportunities.

Energy efficient uildings 41

Energy Audit for Buildings X


 Surveying the building: I
 Preliminary survey, Prior to the walk-through survey, the
auditor may need to know the building and the way it is used.
The information can be obtained from:
 Architectural blueprints,
 Air-conditioning blueprints,
 Electrical lighting and power blueprints,
 Utility bills and operation logs for the year preceding the audit,
 Air-conditioning manuals and system data, and
 Building and plant operation schedules.

Energy efficient uildings 42

21
Energy Audit for Buildings XI
 Surveying the building: II
 Thus having familiarized with the building, the Walk-through
survey, process could be relatively straightforward, if the
blueprints and other preliminary information available
describes the building and its operation accurately.
 The process could begin with a walk around the building to
study the building envelope. Building features such as building
wall colour, external sun-shading devices, window screens and
tint, and so on are noted as possible ECOs.
 If a model analysis is included in the study, the building must
be divided into zones of analysis.

Energy efficient uildings 43

Energy Audit for Buildings XII

 Operator’s input:
 The auditor may discuss with the building maintenance staff
further on the operating schedules and seek clarification on
any unusual pattern in the trend of the utility bills.
 Unusual patterns such as sudden increase or decrease in
utility bills could be caused by changes in occupancy in the
building, or change in use by existing tenants.
 It is not uncommon for tenants to expand their computing
operations that may increase the energy use significantly.

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Energy Audit for Buildings XIII
 Report:
 At this stage, Energy-Conserving Opportunities ,ECOs, could
be found in measures such as:
 Reduce system operating hours,
 Adjust space temperature and humidity,
 Reduce building envelope gain,
 Adjust space ventilation rates and building exfiltration,
 Review system air and water distribution,
 Adjust chiller water temperatures, and
 Review chiller operations.
 The benefit from adopting each ECO should be compared
against cost of implementation. Caution should be exercised in
the cost-benefit analysis given the wider range of certainty of
the projections made. However, a survey at this level may be
sufficient for small buildings.
Energy efficient uildings 45

Energy Audit for Buildings IVX


 Measurements:
 The capability of the energy auditor and the scope of an audit
could be extended by the use of in place instrumentation and
temporary monitoring equipment.
 In-place instrumentation refers to existing utility metering, air-
conditioning control instrumentation and Energy Management
Systems (EMS).
 The use of in-place utility metering and temporary monitoring
equipment in energy auditing can yield valuable information
about the building systems such as:
 Energy signature and end-use consumption analysis,
 Discovery and identification of ECOs,
 Quantification of energy use and misuse,
 Establishing bounds for potential energy reduction, and
 Data acquisition for further calculation and analysis.
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Energy Audit for Buildings IVX
 Existing Information:
 Existing instrumentation such as utility meter readings, and energy
billings could be used to establish energy consumption patterns for
the building.
 The regularity of consumption pattern is an indicator that no
significant change in consumption occurred prior to the audit.
 This can also be used to check the validity of projections based on
extrapolated short-term monitored data.
 Utility data could be used to establish useful indices such as
kWh/m2/year to compare relative energy performance of buildings.
 Air-conditioning control instrumentation such as chilled water
temperature probes, water flow meters could be used to estimate
cooling load demand and plant operation.
 For example, chilled water temperature outside the designed range
may indicate that cooling coils may be operating under offdesign
conditions.
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Energy Audit for Buildings VX


 Short Term Monitoring:
 The building may not be equipped for monitoring energy consumption
and it may be necessary to install temporary measurement devices
such as instantaneous recorders (strip chart, data loggers, etc) and
totalizing recorders (kWH meters) to obtain data over the period of a
week for the study.
 Monitored data is also useful for completing the energy model of a
building for use in some building energy simulation software.
 For example the total building energy consumption would include
energy used in the vertical transportation system and potable water
pumps which are not modelled in the software.
 An estimate for annual consumption is extrapolated from the typical
week consumption profile.
 Regularity of the weekly consumption profile means that the annual
consumption could be estimated with confidence and the value used
to cross check with the annual energy bills.

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Energy Audit for Buildings VIX

 Model Analysis: I
 Building energy consumption in simplest terms is just the
product of rate of consumption of a system and the period of
operation.
 In lighting systems, its energy consumption could be
determined manually with precision as it does not interact with
other consumption variables.
 Energy consumption of cooling systems, however, is many
times more complicated as it is affected by the internal heat
gain within a building as well as weather variables, which
varies in a complex manner over time.

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Energy Audit for Buildings VIIX

 Model Analysis: II
 Building model analysis using computers offers several
improvements over manual calculations. These include:
 Precise schedule of building parameters,
 Precise determination of weather impact,
 Specification of part load performance of plant and equipment,
and
 Consideration of parameter interactions such as lighting load
on air-conditioning consumption.

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Energy Audit for Buildings VIIIX

 Model Analysis: III


 Some software permit hour-by-hour calculations of building
consumption for the entire 8760 hours of the year, but require
thorough knowledge of the software to carry out accurate and
meaningful analysis.
 Simplified software based on consumption analysis on
characteristic days may also be considered.
 However, the improvements in computational power of the
desktop PC has introduced several powerful features and user-
friendly graphical interface possible in more recent versions of
such software making it more accessible to the practicing
engineer.

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Energy Audit for Buildings IXX

 Model Analysis: IV
 The general procedure for an analysis would be to establish a model
giving an annual consumption within 10% of the measured data.
 This establishes the base model.
 The impact of Energy-Conserving Opportunities, ECOs, on energy
consumption would be compared against the base model.
 ECOs could be considered singly or in combinations to determine
interactions between them.
 The results of the energy savings in each analysis should not be taken
as absolute but rather taken to be relative to the base run so as to give
an indication of the order of magnitude of savings.
 Thus those ECOs which shows significant gains would be
implemented.

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Energy Audit for Buildings XX

 Components which should be included in an energy


audit:

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Energy Audit for Buildings XXI

 Summary:
 The objective of energy audit is to identify the end use of
energy in building and its Energy-Conserving Opportunities,
ECOs; and as a feasibility study leading to implementation of
an energy management programme.
 The audit procedures can be expanded as needed in the
various phases of the energy programme, with the application
of each succeeding phase yielding more information on energy
use, and more opportunities for raising energy efficiency.

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Energy Performance Assessment for Equipment
and Utility Systems
 We may analyse and utilise the following equipments and utilities
to achieve a reasonable energy performance:
 Boilers & Steam system
 Furnaces
 Cogeneration , Turbines (Gas, Steam)
 Heat Exchangers
 Electric Motors and Variable Speed Drives
 Fans and blowers
 Water Pumps
 Compressors
 HVAC Systems
 Lighting Systems
 Performing Financial Analysis
 Application of non-Conventional and Renewable Energy Sources

 Waste Minimization and Resource Conservation


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Concept of Renewable Energy I


 Renewable energy sources also called non-conventional energy, are
sources that are continuously replenished by natural processes.
 For example, solar energy, wind energy, bio-energy - bio-fuels grown
sustain ably), hydropower etc., are some of the examples of
renewable energy sources.
 renewable energy system converts the energy found in sunlight,
wind, falling-water, seawaves, geothermal heat, or biomass into a
form, we can use such as heat or electricity. Most of the renewable
energy comes either directly or indirectly from sun and wind and can
never be exhausted, and therefore they are called renewable.
 However, most of the world's energy sources are derived from
conventional sources-fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural
gases. These fuels are often termed non-renewable energy sources.
 Although, the available quantity of these fuels are extremely large,
they are nevertheless finite and so will in principle 'run out' at some
time in the future.
 Renewable energy sources are essentially flows of energy, whereas
the fossil and nuclear fuels are, in essence, stocks of energy.

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Concept of Renewable Energy II

Various forms of renewable energy:


 Solar energy
 Wind energy
 Bio energy
 Hydro energy
 Geothermal energy
 Wave and tidal energy

Energy efficient uildings 57

References
1. Per Erik Nilsson (editor), Achieving the Desired Indoor
Climate –Energy Efficiency Aspects of System Design,
2003, Studentlitteratur, ISBN 91-44-03235-8, Printed in
Denmark by Narayana Press, www.studentlitteratur.se.
2. http://www.bdg.nus.edu.sg/BuildingEnergy/
3. Costelloe, B. and D. Finn, 2003: Indirect evaporative
cooling potential in air-water systems in temperate
climates. Energy and Buildings, 35, pp. 573-591.
4. Lin, Z. and S. Deng, 2004: A study on the characteristics of
night time bedroom cooling load in tropics and subtropics.
Building and Environment, 39, pp. 1101-1114.
5. Guidebooks for National Certification Examination for
Energy Managers and Energy Auditors in India. 2007.

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