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TriaxiaI=Load=CapacityDiagrams
Provide a New Approach to Casing
and Tubing Design Analysis
Rick Johnson, SPE, Oil Techmlocw SemitesInc.
Michael J. Jeltison, SPE, al Technology Semites Inc.
Erich F. Klementich, SPE, 011 Technology Services Inc.

5@5 13434
Summary. A computer program hns been developed that generates a two-dimensional (2D) graphic’
representation to display the effect of anticipated service conditions on specific casing and tubhtg. The triaxial-
load-capacity diagram permits a visuaf determination of string design adequacy by bait API and equivalent-
triaxial-stress design factors. The program is useful in the design ad analysis of any casing or tnblng string.

Introduction
Hktorically, there has been wide vsriation in minimum determined from the diagram. The load path is useful in
acceptable’ ‘design factors” of oil-coutwy tubular goods. developing tsst losds for connection paformance tests and
This situation has been complicated recently by the in- load application sequences for eIastic/plsstic finite-dement
creasing acceptance of ,Jriaxial-stress analysis. Conse- modeling of connections.
quently, difficulties exist for engimxws and managers in Examples of the use of load-capacity diagrams in the
evaluating string designs of bnth in-house and outside- design of drilling and production casing are presented.
operated wells.
The anticipated service lnads along the length of the
string csn be plotted on computer-generated triaxiaf-load- Discussion
capacity diagrams. In addition, the specified API-Ioad- A nnmber of parameters useful in understanding a uiaxial-
capacity design factors for pressure (burst and collapse) load-capacity dkagratn are defined as follows. The API
and ,psion can be graphically repreaentd. A direct vismd operating window is”the area enclosed by the API pres-
comparison can be mnde between the anticipated service snre and tension capacity of the pipe adjusted by suitable
loada and the API-load-capacity and triaxial-sttesa- design factors. The biaxial effect of tension on coIIapsc -
intenait y design factors. resistance is included.
An absolute method for evaluating the pmfornx+nce of The WE stress curve defines the sttess level in rite pipe
casing and tubing string designs d~s not exist. Current- in terms of internal or external pressure and axial force.
ly, this evaluation is based on various minimum API-Ioad- The VME design factor is simply the yield strength of
capacity and equivalent-triaxial-stress design factors. the material divided by the triaxial stress,
The triaxial-load-capacity diagram is a representation A lood path shows the varintion in service loads of a
of the von Mises equivalent (VME) trizxiaktress inten- casing or tubing string over time. The service fife enve-
sity in relation to axial force and either internal m exter. lope outlines the extreme limits of the anticipated service
nal pressure. Bscause triaxial stress is defined by these conditions for the string under considemtion.
three independent variables, a normalization operation is The API specifies manufacturing tolerances for the OD
required to create a 2D representation. The nonnalii- and wnll tttkkness of tubulars. 1 API m“m”mum pipe is de-
tion procedure used here and discussed in the Appendix fined as having the dimensions that produce the maximum
uses the planes where external pressure equals O psi [0 rriaxisl stress at the ID surface of the pipe body and eor-
MPa] in thrse dimensions as the top hcdf or burst region responds to the maximum de Ih ratio.
of the diagram. The plane where internal pressure is O Fig. 1 is a load-capacity diagram for P-110, long thteads
psi [0 MPa] corresponds to the collapse region of the di- nnd coupling (LT&C) casing of 7 in. [17.8 cm] and 38
agram. For burst loads, the normzhzed internal pressure lbtnhl [56.6 kg/m]. Two VfvfE curves are pIotted fur API
generating the same triaxiat stress with the same axial minimum pipe. The solid VME curve corresponds to a
force as the combined Ioad, but at O-psi [0-MPa] exter- triaxial smess of 110,000 psi [758 MPa]. A VME desigm
nal pressure, is calculated and plotted on the d~grmn. An factor of 1.25 is represented by the dashed curve.
analogous procedure is used to obtain a normalized ex- The load cnpaci!y of the casing as determined by API
ternal pressure under collapse loading. formulas is also shown in the diagmm.z API-load-
The program is useful in the design and analysis of any
casing or tubing string. Furthermore, bec.zuse all the ml-
capacity design factors of 1.0 in burst, collapse, and ten-
sion are dkplayed. Note that the connection is leak-
I
ticipated service loads for the life of the string cm be plot- resistance limited.
ted, both a service-life envelope and a load path can be Fig. 1 shows that the colkipse resistance predicted by
copyright i9s7 society .$1Pe!rdwn Engl.w5 API formulas can be higher than the load capacity in col-

268 SPE Drilling Ensimefing. S.ptemba 1987

I
BURST API Mniwz Zntwnal Yield Press. re/i. oo
API Minimum Pipe, VHE-11O ksi \
P, (@ WI Joint StFengt~ ,“ T,”,, W,,.BO
L’ME: 08 k, f (DF- 1.25) \;\,
\ \, _ \ ,.-0 ,$! ,
I
--—— _, w.
‘\.
I
API 1.,,,”,1 Pr,sw, _ ,_
(Leak) Re$i$t,nc,/~ .00

I . \
5000- -

~ 1
~ -F, S@)
~
: 500
.
/
-5000
/
,’
0
- moc
I ‘ .___”_--”

~Oo API CO1],W R,, istan<e with ,,”s1,”/,.000

Fq. o psi
P. (Psi)
/’ ,OL,A ,,E
API ,.1,.,s; P..ssu.,/*. oov

’19. I—WE l~d-wmiy dawn for P-llIJ, l-T&C casing of 7 in., 38 Ibm/ft, and 0.540.in. wall. :

.’

BCR5T
PI Max]... PLPe, VME= 80 ksl .

PI Minimum Pipe, VME= 80 ksi

Pt=O psi
P. (Psi) ~y
COLL,PSE

f+9. 2—VME Ioad-capaciw dia9mm; effect of API dimensional tolerances on N-30, LT&C casing
c)f 754 in. and 29.7 Ibm/ft.
t

lapse on @e basis of the distortion+mergy theory of failure. iations .in pipe d@ensions and do’ not consider changis
for API minimum pipe. 2 Under no axial load, the burst in yield strength. A wide range of pe~ormance proper-
capacity determined by the triaxial stress agrees closely ties is possible for ‘a given size and grade because of the
with the API tilmum internal yield pressure for the pipe API dimensional tolerances.
body. Typically, +e evaluation of a casing or tubing design
Th.i effect of API dimensional tolerances on N-SO involves a comparison of the maximum anticipated ap-
casing of 7X in. [19.4 cm] and 29.7 lbm/ft [44.2 kg/m] plied load and the load r?ting of the pipe. Design factors,
(nonii@dJ1-z=20 .33) is shown in Fig. 2. Burst and col- often referred to as API-load-capacity design factors, re-
lapse capacities based on triaxiahtress vaw” bv 1.400 usi sult from this compzison. Equivalent-triaxiti-stress in-,
[~.65 MPa] between API minimum pipe ~d<jh=23.~1) tensi~ is rarely considered. 4 ~‘
mid API maximam pipe (de/h= 18 .72). The axial strength Figs. .3 and 4’ compare design operating limits based
of the pipe body based on yield strength ranges from a on API-load-capacity design factors and triaxial-stress de-
low of about 660 kips [2.94 MN] for minimum p@ to sign factors for N-SO, LT&C casing of 7% in. [19.4 cm]
a high of about 710 Mps [3.16 MNl for maximum pipe. and 29.7 lbm/ft [44.2 kg/m] and for c-90, premium me,
These variations in load capacity are based solelyon var- td seal (PMS) casing of7~ in. [19.4 cm] and 55.3 lbm/ft

SPE Drilling Engin=ring, September 1987 269


EURST , hP1 Min,mm 1ntem7a1 7,,16 PPes*uPell .30
APi il.,.”. ?, D,, VMF= 60 k,, . .
wE- 64 k,, [CF. :.251 ~~ ,

,_ —__ ,

; -~, ,Kp,)
:
# -EOOf -400( ’200 2ao 400 “ 60
~
I /

I /
/

-, -
WI ,011,,,, HA&, with ,.., !../,. m,

p,=o PSI

c.. (@)
/’” ,Ocu -..
*P1 collapse P.,,,”reli. ioo,

Fig. 3—.VME load-capacity diagram design factor comparison of N-30, LT&C eating of 7%
‘n. and 29.7 Ibm/ft.

BURST ~p, ~$njm ~kepn,l yl,,o p,,,.,,,,, ,30


tP1 Hinimum Pipe, WE- 90 ksf ,,
.VME? 72 ksi (DE- 1.251 , \

I / ~ooo - .

:,- ~A ~p,)
3 ~
%
-500
2

,
,

--__—— -
~5Qoo @l C,lla,,, Wish with 1,.s,../<. ,,0
/~
*.O ps[

//~ ‘P. (psi]


API CollaPS. Ptessur.fi, %00 ~ COLL4P,E

‘i9. 4—vfJ E load-capacity diagram; .Ffwm fa~or comparison of C-9C7, PF.IS casiw of 7%
n. and 55.3 Ibm/ft.

[82.3 kg/ml. .A PMS connection is a premium connec- capacity design fuktor in collapse with tension for C-90
tion with a metal-to-metal internal pressure” seal. Both casing of 7X in. [19.4 cm] snd .55.3 lbm/tl [82.3 kg/m]
figures show that casin~ strings based solely on API de- corresponds to a triaxiakstress design factor of less
sign factors can be underdesigned. .Thk problem is more than 1.0.
severe for heavier-wall pipe with lower d. /h ratios. AI- Fig. 5 is included to show&at the Ioadcapacity based ., ‘
tmnatively, large-size cas;ng wi~h hk$ de//? ratios can on triaxial’ stress for pipe of a. given size is controlled by
be overdesigned if only. API load capacities are con- wall thickness and yield str<ngth. Both VfvfE ctimesare
sidered. “ for API mtilmum pipe with i minimum internal yield “
The operating limit for iotlapse, based on API formu- pressure of 15,490 psi [106.8 M%].
las with a 1.1 collapse design factor, is outside the oper- Figs. 6 and 7 are similar to Fig. 2 except that varia-
ating limit based on Uiaxial-stress considerations and a tions in yield strength are included. These ti=mes” show
1.25 triaxiai-stress design factor on API minimum pipe a large difference in load capacities between minimum
for 7%-in. [19.4-cm] pipe of both 29.7 and 55.3 Ibm/ft pipe wi~ the rated yield strength and maximum pipe with
[44.2 and 82.3 kg/m]. Furth@nore, a 1.1 API-load- the maximum yield stren=~. Figs. 6 and 7 also demon-
774 in., 39.lbm/lt, 0,50Mn, wall, U.t35 \

% in., 55.3 Ibmm, 0.75c-in. wall, Cw ‘

‘<-p” ~

!2

-iOOO ’500
:

-5000

-10000

- i5000

p,. o psi

Fig. 5—VME load-capacity diagra~ effect of grade on API minimum pipe with”minimum in-
ternal vield
,. nressure of 15.490 DSL
I

BURST
PI Maximum Pipe, VME-l10 ksi \
15000t p,(psil ,.
PI Minimum Pipe. WE= 80 ksi, ‘\ . —... ,=,
,,=”

.
~ - 0.,
/ -500 , I I 500 /

q
COLLAPSE

‘lg. 6+JME load-capacity diagram; effect of pipe property tolerances on N.80, LT&C casing
If 7% m. and 29.7 Ibm/ft.

strate that in many cases the API load ratings are conser- string is less than 1.1 and tAe triaxial-stress design factor
vative because the ac@ pipe properties are more islesstban 1.25. Thedia.wam graphically shows tbatfhe
favorable thari the. pipe properties on which the API load design is deficient in collapse under these conditions.
ratings ace based. Themostsevered ifferential-burst-pre.ssureloadcon-
The effect Of service-load con@io,m can be plotted on dltions are surface tubing leaks-Numbers 4 and 8. These
a triaxisl-load-capacity diagram and compared directly service loads are outside the API operating limit defined
with the operating limits of the pipe defined by both API by a 1.3 burst desigh factor on the pipe body. The design
and triaxial-stress design factors. F~g. 8 inclu&s seryice- is adequate for these conditions, however, becauSe@e ‘
Ioad lines for a P-1 10 production casing string of 7% in. miiimum tfimisl-stress design factor is above 1:25.
[19.4 cm] and 45.3 lbm/ft [67.4 kg/m] generated by a Service Conditions 19 and 22-stimukXion iind ficture,,
casing. analysis model.4 Only the most severe service respectively—’tie the bigbest-tension-load cases. The di:
condkions we shown. agram shotis that the stimulation’and fracture condhiqns
During complete evacuation—Service Conditions 1 and do not produce unacceptably high stresses in the pipe
2—the API collapse design factor at tbebottom of the body, but, anrinimum API-load-capacity tension design

SPEDrilling Engineering, September 1987 271


BUST
PI Maxi... Pipe. .vME- 105 ksi..

‘1 ““i””” ‘“e’ ‘ME- ‘0 ‘s’ ‘+\

,~”

25000
P, (Psi]
t
COLLAPSE

Fig. 7—VME’load-capacity diagram effect of pipe property tolerances on G90, PMS casing
r.f 7% in. and 55.3 IbmIft.

P, IPSO I
COLLAPSE

Fig. 8—VME load-capacity diagram range of O to 16,000 ft with the top of cement at 14,000
It P-110 pipe body of 7%in. and 45.3 IbmIft.

factor of 1.6 is not maintained on the connection.


‘he dashed lines connecting, the service-load line: in- Triaxial-load-capacity diagrams ‘provide i,useful tool in
dicate two possible load paths for testing the connection. the analysis, of casing and tubing designs. The effect of
Load-path lines can also he used to determine load appli- service-load conditions Cm hi. evaluated hy both API and
cation sequences for elasticlplastic finite-element model- triazial-wress design factors. The effe@ of pipe-body di-
ing of the connection. mensional tolerances can also be displayed. The diagram
~~ A service-life envelope for the casing under consider- provides a visual summary of the suitability of a particu-
ation can be generated by connecting the outermost points lar hibular design. :
of the different service-load lines. This is shown in Fig. The diagram can ako be useful for: developing and
9. A comparison of the service-Iife envelope to the VME representing loading sequences for the performagce:test-
stress curves determines the maximum anticipated stress ing of pipe. Test loads consisting of axial force with either
levels for the pipe and visually shows the suitability ,of internal or extemsl pressure can be designed easily to
the striug design. cover the anticipated service-life envelope for the pipe,

272 SPE Dcilli.g E@eering, September 1937


BURST
API Minimum Pipe \
p, [psi]
VME=, E8 ksi [oF= 1.251 \’\.

3
c . FA (kiPsJ
:
~ ,i;
-500
: I

I
.,
I

,.

P. (Psi)
COLLAPSE

I !9. 9—VkfE
:ement at 14,000
load-capacity diag:am; service-window range of O to 16,oOO ff with the top of.
f~ P-110 casing of 7% in. and 45.3 IbmIft.

thereby ensuring compatibilky between perfomrarrce test- The radial and hoop stresses are determined, from the
ing and application. Lsmi equations for tilck-wall cylinders. 3 The following
.eqrrafions apply to the ID surface of the pipe, where the
Nornenolature maximum triaxid stress wifl occur.
CI,CZ...C5 = constonts, dimensionless
C,= constant, dmensiOnJess G,=-pi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (A-2) ‘.’
de = OD, in. [cm]

““
and
di: = ID, in. [cm]
F~ =axialforce (positive tension), lbf[NJ
h = wall thickness, in. [cm]
p= = extemd pressure, psi ~a] “H=(-)p’-(-)pe :’A:”” “ ‘
‘ pi = iqterrral pressure, psi [kPa]
a~ = axiaf stress, psi [kPa] Substif”ting Eqs. ,A:2 and A-3 into A-1 arid rearqwrging
UH = hoop stress, psi EPa] produces
u, = radkd stress, psi ma]
aVME = VME stress, psi Pa] a&=a% +(c,p; +c2p<)a* +c3Pr~ +C4P? .“ ..

?-C5PjPe, . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . ..(.A4). ,,:


References.
,., .
L SPec.,5A, Specifications for Casing, Tybing, and Drill pipe, 37th
where
edition, API, Dallas (May 19S4).
2, Bull. 5C3, Bulled. on Formulos and Ckdmions for Casing.
Tubing, Drill Pipe and Line P@e Prqxf?im, third edition. API, C = (de[h)212(delh– 1),
Dallas (March 1980). ~, = ‘2Lc
3, Popnv, E, P.: [nfmdwrion 10 Meckmic. of Solids, Prentice Hall
Inc., E@wood Cliffs, N] (196S). cl = c,
4. Klernentich, E. F, and lellisrm, M .1.: . CAService Life Mcdel for c~ = C2– C+I,
Casing Strimg$,,, SPEDE (April 1986) 141-52. Ci = C2, and
c~ = –2C2+C.
Appendix
Derivation. The triaxial-load-capaciiy diagram relateS the VME curves ‘are generated by specifying uv~~ and
VME stress,” UVME, to the variables defining a loading either pi =0 psi [0 MPa] orp, =0 psi [0 .MPa], and solv-
condition, FA, p ~, and p,, with the equation for triaxial ing the resultant quadratic equation (Eq. A-4) for UA.
stress in an isotropic material 3:
Normalization of Service-Load Limes. A service load
2u$ME”=(aA, -ur)2 +(U, –UH)2 +(UH–UA)2. is defined it a particular depth by specifying values for
FA, p;, and p,. Because these three variables cannot be
...... . . . . . . ., (A-1) plotted together on a 2D diagram, a normalization proce-

SPE Drillins E“gineerhg, Septemb& 19S7 273

I
dure must be used. This is done by setting the minimum – 12.5%, and (3) weight minimum of –.3.5 % and timxi-.
Of (P1 ,PJ=O psi [O MI%] and recalculating the O~er mum of +6.5%.1
pressure by use of Eq. A-4 with UVME and F4 defined .A range of acceptable dimensions for any mrninal size
by tie service load. The nornmlzation procedure cannot and weight of pipe exists. Mnimumpipe andmo-xi~um .
be used if the three-dimensional surface of constant tri- pipe have the combination of dimensions that produce the
axial stress does not intersect eitler the p i =0 psi [0 MPa] maximum andminimumtriaxial stress, respectively, in
plane or”the p, =0 psi [0 MPa] plane. This occurs when Eq. A-4. Foragiven 10ad(F~, pi; p~),. the~x~rnum ,
the magnitude of UA is greater than UV,ME for burst loads dC/h ratio yields the mafimum st!~s aOd the mln~um
in compressi@ apd for collapse loads in ~nsion. For burst de/h ratio yields the m@imum stress at the ID surface of
loads in tension, ? sOlutiOq exists if thepipe. The minimum weight specificatio~i?uo$used
because itdoesnot”guarmtm the fi~mumcro:s-sectionfi.
area everywhere .dongtlie length of the, pipe.
3C2 %
OVME
“[
~
4(C?–C+I) 1
GA
S1 Metric Conversion Factors
E-01 = m ‘.
ft X 3.048*
Anor@iied&xtemalpre ssurecmbem lctiatedfor:ol - in. X 2,54* E+OO = Cii
iap}e.loads incompres:fonif tip X 4.448222 E+03 = N “, ““
k:i X 6.894757 E+03 = kPa ~~ .
‘& ‘, ““. lbin/ft X 1.488164 E+OO =’ kg~m’
UVME”= ~ ]‘A 1. psi x 6.894757 E+OO = kpa

.Co.version factor h exact. - SPEDE


Dimensional The current APl tolerances on
Tolerances.
pipe-body dlmensiqns for nonupset cming 4X in. [11.43 originalmanuscript received in the S.k .f P.tr.le.m W.-. .m.e March 1.
I SW, PWer accepted for p.bmaaon Jm. 2,1987. Re.i9ed man.sctipt recel!ed APII1
cm] and larger are (1) OD tilmum of –0.75 % and ~- 8,1987, P,w (SPE 1S434) 5,,! P,esmted al the 1985 SPEJWC DcilNng Cm!e,enm
held in New0rlem5 Ma’Ch 68.
irnum of +0.75%, (2) wall thickness minimum of ,,

.’

SPEDriUing En~inCering, SePember 1987


274