Sie sind auf Seite 1von 11

Technological Institute of the Philippines

Electrical Engineering Department


Transformer and AC Apparatuses

Laboratory Experiment 1

Transformer Characteristics and Polarity Test

Score

Leader’s Name (LN, FN, MI) AGUSTIN, JUAN CARLO


Group Members (LN, FN, MI) ARELLANO, HAROLD B.
ESPIRITU, ANGELO FRANCIS B.
FETALVERO, DJONISZ

Date of Performance
Date of Submission JANUARY 04, 2018
COURSE CODE / SECTION CODE EE 405 / EE42FA1
Name of Instructor ENGR. GERARD DG. APOLINARIO
Signature of Instructor
Laboratory Report Rubric
Title of Experiment:
Beginner Acceptable Proficient
Criteria Score
1 2 3
Neat and well – presented
Untidy Report. Neat Report.
report.
Engineering Lettering is used All write – ups are
for writing or Computerized not computerized in Arial
Appearance, Organization Write – ups are handwritten. following the prescribed Narrow/Times New Roman
and Completeness of format. Size 12.
Laboratory Report Submitted Laboratory report
Submitted Laboratory report Submitted Laboratory report
did not follow the given
format, not organized and followed the given format and followed the given format,
not original. organized. organized and original.
Presented Incomplete Data Presented Correct but Presented complete and
and wrong data incomplete data correct data
No Solutions are shown Solutions are incomplete. Solutions are complete.
Accuracy of Results/Data Answer to Questions are not Answer to Questions are
No Answer to Questions
complete or not correct. complete and correct.
Gathered
Percent Difference between
Percent Difference between 0 – 5% Difference between
theoretical and experimental
theoretical and experimental theoretical and experimental
data is greater than 5% but
data is more than 10%. less than 10%. data.
Ideas were not about the Ideas were taken from the
Ideas were about result/data
result/data gathered during result/data gathered during the
Discussion of Results experiment.
gathered during experiment.
experiment.
(Analysis and Interpretation) Not clear, incomplete and Clear, but not complete and Very clear, complete and
too short. too short. sufficient to form a discussion.
Ideas were somehow Ideas were very much
Ideas were inappropriate to
appropriate to the experiment appropriate to the experiment
the experiment. that has been performed. that has been performed.
Very clear, complete and
Not clear, incomplete and Clear but not complete and
sufficient to form a conclusion.
Conclusion too short. too short.
A general theorem or law is
Failed to link the results of A general theorem or law was
formulated and discussed
the experiment with a cited that supports the data
reasonably well to explain the
general theorem or law. gathered.
results of the experiment.
Appropriate choice of Uses rich and imaginative
Inappropriate use of words.
language. language.
Poor grammar and bad Few grammatical and syntax Excellent grammar and
Use of Language sentence construction. errors. sentence construction.
Cannot express ideas Ideas are expressed clearly
Can express ideas.
clearly. and precisely.
Laboratory Report is not
Laboratory Report is submitted
submitted or presented on Laboratory Report is submitted
or presented on schedule as
Punctuality schedule as planned (At the or presented ahead of
Middle or the End of the planned (At the Start of the
schedule as planned
Class) Class)

Practical Assessment
Get the Mean Score of Laboratory Assessment
(X4)
Other Comments/Observations: TOTAL SCORE
(Total Score)
MEAN SCORE = 20
(Total Score)
RATING = 60
×100

Gerard Francesco DG. Apolinario


Signature over Printed Name of Instructor
Experiment No. 1
TRANSFORMER CHARACTERISTICS AND POLARITY TESTING
1. Objective(s):
The course activity aims to introduce the concept, theories, principles and characteristic of an AC Single Phase
Transformer through testing in the laboratory and validation of theories.
2. Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs):
At the end of the experiment, the student shall be able to:
1. Determine the electrical characteristics of the transformer.
2. Determine the transformation ratio of transformer.
3. Recognize the polarity marking of step – down transformer.
3. Principles and Discussion:
A transformer is an electrical machine that transfers or converts electrical energy into another electrical energy
specifically with a change in voltage but without a change in frequency. Commonly, the transformers we see in
transmission and distribution system are all step- down transformers, which the high voltages are converted or set down
into small voltages. At this type of transformer, the primary side with a higher voltage has a low current while the secondary
side with a smaller voltage has a high current. That’s why the significance of the transformer is on transmission and
distribution copper wire advantage because low current is flowing in the primary side of a step – down transformer. On
the other hand, step up transformer are seen in the power plant transmission for increasing the voltage for better
transmission efficiency.
The transformation ratio or turns ratio of the transformer can be simply obtained by dividing the primary voltage to the
secondary voltage. It is also equal to the primary number of turns divided by the secondary number of turns of the
transformer. Thus, Primary Side Laminated Core Secondary Side

Vp Np Is Ip Is

a  Vp Np Ns Vs

Vs Ns Ip
Windings

STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER

Vp - Primary Voltage
Vs - Secondary Voltage
Np - Primary Turns
Ns - Secondary Turns
Ip - Primary Current
Is - Secondary Current
A Step – Down transformer has a greater number of turns of fine wire in the primary side and lesser number of turns of
heavy wire in the secondary side. Take note that the secondary side carries a huge amount of current compared with
the primary current. This type of transformer is used in distribution of electric power, household application and seen in
most electronic appliances.
Primary Side Laminated Core Secondary Side
Ip Is

Vp Np Ns Vs

Windings

STEP UP TRANSFORMER
On the other hand, a Step – Up transformer has a greater number of turns of fine wire in the secondary side and lesser
number of turns of heavy wire in the primary side. Take note that the primary side carries a huge amount of current
compared with the secondary current. This type of transformer is usually seen at the power plant switch yard for stepping
up the voltage.
The polarity testing of a transformer is important on proper labeling of transformer terminals for paralleling condition and
three phase transformer bank connections. The polarity of a given transformer is a comparison of the relative
instantaneous polarity of each terminal.
H1 - High Tension Terminal 1
H2 - High Tension Terminal 2 Jumper Wire
Jumper Wire X1 - Low Tension Terminal 1
X2 - Low Tension Terminal 2

H1 X2
H1 X1

H2 X1
H2 X2

V
V
Additive Polarity
Subtractive Polarity

4. Resources:
1 set Single Phase Transformer (61-106)
1 set Universal Power Supply (60-105)
1 set 3 Phase Measurement (Multi-tester) (68-100)
2 sets AC Voltmeter & Ammeter (68-117)
2 sets Electro Dynamic Wattmeter (68-204)
1 set Switched Three Phase Resistance Load (67-142)
1 set Switched Three Phase Inductive Load (67-312)
1 set Switched Three Phase Capacitive Load (67-212)
1 set Patch Leads (Connecting Wires)
1 pc Digital Multi – tester (VOM)
5. Procedures:
A. Transformation Ratio
5.1 Connect as per instruction of Fig 1.1
5.2 Connect three (3) load resistors in parallel across the secondary terminal of transformer.
5.3 Adjust the Variable Power Supply (VARIAC) according to the voltages at Table 1.1 and record each value.
5.4 Slowly reduce the voltage back to zero.
5.5 Disconnect the whole circuit from the power source by opening the main switch.
5.6 Complete the measured and computed data in Table 1.1 and Table 1.2.
B. Polarity Testing of a Transformer
5.1 Set the transformer as shown in Figure 1.2.1.
5.2 Place a jumper wire between 220V terminal of the primary winding and 110V terminal of the secondary winding.
(Note: Be sure to connect the voltmeter between H1 and X1 for subtractive polarity testing)
5.3 Energize the circuit according to the voltages set in Table 1.3 then measure and record the values.
5.4 Gradually adjust the supply voltage to zero.
5.5 Now connect as per Figure 1.2.2.
5.6 Then, place a jumper wire between 220V terminal of the primary winding and 0V terminal of the secondary
winding.
5.7 Energize the circuit according to the voltages set in Table 1.4 then measure and record the values.
5.8 Gradually adjust the supply voltage to zero.
5.9 Disconnect the whole circuit from the power source by opening the main switch.
5.10 Complete the required data at Table 1.3 and Table 1.4.
E’ = Ep + Es, it is ADDITIVE polarity
E’ = Ep - Es, it is SUBTRACTIVE polarity
Safety reminders:
A voltmeter must always be connected in parallel to the load that is being measured. The meter must be simply
"tapped" to the circuit that to be measure.
An ammeter must be connected in series to measure the current that is flowing in the circuit. An ammeter must NOT
be connected in parallel because an ammeter has a very low resistance. If it is happening, the ammeter will be surely
damage because it will result to short circuit.
The Clamp meter is the best device that can be used in measuring currents. It is very convenient to use because
you only need to clamp it to the wire and it will now measure current.
If you want to use the clamp meter as a wattmeter, you must measure both voltage and current. Therefore, you must
clamp it to the wire at the same time pointing the probes to the voltage source.
You may use additional bulb that will serve as an indicator especially at the input circuit to serve as an indicator if
there is a power at the circuit.
Schematic Wiring Diagrams

Ip
Ip
H1 X1 Switch

WATTMETER WATTMETER
(MAIN Switch)
L

230V AC Vp Vp Vs
Source Fuse Output A
D
Switch

Is
Fuse
H2 X2
Fuse

Transformer

VARIAC FIGURE 1.1


Jumper Wire

220V 0V

230V AC Vp Vs
Source Output

Knife Switch Fuse

Transformer

0V 110V

VARIAC Fuse V’

FIGURE 1.2.2
Jumper Wire

220V 110V

230V AC Vp Vs
Source Output

Knife Switch Fuse

Transformer

0V 0V

VARIAC Fuse V’

FIGURE 1.2.1
Course: EE 405 Experiment No.
Group No.: 2 Section:
Group Members: AGUSTIN Date Performed:
ARELLANO Date Submitted:
FETALVERO Instructor:
ESPIRITU

6. Data and Results:


MEASURED DATA
TABLE 1.1
Trial Ep Es Ip Is Pp Ps Transformation Ratio
(Volts) (Volts) (Ampere) (Ampere) (Watts) (Watts) Ep/Es Is/Ip
1 75 V 42 0.12 0.19 10 7.5 1.79 1.58
2 100 V 60 0.19 0.25 17 14 1.67 1.32
3 125 V 73 0.21 0.30 27.5 22 1.71 1.43
4 150 V 85 0.28 0.38 38.5 31 1.76 1.36
5 175 V 101 0.30 0.44 50 41 1.73 1.47
6 200 V 124 0.35 0.48 65 55 1.61 1.37

CALCULATED DATA
TABLE 1.2
Trial Ep Es Ip Is Pp Ps Transformation Ratio
(Volts) (Volts) (Ampere) (Ampere) (Watts) (Watts) Ep/Es Is/Ip
1 75 V 42 0.31 0.17 23.25 7.14 1.79 0.55
2 100 V 60 0.41 0.25 41 15 1.67 0.61
3 125 V 73 0.51 0.30 63.75 21.9 1.71 0.59
4 150 V 85 0.61 0.35 91.5 29.75 1.76 0.57
5 175 V 101 0.71 0.41 124.5 41.41 1.73 0.58
6 200 V 124 0.82 0.51 164 63.24 1.61 0.62

TABLE 1.2.1
Trial Ep Es E’ Additive or Subtractive (Place √)
(Volts) (Volts) (Volts) Additive Subtractive
1 100 63.2 163.2
2 150 45.3 245.3
3 200 126 326
TABLE 1.2.2
Trial Ep Es E’ Additive or Subtractive (Place √)
(Volts) (Volts) (Volts) Additive Subtractive
1 100 138 38
2 150 107 57
3 200 275 75
7. Analysis and Interpretation:
8. Conclusion:
9. Question(s) and Answer(s):
9.1 What is the purpose of transformer in electrical power system?

9.2 A transformer has 100 primary turns and 50 secondary turns. The current in the secondary winding is 20 amperes.
What is the current in the primary winding?

9.3 A 7200/240 – volt step – down transformer has 1950 primary turns. Determine the number of turns in the secondary
winding.

9.4 Why the high – tension wire in power system is non-insulated or bare before entering in high tension side of
transformer in a step down distribution transformer?

9.5 What will be the scenario in electric power system if transformer does not exist?

9.6 Why is kVA the unit capacity of transformer?


10. Assessment:
BEGINNER ACCEPTABLE PROFICIENT
CRITERIA SCORE
1 2 3
I. Laboratory Skills
Members do not Members occasionally
Members always demonstrate
Manipulative Skills demonstrate needed demonstrate needed
needed skills.
skills. skills
Members can set – up Members can set – up the
Experimental Members are unable to
the materials with material with minimum
Set-up set-up the materials.
supervision. supervision.
Members do not Members occasionally
Members always demonstrate
Process Skills demonstrate targeted demonstrate targeted
targeted process skills.
process skills. process skills.
Members follow safety
Members do not follow Members follow safety
Safety Precautions precautions most of the
safety precautions. precautions always.
time.
II. Work Habits
Time Management / Members do not finish Members finish ahead of time
Members finish on time
Conduct of on time with incomplete with complete data and time to
with incomplete data.
Experiment data. revise data.
Members have defined
Members do not know Members are on tasks and
responsibilities most of
their tasks and have no have defined responsibilities
Cooperative and the time. Group conflicts
defined responsibilities. always. Group conflicts are
Teamwork are cooperatively
Group conflicts must be cooperatively managed
managed most of the
settled by the teacher. always.
time.
Clean and orderly
Messy workplace during workplace with Clean and orderly workplace
Neatness and
and after the experiment. occasional mess during always during and after the
Orderliness
and after the experiment. experiment.

Members require Members require


Ability to do Members do not need to be
supervision by the occasional supervision
independent work supervised by the teacher.
teacher. by the teacher.
Other Comments/Observations: Total Score
Total Score
Rating= ×100%
24
11. Reference(s):
Zorbas, D. (2015) Electric Machines, Principles, Applications and Control Schematics (2nd ed.) New York: Delmar,
Cengage Learning
Salam, M.A.(2012). Fundamentals of electrical machines. United Kingdom: Alpha Science International