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# Relativity without Einstein?

## True! - The concept of a 4-dimensional space-time is no longer

necessary to explain relativistic effects!

## (1) Physical objects contract

(2) Clocks change their speed (and so their time indications)
(3) Masses increase

And: Every measurement of the speed of light ‘c’ has the same result. This can be
taken as the origin of the above phenomena (Einstein). Or, the other way around: The
measured constancy of the speed of light is the consequence of the three phenomena
above (Lorentz).

In the world of Einstein the relativistic phenomena are the consequence of the
intrinsic properties of space and time. - There is, however, a much simpler explanation
available in the view of other physical facts.

1. The contraction is the simple consequence of the fact that the fields, which bind
the constituents of the physical objects, contract. The reason for this is the limited
speed of light by which the binding fields propagate at motion.

This consequence was seen very early after the Michelson-Morley experiment by several
physicists who referred to the recently developed theory of Maxwell about
electromagnetism.

## 2. The dilation of every periodic process (like a clock function) at motion is an

immediate consequence of the internal oscillations of elementary particles. The
constituents of elementary particles are mass-less and orbit each other at the
speed of light.

This behaviour of elementary particles was basically found by Louis de Broglie in 1923
when he detected the wave properties of elementary particles. A quantitative description
was given by Paul Dirac in 1928 when he developed the famous ‘Dirac function’ of the
electron. Erwin Schrödinger called this motion “Zitterbewegung”.

3. The mass of elementary particles itself is also a consequence of the limited speed
of light, by which the binding fields between the constituents of the elementary
particles propagate.

This mechanism causes also the increase mass at motion which is an immediate
consequence of the contraction. And this leads directly to the famous mass-energy-
equivalence equation of Einstein.
The following figure shows the general set up of an elementary particle.

The explanation of the contraction of matter and the dilation of time which is mentioned
above conforms to the so called „Lorentzian Interpretation of Relativity“ named after the
famous Dutch physicist Hendrik Antoon Lorentz. Lorentz developed the well known „Lorentz
Transformation“ which is the basis of special relativity. Lorentz received the Nobel Price in
1902 in appreciation of his work on this topic. You will find a physical deduction of the
Lorentzian Interpretation of special relativity as a consequence of the structure of matter
here.

## General Relativity without Einstein is discussed in the context of gravity.

The origin of mass as well the deduction of its increase at motion is found here.

2003-08-17