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PTC 12.2-1998
ANSI/ASME PTC 12.2-1 983)

Test Code on
Steam Surface

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Date of Issuance: September 18, 1998

This document will be revised when the Society approves the issuance of the next
edition. There will be no addenda issued to ASME PTC 12.2-1998.
Please Note: ASME issues written replies to inquiries concerning interpretation of
technical aspects of this document. The interpretations are not part of the document.
PTC 12.2-1 998is being issued with an automatic subscription service to the interpre-
tations that will be issued to it up to the publication of the next edition.

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(This Foreword is not a part of ASME PTC 12.2-1998.)

When the work of revising theASME Power Test Codes of 1915 was undertaken it was
decided to include a Committee to develop three separate test codes on Condensing
Apparatus, Feedwater Heaters, and Water Cooling Equipment. TheresultingTest Code for
Steam-Condensing Apparatus, after passing through preliminarythe stages in the procedure
prescribed by the Main committee, was printed in tentative form in the May 1924 issue
of Mechanical Engineering and was presented to the Society for discussion at a public
hearing held during the SpringMeeting in Cleveland in May1924. At the December1924
meeting of the PTC Supervisory Committee (now known as the Board on Performance
Codes), it was approved in its final revised form and onOctober 5,1925, it was approved
and adopted by the Council as a standard practice of the Society.
Early in 1933 Committee No. 12 decided to completely revisethe Test Code for Steam-
Condensing Apparatus. At the April 4, 1938, meeting of the PTC Supervisory committee,
this second version of the Code was approved and on July 15, 1938, it superseded the
previous one and was adopted as a standard practice of the Society by the Council.
With the reorganization of PTC Committee No. 12 on Condensers, Feedwater Heaters,
and Deaerators in 1948, the main Power Test Codes Committee requested that the Test
Code for Steam-Condensing Apparatus be brought up to date. This third edition of the
Code wasapproved at the December 4,1953, meeting ofthe Power Test Codes Committee
and adopted by the Council as a standard practice of the Society on March 9, 1954.
In January 1970 the PTC Supervisory Committee requested the Test Code for Steam-
Condensing Apparatus be reviewed and updated. That fourth version of the Code was
approved by the Board on Performance Test Codes on May 12, 1981, and it became an
American National Standard in January 1983.
The Board on Performance Test Codes in 1988 directed the Code again be reviewed
to be certain it reflectedcurrentengineeringpractices. A new CodeCommitteewas
organized in early 1989 containing members from a wide geographical area. It comprised
about equal numbers of manufacturing, user, andgeneralinterestmembers to ensure
balanced committee actions. The 1989 Committee was organized into four Subcommit-
tees- Guiding Principles, Test Procedures, Instruments and Methods, and Computation
of Results - to be sure each section of the Code revision would get attention, and the
work would beaccomplished effectively.
Based on experiencewith the two previous versions of the Condenser Code, the reorga-
nized Committee determined to make this Code modern, accurate, practical, useful, and
cost effective. It also identified the objective of extendingthe Code to include performance
monitoring, because ofthe relatively large effectof operating condensers onplant genera-
tion and efficiency.
These ambitious 1989 goals translatedinto extensive revisionswhich triggered an almost
complete rewrite. The major areas were revised and the revision rationale of this latest
Code follow:
Instruments: To take advantage of the recent significant advances in the field, instrumen-
tation recommendations were modernized.
Heat transfer; TO enlarge the condenser test schedule "window" while maintaining
accurate test results, the separate heat-transfer resistance method with the latest correlations
was adopted.
Implementation: TO clarify the Code rules and producea virtually self-contained docu-
ment, techniques and instrumentation descriptions were written inan explicit and detailed

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Uncertainty determinations: To ensure proper applications of uncertainty analysis, all

the particulars of this somewhat daunting estimate (a very important and now necessary
aspect of every test) are presented.
Data acquisition: To improve the condenser test effectiveness,computerized dataacqui-
sition for the testing and data reduction is suggested; however, the Code is written so that
this approach is not necessary.
Cleanliness testing:To be certain the condenser performance results are not predestined,
a mandatory cleanliness test is now required by this Code. It is important to explain,
though, thatthe entire previous cleanliness test section was replacedwith a neh, pragmatic,
fouling test procedure.
Lastly, this expanded fifth edition of the Code was re-titled Steam Surface Condensers.
This Code was approved by the PTC 12.2 Committee on January 20, 1996. It was then
approved and adopted by the Council as a Standard practice of the Society by action of
the BPTC on December 20, 1996. This Performance Test Code was also approved asan
American National Standard by the ANSI Board of StandardsReview on February 20,

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(The following is the roster of the Committee at the time of approval of this Code.)

J. M. Burns, Chair
C. W. Almqu’kt, Ph.D., Vice Chair
J.H. Karian, Secretary

Charles W. Almquist Ph.0, Principia Research Corp.
Frank S. Ambrogi, Ecolaire Corp.
Larry J. Beal, PSI Energy
Robert J.Bell, HeatExchangerSystems,Inc.
John M. Bums, Stone & WebsterEngineering Corp.
Roland L. Coit, Consultant
EugeneHernandez, Community Energy Alternatives
Jack H. Kum, ASME International
Philip Marks, Graham Manufacturing Company, Inc.
Edward C. Saxon, Conco Systems, Inc.
James W. Thomton, Virginia Power
John L. Trou, ElectricPower Research Institute
John G. Yost, ResourceManagement International,Inc.

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D. R. Keyser, Chair
P. M. Gerhart, Vice Chair
W. O. Hays, Secretary

R. P. Allen R. S. Hecklinger R. R. Priestley
C. W. Almquist R. W. Henry C. B. Scharp
R. L. Bannister S. J. Korellis J.Siegmund
D. S. Beachler T. H. McCloskey J.A. Silvaggio
B. Bornstein J. W. Milton R. E. Somrnerlad
J. M. Burns G. H. Mittendorf W. G. Steele
J. R. Friedman S. P. Nuspl J. C.Westcotf
G. J.Gerber R. P. Perkins J.G. Yost
A. L. Plumley


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Foreword .................................................... iii

CommitteeRoster .............................................. V

O Introduction ............................................ 1
1 Object and Scope........................................ 3
1.1 Object ............................................. 3
1.2 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Uncertainty ......................................... 3
2 Definitions and Description of Terms ......................... 5
2.1 Symbols............................................ 5
2.2 Subscripts .......................................... 8
2.3 Superscripts ......................................... 8
2.4 Uncertainty Analysis Nomenclature ....................... 8
3 Guiding Principles ....................................... 9
3.1 Purpose and Intent.................................... 9
3.2 TestPlanRequirements ................................ 9
3.3 Test Schedule ....................................... 10
3.4 Allowable Deviations.................................. 10
3.5 Method of Operation.................................. 10
3.6 Preparation for Test ................................... 10
3.7 Condenser Isolation ................................... 10
3.8 Non-Condensible Gas Load ............................. 10
3.9 Tubeside Blockage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.1 O Tubeside Fouling .................................... 11
3.1 1 Dissolved Oxygen ................................... 11
3.1 2 Preliminary Testing .................................. 11
3.1 3 Constancy of Test Conditions ........................... 12
3.1 4 Duration of Test Runs ................................ 12
3.1 5 Test Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.1 6 Performance Test Overview ............................ 12
4 InstrumentsandMethods of Measurement...................... 15
4.1 Purpose and Intent.................................... 15
4.2 Location of Test Points ................................. 15
4.3 Instrumentation and Methods of Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
5 Computation of Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.1 Basic Heat Transfer Relations ............................ 27
5.2 Condenser Pressure Deviation Results Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.3 Deviation of Results Calculations for other Parameters . . . . . . . . . 32
5.4 Uncertainty Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
6 ReportofResults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
6.1 Composition of Report ................................. 37
6.2 Report of Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

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4.1 Locationof Condenser Test Points .............................. 16
4.2 Basket Tip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.3 Guide Plate ............................................... 18
4.4Recommended Velocity TraverseLocations ........................ 21
5.1 Multishell Multipressure Condenser ............................. 30
Multipressure Condenser ............................
5.2 Single-Shell 30

3.1 Allowable Deviations from Specified Test Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.2 Non-Condensible GasLoad (Air ln-leakage) Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
5.1 Student’s fv Table for the 95% ConfidenceLevel .................... 33

Nonrnandatory Appendices
Foreword .................................................... 41
A Guideline: Flowcharts/Checklists............................. 43
B Guideline: Automatic
Data Acquisition. ....................... 49
C Guideline: Performance Monitoring .......................... 51
D Guideline:
Calculations ............................. 53
E Detail: Uncertainty Analysis
Condensing Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
F Detail:
Geothermal Surface
Condensers ....................... 73
G Diagnostic: Binding
Air .................................... 75
H Diagnostic:
Non-Condensible Removal
Equipment ............... 77
I Diagnostic:
Tube Fouling .................................. 79
Properties Physical 81 of Seawater..............................
K References ............................................. 87


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SURFACE STEAM 12.2 -1 998



0.1 INTRODUCTION (e) Instrumentation and Methods of Measurement

to determine the hardware that must exist or be in-
This Code describes instruments, test procedures,
stalled in thecondenser to determinetherecom-
and methods of testdataanalysis to beused to
mended measurements.
determineandmonitortheperformanceof steam-
surfacecondensers. It provides explicit test proce- 0.1.3 Thoseinterested in performance monitoring
dures which will yield results of the highest level of should review Appendix C, then the TestPlan and
accuracy consistentwith the best current engineering Flowcharts before reviewing Code Section details.
practices and knowledge in this field. The Code is When this Code is to be used to determine fulfill-
not intended to beused for tests ofcondensers ment of contractual obligations, the contracting par-
or heatexchangersoperatingaboveatmospheric tiesshallagree in advance on the test procedures,
pressureorair-cooledcondensers. uncertainty estimates and implications, and methods
To aidin anoverallstudyofthe Code, the of presentation of data and presentation of results.
following review sequencesaresuggested. Considerable efforts were made to write this con-
denser Code so that all the related technology was
0.1.1 A quick survey of the Code can be obtained contained within thedocumentitself;however, in
by reading the introductionsto each Sectionfollowed all instancesthiswas not possible. In thesecases
by the TestProcedures Flow Charts and Test Plan andunlessotherwisespecified, all references to
Appendix. other codes refer to ASME Performance Test Codes.
Anyterms notdefinedhereinare listed in PTC 2
0.1.2 Atthe plant design, contractual agreement, Definitionsand Values. 141 Descriptionsof instru-
or specification stage, it is advisable to review in ments, apparatus, and the general basis of the uncer-
order: tainty analysisbeyond that specified in this Code
(a) Achievable test uncertainty stated in Object and may be found in theSupplements on Instruments
Scope; and Apparatus, ASMEPTC 19.1. [4] A careful study
(b) Test Procedures or alternatively the particular should be made of all the referenced codes, but in
special test from Appendix A; theeventofdiscrepanciesbetweenthe specific
(c) Test Plan and Flowcharts; directions contained herein and those Codes incor-
(d) Guiding Principles; porated by reference,PTC 12.2 shallgovern.

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1.1 1.I .2 Test methods for determining the tube bundle
performance factor and degree of tube fouling, ex-
This Code provides standard directions and rules
pressed as a cleanliness factor or fouling resistance,
for conducting andreportingperformance tests of
are described.
water-cooled, steamsurfacecondensers,hereafter
referred to as condensers. The Code providesexplicit
testprocedures to yield resultsofthehighest level 1.2 SCOPE
ofaccuracyconsistent with thebest engineering
knowledge and practicecurrentlyavailable.The Therulesandinstructions included in thisCode
mainpurposeof this Code is to providerules for are for thecondenserproper. If the scopeofthe
performingcondenseracceptance tests. TheCode test includes any orallof theauxiliary apparatus
also provides guidelines for the routine performance associated with thecondenser, it will be necessary
evaluation of condensers. to refer to other ASME Performance TestCodes.
Theacceptance test canbe used to determine 1.2.1 The determination of special data or verifica-
compliance with contractual obligations and can be tion of guarantees which are outside the scope of
incorporated into commercial agreements.Thetest this Codeshallbemade onlywith thewritten
shall be considered an ASME Code Test only if the agreement of the partiesto the test, especially regard-
test procedures comply with those detailed recom- ing methods of
measurement andcomputation,
mendations in this Codeandthepretestandpost which shallbecompletelydescribed in thetest
test uncertainty analysis complies with Subsections report.
1.3 and 5.4.

1.1.1 This Code provides rules for determining the Theuncertaintyoftheprojecteddesign point
performanceofacondenser with regard to the pressure from the acceptance test, using the recom-
following: mended procedures and instrumentation, is expected
(a) the absolute pressure maintained by the con- to be less than 0.1 in. Hg. A posttestuncertainty
denser, or its projected design pressure with an uncer- analysis is required. Due to the variety of methods
tainty of 20.12 in. Hg; and instruments, the test uncertainty for routine heat
(b) the extent of condensate subcooling with an transferperformance tests mustbeestimated by a
uncertainty of zO.2OF; specific uncertainty analysis, described in Subsection
(c) the amount of dissolved oxygenin the conden- 5.4, and the resulting uncertainty shall be less than
sate, with an uncertainty of 21 .O ppm; and 0.12 in. Hg in order to be considered a Code Test.
(ci) the tubeside pressure drop,with an uncertainty The other test objective parameter uncertainties are
of 22%. more directly measured and defined in para. 1.1 . l .

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The following symbolsare to beusedunlessotherwise defined in the text.


Symbol Term Description Customary SI
A Effective
outside Total active external area of ft2 m*
tube surface area all tubes in condenser, in-
cluding external air cooler if
used. Active areaexcludes
tubes that may be
plugged at time of test.

Cleanliness factor Ratio of thermaltransmit-

tance of usedtubes to that
of new or cleaned (to a like-
under identical conditions.

cP Specific heat Specific

heat cooling
of Btu/lb"F
water at average temperature
and for salinity measured
during test.

d Tube diameter Outer

diameter of con- in.
denser tube.

D Tube diameter Outer

diameter of con- -
denser tube.

DO Dissolved oxygen Amount of oxygen dissolved PPm

in condensate.

F Fluorescence Measure of the presence of -

an indicating dye in percent
of solution for use in de-
termining flow rate in large
conduits (percent).

Acceleration of Constant
used in Nusselt ft/sec2
gravity equation.

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Symbol Term Description Customary SI
h Heattransfercoef- Rate of heat transfer perunit Btdhr-ft2- W/m2K
ficient of surface area and tempera- "F
ture difference. This quantity
is the fundamental measure
of per-

AH Differential Differential pressureacross in. cm

pressure the orifice plate in water

i Variable Summation -
k Thermal conduc- Rate of heat transfer perunit Btulh r-ft- Wlm- K
tivity of distance within a material "F

L Length Condenser tube length ft m

LMTD Log mean tempera- Computed logarithmic mean "F "C

ture difference temperaturedifference be-
tween steam and cooling
water (see Section 5)

In Natural logarithm -

m Molecular weight Formula mass Ib/lb-mol


N Quantity Number of condenser tubes

NTU Number of heat

transfer units

n Quantity Number of condenser tube -


P Pressure Absolute fluid pressure psia or kPa

in. Hga

Pr Prandtl number Ratio of momentum diffusiv-

ity to thermal diffusivity

AP Pressure drop Loss of pressure due to fric- PSi kPa

tion in fluidsystem between
two points

Q Condenser
heat Rate atwhich heat in steam is Btulhr W
load transferred to coolingwater.
This is usuallyconsidered
the independent variable in
any condenser test.

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Symbol Term Description Customary S1
SCFM in-leakage
Air Measured rate of standard
air scf m -
(at 14.7 psiaand 60°F) in-
leakage into condenser as
discharged from air-removal

Re Reynolds number Ratio of inertial reaction per

unit volume of fluid to vis-
cous force per unit volume
of fluid. (pd;v/p)

R Shellside resistance Heat transfer resistance out- hr-ft2-"F/ m2

side of the condenser tubes Btu

T Temperature Temperature
of cooling "F "C
water, steam, or condensate.

AT Temperature differ- Difference in fluid ternpera- "F "C

ential ture between two points.

U Heattransfercoef- Rate of heat transfer perunit Btu/hr-ft2- W/m2K

ficient of surface area and tempera- "F
ture difference. This quantity
is the fundamental measure
of per-

V Cooling-water
ve- Average
water velocity Wsec m/S
locity through tubes. For multipass
condensers with an unequal
number of tubes in the differ-
ent passes, the average of the
average velocities for all pas-
ses shall be used.

W Flow rate Quantityof cooling water Ib/hr

passing throughcondenser
per unit of time.

Ws Steam flow rate Quantity of steam entering I b/hr

condenser per unit of time.

A Differential Difference
between two
measured values.

P viscosity Intensity
viscousshear I b/hr-ft kg/s-m
within a fluid.

P Density Ratio of mass to volume of a Ib/ft3 kg/m3

fluid or solid.

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Symbol Term Description

B Bulk The overall uncertainty in the test-adjusted
L Clean steam pressure at a 95% coverage.
DO Dissolved oxygen The overall uncertainty in the test-adjusted
F Film tubeside pressure drop at a 95% coverage.
f Fouling factor The bias limit for parameter j .
G Gas (non-condensible) Recurringsubset partial derivative within
I Inside tube sensitivity factor equations.
m Metal The precision index for parameter j .
O Outside tube The Student’s t-statistic, determined from tab-
X Low-pressure section ular data for the degrees of freedom, v, and
Y Intermediate pressure a 95% coverage, per Table D5.1.
section The degrees of freedomfor parameter j, used
Z High-pressure section in evaluating the precision error estimate.
S Shell or steam The sensitivity factor for parameter j .
sat Saturation
T Total
T Tubeside
V Vapor
W Wall of tube
7 Inlet
2 Outlet
3 Condensate
A Differential


Symbol Description
* Value
+ Measured value
test conditions.
O Test valuecorrected to the designreference

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CE STEAM PTC 12.2-1998


3.1 PURPOSE AND INTENT 3.2.2SpecificScopeand Objective. Theapplica-

tion of this Code will vary with location, environ-
Theparties to the testshallreachagreement as
ment, equipment, and specific agreements made by
to its specific purpose. When the condenser is part
the participants. A site-specific scope and objective
of a contractwith other major equipmentof the plant
should be agreed upon and incorporated as part of
or when the condenser contract includes auxiliary
thetestplan.Thisshould include thedesignation
equipment which can affect the condenser perform-
of a chief-of-testwho will direct the test and exercise
ance, all partiesmustagreewhetherthetesting is
authorityover all testpersonnel.Thisindividual
to be performed on each piece of equipment sepa-
should have the required experience to conduct this
rately or on the systemas a whole.
type of test.
If each apparatus is tested separately, the observa-
tion and test of each apparatus shall be conducted
3.2.3 Operational Requirements. The test plan
according to the applicable ASME Code or, if none
should include allspecifications regarding the opera-
exists,a methodmust be agreed upon i n advance
tional requirements for the condenser and any ancil-
of the test. Wherever a special method of testing is
lary system that may affect its performance. A listing
used, that is, anymethodnot explicitly covered in
of all values for theoperationalandperformance
theCode, it shall be agreed upon in advanceof
parametersshouldbecontained in thissection in-
thetestby all partiesandshallbe fully described
cluding any specific operational changes necessary
in the test report.
to perform the test. These can include specific cycle-
It is important to structure a specific test plan for
isolation considerations and the verification ofany
all testingthat is to takeplace.The plan should
items which can be considered deviations from the
follow theguidelinesandrecommendationsgiven
Code,reasons for their occurrence,andanyother
in this Section. In doing so, inconsistenciesassoci-
item which canpossiblyimpact on theoperation
ated with test execution, communications, procedure
and performance of the condensing apparatus. (Refer
adherence, and test schedule can be greatly dimin-
to Table 3.1 for limits.)
test plan ¡.e., flowchartsandchecklists.
3.2.4 TestAcceptance Criteria. This section of the
plan will include an explanation of the test accept-
ance criteria andadescriptionof how theresults
will be used in theevaluationofanycontractual
commitments or guarantees associated with the per-
formance of thecondenser.Apretestuncertainty
3.2.1TestPlanIntroduction. In an effort to have analysis i s highly recommended as part of this sec-
a mutual agreementbetweenthetestingparties, it tion. Any other items not mentioned or specifically
is strongly recommended that a test plan be devel- identified as items of mutualagreementshould be
oped that will address all items of possible disagree- discussed in thissection.
ment. In order to accomplish this, a document should
be writtento definethis test planand identify 3.2.5InstrumentationList. A list includingall test
all designatedpartieshavingthe responsibility to parameters,instrumentsused,expectedaccuracy,
perform, witness, or approve any test deviation from calibrations thereof, installation location, and antici-
this Code or anyothermutuallyagreed-upontest patedvaluesshouldbe included as partofthis
plan or procedure. This document should also serve section. This will help clarify any misunderstandings
as a guide for those performing or interpreting the that can occur during the instrumentation selection
resultsofthespecific test. It shouldinclude, but process and serve as an aid for instrument diagnosis.
not be limited to, the following sections. (Refer to Appendix A for guidance.)

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from Constancy
Specified Test of
Conditions* Conditions Testing Parameter
inlet-water temperature +lO°F 22°F

heat load +5% 22%

cooling-water flow %S% 2 2 Yo
*Refer to Subsection 3.1 3.

3.2.6 Test PreparationChecklist. In order to help 3.5 METHOD OF OPERATION

thoseadministering,witnessing,orresponsible for
Agreement shall be reached concerning the gen-
the test, it is important that a checklist be constructed
eral methodofoperatingthecondenserandthe
in which all teststepsare depicted in aclearand
prime-mover during thetest. This includesstabilizing
chronologicalorder.The list shouldhaveenough
the initial steam condition, prime-mover power out-
informationto give the useran understandingof
put, and the cooling-water flow rate.
what is necessary to prepare, conduct, and organize
the test. The amount of information should be care-
fully selected since this section will not be used in
substitutionorenhancement of anyother portion 3.6 PREPARATION FOR TEST
of the test plan. (Refer to Appendix A for guidance.) Prior to the test, theparties to the test shall be
3.2.7 TestPlan Flowchart. A flowchart highlighting given an opportunity to examineand familiarize
all theimportantevents of this sectionshouldbe themselves withall theapparatusconnected with
included in order to help the user follow the signifi- the condenser,and all piping involved. The instru-
cant details associated with test preparation, organi- ments to be used and the methods to be employed
zation,andexecution.(Refer to AppendixA for in calibrating andcheckinginstrumentsshallalso
guidance.) be agreed upon in advanceofthetest. All parties
to the test shall certify that the condensing equipment
is in satisfactory condition for thetest.
3.3 TEST
This Code does not limit the time after installation 3.7 CONDENSER ISOLATION
inwhich theacceptance test shall be conducted
because the required cooling-water temperature can A methodofdiverting or measuringextraneous
only be obtained at certain times of the year. How- drainsshallbeagreedupon prior to testing.Any
ever, theacceptancetestshallbeconducted as pertinent circuits, including makeup water, that can
soon as thedesiredtestconditionsareobtainable. jeopardizetheresults of the test, shall be isolated.
Performance degradation that is not inherent to the
design or the fabrication ofthecondensershould
be noted, such as normal wear, abnormal operation, 3.8 NON-CONDENSIBLE GAS LOAD
or inadequatepreservationprocedures.
Excessive air in-leakageoftendegradesthecon-
denser performance and increases the concentration
of dissolvedoxygen in thecondensate.Although
the air-removal rate does not enter directly into the
Testingshall be performedunderconditionsof computation of the condenser heat transfer capabil-
and ity, it must be within the limits set in Table 3.2. This
cooling-water flowwithin the limits specified in will ensure that the performance of the condenser
Table 3.1. has not been impairedandthedissolvedoxygen


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S T D - A S M E P T C L2.2-ENGL 1798 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 0bD5022 b 7 8 M

CE STEAM PTC 12.2-1998

Total Exhaust Steam Non-condensible
Number of Flow to Condenser Cas load Limit
Condenser Shells (Ib/hr) (SCFM)
One up to 1,000,000 1 .o
One 100,00&250,000 2.0
One 250,000-500,000 2.5
One 500,000-1,000,000 3.O
One 1,000,000-2,000,000 3.75
One 2,000,000-3,000,000 4.5
One 3,000,000-4,000,000 5.0
Two 200,000-500,000 3.5
Two 500,000-1,000,000 4.0
Two 1,000,000-2,000,000 6.0
Two 2,000,000-4,000,000 7.5
Two 4,000,000-6,000,000 8.5
Two 6,000,000-8,000,000 10.0

Three 750,000-3,000,000 7.5

Three 3,000,000-6,000,000 9.0
Three 6,000,000-9,000,000 11.0
Three 9,000,000-1 2,000,000 13.0

concentration inthe condensate has notbeenex- 3.11

ceeded. Prior to any performance, testing,the non-
3.11.1MakeupWater. The total waterintroduced
condensible gas load shall be measured to assure
into the condenser shell at a temperature lower than
adherence to the guideline in Table 3.2. Techniques
the inlet steam temperature shall not be more than
for measuringnon-condensible gas loadaregiven
5 % of the steam being condensed for 14 pgll dis-
in Fluid Meters [71 and PTC 19.5 [4] andthe use
solvedoxygenconcentration,ormorethan 3% for
ofcontemporaryinstrumentation is highlyrecom-
7 pgll dissolved oxygen concentration. Special con-
mended. It is important to verify that all air-removal
equipment is functioning properly prior to the per-
where excessive makeup is the norm. The dissolved
formance test.
oxygenconcentration in thecondensateofsuch
systems can be difficult to measure.
BLOCKAGE 3.11.2 Sample Method. Agreementshallbemade
The accumulation of debris on the inlet tubesheet on thesample location andmethodofanalysis if
is common in surfacecondensersandmayeven either is different from those described in para. 4.3.9.
occur where the cooling water is carefully screened.
Such accumulationresults in totally or partially
plugging some ofthe tubes, therebyreducingthe
activesurfacearea of thecondenser. It is highly 3.12 PRELIMINARY TESTING
recommended that a visual inspection for tubesheet
Apreliminaryrun shall be conducted for the
blockage be conducted before and aftertesting.
purposes of
(a) checking all instrumentation
(b) training personnel
(c) making minor adjustmentswhich were not evi-
Condenser tubes shall be thoroughly cleaned just dent during the test preparation as outlined in the
prior to the test. For the method of determining the test plan
quantitative effect of tubeside fouling see Section 4. (d) checking adequacy of equipment isolation


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(e) determiningthatthevariousparametersare may be useful for diagnostic purposes, are given in

within the limits in Table 3.1 Appendices F through I.
If mutually agreed upon, the preliminary run may Before conducting a condenser test, careful consid-
be declared an acceptance run, provided that it has eration must be given to the specific areas covered
complied with all therequirementsof this Code. in this Section. Prior to testing, the parties involved
shall agreeto:
(al a test plan as specified in Subsection 3.2;
3.13 CONSTANCY OF TEST CONDITIONS (b) the plant operating conditions, including plant
loadandcooling-water flow rate, which mustbe
Any condition whose variation may affect the test
steady for the duration of the test;
results shall be made as constant as possible before
(c) the necessary condenser isolations, per Subsec-
the test run begins and shall be maintained through-
tion 3.7. This is important to assure that the condenser
out therun. It is desirable to observeandrecord
is handling only the flow for which it was designed;
all readings for a brief periodafterthe unit has
(d) the inlet cooling-water temperature at which
attained steady-state conditionsbut before the formal
the test is to be conducted,this factor maylimit testing
readingsaretaken (see Table3.1).
to only certain times of the year;
If inconsistencies are observed for a test run, the
(e) other operating principles as specified in this
run shall be rejected in whole or in part, and shall
be repeated if necessary to attain theobjectof
the test.
(0 the other types of instruments to be used, their
locations, and the methods of measuring those instru-
ments. Acceptable instrumentation practices are cov-
ered in Section 4.
After steady-state conditions are achieved, a 1-hr 3.16.2 Heat Transfer Test. The purpose of the heat
data retrieval period is sufficient for a single test run. transfer test is to determine the overall heat transfer
Readings shall be taken at intervals not exceeding 5 coefficient (OHTC) of the condenser at test, design,
min. For a 1-hr test, the minimum number of readings guarantee, orotherspecifiedconditions; from the
for a particular parameter would be thirteen. OHTC, the absolutepressure of thecondenserat
thedesignorotherconditionscan be established.
It will usually be impossible to conduct the tests at
3.15 TEST
SEQUENCE the exact conditions called for in the design, guaran-
tee, or other specified conditions.
Each test run should be conducted in accordance
Provided the deviations from nominal conditions
with apredetermined testplan.Suchaschedule
are within the guidelines given in Table 3.1 , a Code
should provide sufficient time for conditions to be
condenser heat transfer test can still be performed.
In this situation, the resultsfrom the test are corrected
to design conditions using the procedures described
in Section 5. These corrections determine the ability
of the apparatus to condense the required amount
3.1 6.1 Introduction. The following items provide of steam and to maintainthe nominal condenser
an overview of the four types of tests prescribed by pressureatdesign,guarantee, orotherspecified
this Code, including thegeneralprocedures which conditions. For aCodetestthese correctionsare
shall be followed in conductingaCode-typecon- required to be properlyapplied andso certain param-
denser test, and the measurements required for each etersshallbe carefullymeasured. Determining any
test. Frequent reference is made to relevant Sections two ofthethree following conditions - cooling-
in this Code, particularly Section 4. waterflow,condensertemperaturerise,andcon-
Therearefourtypesof test described by this denser heat load - allows calculation of the third.
Code: (1) heat transfer test; (2) dissolved oxygen test; This would meet the requirements necessary to per-
(3)condensatesubcooling test; and (4) condenser form a complete heat balance on the apparatus and
hydraulicpressuredroptest.Any or all of these ultimately serve as the foundation for calculating an
tests may comprise a condenser test underthis Code. OHTC.
Other auxiliary tests, which are not considered to The corrections described in Section 5 are based
be apart of theCode test program butwhich on a rational analysis of the governing heat transfer


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mechanisms, using a log-meantemperaturediffer- PTC 6 . [4] In thiscase,thecooling-

specified by
ence (LMTD) approach to determine an overall heat water flow rate is not required for the determination
following of heatload.
quantities must be measured forthe heat transfer test. Thecooling-waterflowrate is alsospecified in
the designor guaranteeconditions,andmustbe
held within the operationalguidelinesspecified in The con- Table 3.1.
densershellsidepressure istypically thebasis for
the designorguaranteepoint.Condenserpressure The degree of foul-
is therefore a key measurement. The shellside satura- ing on thecooling-water side of thetubes(the
temperature,used in determination of the foulingfactor)must be determinedtocorrectthe
OHTC,isdeterminedfrom the condenser shellside measured results to design or guarantee conditions.
pressure.Acceptableinstrumentationforthemea- A method of determining the foulingfactorbased
surement of condenser pressure is described in para. on determination of the relative heat transfer coeffi-
4.3.1. cients of clean and as-found tube pairs distributed
throughoutthetubebundle is described in para.
4.3.12. Inlet and Outlet Tem- 3.16.3

Oxygen. The dissolvedoxygen
peratures. Inletand outletcooling-watertempera- concentration in the condensate is often a guarantee
tures are used to determine the OHTCof the con- itemforthe acceptance of a condenser.Thetest
denser. Since inlet cooling-water temperature is also methodfordetermination of dissolvedoxygenis
specified in thedesign or guaranteeconditionsfor given in para. 4.3.9. It is generallydesirableto
the condenser, it is important that the inlet cooling- conduct the testfordissolvedoxygenat the same
water temperatureduring the testsbewithinthe timeasthecondensertests,toensurethatallop-
guidelinesspecified in Subsections 3.3 and 3.13. eratingrequirements are met.
Because outlet temperature stratification often oc- isIt especiallyimportantthattheair-removal
curs in condensers, particular attention must be paid equipment be operatingproperlyandthatair in-
to the determination of outlettemperature.Careful leakage be held to acceptable limits during the tests.
consideration of therequirements of para. 4.3.3 Non-condensible gas load is discussed in Subsection
and the physicalcharacteristics of thecondenser 3.8. Further guidance on theassessment of the
installation should precede any decision on the best operation of the air-removal equipment can be found
means of measuring the outlet temperature. in Appendix H.

3.16.4CondensateSubcooling. Condensatesub-
3.1 6.2.3 Cooling-Water Flow. The cooling-water cooling(condensatedepression) is thedegreeto
flow is requiredforseveralphases of theanalysis. whichthecondensatehasbeencooledbelowthe
Unless a turbinetestper PTC 6 [41 is performed saturationtemperaturecorrespondingto the mea-
concurrently, measurementof the cooling-water flow sured condenser shellside pressure. Condensate sub-
rate, together with the inlet and outlet temperatures, cooling must be measured if it is a design or guaran-
is the preferred method of determining the heat load tee point for the condenser, or if it is of interest for
on the condenser,which is requiredtodetermine generalperformancecalculations.Thecondensate
the OHTC. Several methods for accurately determin- temperature is determined at the same time as the
ing the cooling-waterflowrate are given in para. heattransfertest,using the method given in para.
4.3.4. Choice of an appropriatemethodcanonly 4.3.10.
be made after considering both the requirements of
the individualmethodsand the characteristics of 3.16.5 Cooling-Water Pressure Drop. To ensure
the particularinstallationbeingtested. adequate performance of the cooling-water pumping
It is
appropriate system,thepressuredropacrossthecondenser
method of condensercooling-waterflowmeasure- should be within design values. The condenser pres-
ment is chosen. Theheatloadmayalsobedeter- suredrop is measuredfrom the inletflangetothe
mined by a full steamcycleenergybalance,per- outletflange of the condenser. It is recommended
formed in conjunctionwith a full turbinetest as thatthepressure drop measurementsbemadeat


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thesame time as thecondensertest. Methods for

measuring the condenser pressure drop canbe found
in para. 4.3.8. Thepressure drop across the con-
denser is correctedfromactual to nominal flow
usingtheproceduredescribed in Section 5 .


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S T D - A S M E P T C 12.2-ENGL L778 m 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 Ob0502b 2 3 3

CE STEAM 12.2-1998


4.1 PURPOSE AND INTENT required by this Code may be included for reference
purposes by mutual agreement between the parties
to the test.
methods for their application which are required for
the condenserperformancetestdescribed in this
Code.Reference is made to existing standards and
Condenser. Figure
procedures although major requirements and consid-
4.1 shows the location of thetestpoints in the
condenser neck that are needed to obtain the per-
erations which are ofparticularrelevance to con-
denser performance testing are summarized where formancedatarequiredforasingle-passsingle-
appropriate. Notall instruments or techniquesde- pressure surface condenser. The final location of all
scribed in this Section are applicable to every con- test pointsshould be determined by mutual
denser test program. Consult the procedural descrip- agreement, taking into accountthe internal design
tions given in Section 3 to determine which of the condenser and external piping configuration,
instruments and methods are applicable. Where this both of which mayresult in stratification atthe
Code refers to NlST (National Institute of Standards measurement points. Test points with instruments
andTechnology)standardsand calibrations, those internal to thecondenser,such as basket tips and
of otherequivalentnational standardslaboratories thermowells, should be located to avoid interference
may be used as appropriate for thelocale of the from condenser internal structural bracing and com-
testing. ponents. All waterbox test connectionsshouldbe
Before proceeding to select, construct, install, cali- shop installed if the internal surfaces the
brate, oroperateinstruments,relevantSectionsof waterboxesrequireaprotective coating or lining.
the PTC 19 Series ofsupplements on Instruments Field-installed testconnectionsrequire field repair
and Apparatus [4],ASME MFC-3M (to be superceded of the coating or lining.
by ASMEPTC 19.5 when it is published) [ l l ] , or
ASME fluid Meters [7] should be consulted for 4.2.3MultipressureSurfaceCondenser. The per-
detailedinstructions. formance test points andtest point locations for
Achievementoftherequiredaccuracy for each multipass and multipressure surface condensers will
parametermeasured is thesinglemostimportant be similar to those illustrated in Fig. 4.1 except for
criterion in selectionofanappropriatemethodof the following considerations:
measurement.ThisCodeshallnotbeconstrued as Single-shell multipressure condensers require addi-
preventingthe use of advancedtechnologies or tional condenserpressuretestpointsaboveeach
methods of measurement not described herein, pro- tube bundle in each of the multipressure condensing
vided that theaccuracyrequirements of Appendix zones. The performanceof each zone can be closely
D are achieved by the alternative method. estimated by measuring the final outlet temperature
It is highly recommended that provisions for con- in accordance with para.4.3.3 and proportioning
denser testing beincorporated into thedesignof the temperature rise of each zone using procedures
the facility at which the condenser is located. Back- described in Section 5.
fitting an existing system for the required measure- Multishellmultipressurecondensers requireaddi-
mentscanbeveryexpensiveandtime-consuming tional pressure and temperature test points to mea-
at best, and virtually impossibleatworst. sure the inlet and outlet cooling-water pressure and
temperature for each of the multipressure condenser
shells. Stratification canpersist in theshortlength
of the cooling-water crossover piping between rnulti-
4.2.1 General. Figure 4.1 illustratesthegeneral pressurecondensershells.Therefore, the average
location of the test points. Additional test points not temperature of the inlet cooling waterto the interme-


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S T D - A S M E P T C 1 2 - 2 - E N G L 199B m 0759b70 Ob05027 L 7 T m



F = Flow measurement T = Temperature

measurement 0

W = Water
level measurement DO = Dissolved
measurement Supplemental
P = Pressuremeasurement S = Salinitymeasurement



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S T D - A S M E P T C 12-2-ENGL 1998 m 0759670 0b05028 OOb m

diate or high-pressureshells shall be measured in directionsgiven in para. Thebasket tips

accordance with procedures describedin para. 4.3.3. shall be constructed as shown in Fig. 4.2, and shall
be installed atananglebetween 30 and 60 deg.
Two-Pass Surface
Condensers. Test points
to themean flow direction. Alternatively,thecon-
shall be generally the sameasthose for the single-
struction shown for turbineexhaust pressures in
pressure condenser. No measurements are required
ASMEPTC 6 [4]canbeused. Guide plates shall
at the return waterbox except for the inlet tempera-
beconstructed as shown in Fig. 4.3, andshould
turerequired for thetube bundlefouling test of
be oriented so that the steam flow is parallel to the
tubes in thesecond pass.
guide plates, as shown in the figure. Pressure sensing
piping for the pressure measurement shall conform
to thegeneralrequirementsofSubsection 4.3 of
PTC 19.2. [41 In particular,careshouldbetaken
to ensurethat all piping andconnections are air-
Pressure and steam tight, connected by the mostdirect practi-
cal route,and pitch continuouslydownwardfrom
Measurement locations. Condenser
the primary sensing elementto the pressure measure-
pressureshall be measuredatleast 1 ft andno
mentdevice.Airbleedsshallbeincorporated to
morethan3 ft aboveeach tube bundle.Atube
allow for purging any water pockets from the piping.
bundle is considered to be all tubesconnected to
The gauges shall be mounted so as to be free from
a single-inlet waterbox. For single-shell and multiple-
excessive vibration.
shell condensers, there shall be at least three mea-
Each pressure measurementpoint may be provided
surement points per tube bundle in eachshell.For
with a dedicated pressuremeasurementdevice,or
single-shell multipressure condensers, there shall be
manifolds may be used to switch a single pressure
at least two pressure measurement points per bundle
measurement device to several measurement points.
in each compartment. If tube bundles are arranged
Care must be taken to ensure that the manifold
one on top of the other, measurement points need
providesvacuum-tight isolation of eachmeasure-
only be provided for the uppermost bundle. Where
ment point, and that it is also purged of any water
three measurement points per bundle are required,
pockets.Manifoldsshallnotbeused as a means
to average pressure readings by connecting several
pointsofthetube bundle as shown in Fig. 4.1.
measuring points to the same pressure measurement
Where two measurement points perbundle are
device simultaneously.
required, they shall be located lengthwise near the
third-points of the tube bundle. In either case, the
Measurement. Pressure
lateral position of the measurement points shall be surementshallhaveamaximumuncertaintyof
as close to the lateral midpoint of the bundle as is 20.01 in. Hg. Mercury manometers are not recom-
practical. Care shouldbetaken toavoid locating mended for use in this Code, due to the environmen-
themeasurementpoints in areas which maybe tal andoperationhazardstheypresent in case of
influenced by unusually high steam velocities or by an accidental spill of the mercury. Electronic absolute
local separationzonesformed by obstructions in pressuretransducersarerecommended, provided
thecondenserneck. they are calibrated before and after the test program For usingNIST-traceablestandards in accordance with
conduits where the wallsare parallel to the direction thegeneralproceduresgiven in Section 2 ofPTC
of flow, wall static pressure taps may be located in 19.2. [4]
theconduit, following therecommendationsgiven
4.3.2Cooling-Water Inlet Temperature
above for lengthwise placement. The static pressure
taps shall conform to the requirements of Subsection
Location of Measurement Points. Be-
4.1 of PTC 19.2. 141 In particular, caremustbe cause the cooling wateratthecondenser inlet is
taken to ensure that noobstructionsexist in the generally well mixed, only one temperature measur-
vicinity ofthe taps, andthatthe tapsthemselves ing device is usuallynecessary in each cooling-
are smooth and free of burrs. water inlet conduit.Atan installation wherethere
Where wall staticpressuretapscannotbeused, is concern about adequate inlet cooling-water mix-
basket tips or guide plates should be located in the ing,the multiple-point measurement procedure de-
interior ofthe conduit according to thegeneral scribed in para. 4.3.3 should be followed. Measure-


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(stainless steel)

Screen (stainless steel)

No. 6 or No. 7 mesh wire


r i-" 12 n
i-. Flow

1 7

II, Connecting tube

12 in.

6 in. +114 in.

6 in.
c" 1 in.



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mentsmaybetaken by inserting atemperature Calibration. All temperaturemeasuring

measuringdevice directly into the flow orfroma devicesshall becalibrated towithin 21°F using
thermowell which extendsatleast 6 in. into the NIST-traceable standards following the general pro-
flow (but no fartherthanthemidpoint if the pipe cedures given in PTC 19.3. 141 If either thermocou-
diameter is less than 12 in.). If a well is used, it ples or three-wire RTDsareused, calibration must
should be cleanand filledwith asuitableheat include the lead wires.A minimum of five calibration
transfer liquid, such as glycol, and packing should points covering the expected range of temperatures
be used around theprobe to minimize heat exchange shall be taken.
with the environment.
If a singlepoint measurement is used, the measure-
4.3.3 Cooling-WaterOutletTemperature
mentmaybemadeeitheratthe inlet pipe or in
the inlet waterbox. location of Measurement Points. The
measurement of outlet temperature is more difficult Instruments. Inlet temperaturemeasure- than inlet temperature because of the possibility of
mentsshallbemade with instrumentshavingan non-uniform temperatures in the outlet pipe arising
accuracyof atleast +O.l"F. Several instruments from uneven heat transfer rates in the tube bundle.
capable of achieving this accuracy are suitable for If possible, measurement of the discharge tempera-
use in condenser testing, such as resistance-tempera- ture should be made far downstream from the con-
turedevices (RTDs), thermocouples (TCs), thermis- denser wherethedischarge is well mixed and the
tors, and liquid-in-glass thermometers. Mercury ther- temperature is uniform.Thislocation is acceptable
mometersare not recommended because of the if the cooling-water discharge from the unit under
potential environmental hazards posed by the mer- testdoes not mix with any other significant flows,
cury in case ofbreakage.Thegeneralprocedures and if it can be shown that the heat loss from the
given in PTC 19.3 [4] shouldbefollowed. discharge pipe to the environment is less than 0.2%
Thermometers, if used,shouldbeofthe total of the condenser duty, and if it can be determined
immersiontype with etched stems.Thermometers that no stratification exists.Thelatterrequirement
should have clearly readablegraduationsof 0.1"F. can be metbymakingatleast five temperature
If the thermometer was calibrated for total immer- measurements alongsingle vertical traverse, and
sion, an emergent stem correction factor as described verifyingthatthereare no temperaturedifferences
in PTC 19.3 [4]should be applied. The thermometer greater than 0.2"F or 1YO of the average temperature
shouldbeisolatedfromheat sources, andbe well rise across the condenser, whichever is greater. The
illuminated. The thermometershouldbeinspected temperaturemeasurement for testing canbemade
before and after the tests to ensure that it is in good byeitherinsertingaprobe directlyinto theflow,
physical condition, with no breaks, cracks, or liquid or by usingathermowell as described in para.
separation. 4.3.2.
Type E thermocouples are recommended for the If an acceptable, well-mixed downstream location
temperaturerangeusuallyencounteredatnormal cannotbefound,thenthe outlet temperaturecan
cooling-watertemperatures.Continuousleads from be determinedfrom an array of temperature measure-
the measuring tip to the thermocouple readout must mentsateach outlet pipe at a suitably convenient
be provided to avoid errors due to thermally induced location. One temperaturemeasurement shall be
EMF at splice junctions. made for every 1.S sq ft of conduit flow area
One hundred-ohm platinumRTDs are also recom- providing the measurement grid consists of at least
mended. Any thermistor with a nominal impedance six points, and no more than 18 points are required.
ofgreaterthan 1000 ohmsat 32°F is acceptable. These points shall be taken at the centers of equal
For RTDs and thermistors, either a three- orfour-wire areas and shall be averaged arithmeticallywith equal
measurement is acceptable. The four-wire method is weight. In the caseof a circular conduit, measure-
recommended, although the three-wire method may ments shallbealongatleastthreefull-diameter,
be used providing that therequiredmeasurement equally spacedtraverses, with measurements made
uncertainty can be achieved. If the three-wire method at concentric circles satisfying the equal area require-
is used, all RTDleadsmust be continuous back to ment. In a rectangular conduit, any suitable equal-
the measuring device to avoid errors due to unequal area positioning scheme may be used. The tempera-
splice resistance. This is not a requirement with the turesmay be taken either by traverse or by means
four-wire method or with thermistors. of a fixed array of temperature probes. Thermowells


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will not provide sufficient spatial resolution to meet frequency standard shall be conducted both before
the requirements of this paragraph. and after the testing program.
Differential pressuremeasuringdevicesusedfor
4.3.4 Cooling-Water Flow. Cooling-water flow de-
Pitot-statictypemeasurements shall be calibrated
termination is required for interpretation of waterside
before and after the test to an accuracy of at least
pressure drop data, for computationoftubewater
50.25% ofthemaximum differential pressureex-
velocity, and for determination of the heat load on
pected. Mechanical gauges,manometers,andelec-
the condenser (condenser duty) by the direct method.
tronic differential pressuretransducersareaccept-
The following methods of cooling-water flow mea-
able, so long as thestatedaccuracyrequirements
surement in thelargeconduits typicallyfoundin
The velocity probe should be inspected for damage
acceptable for thepurposesof this Codeandare
periodicallyduring testing. If anydamage to the
capable of providingan uncertainty of &l-2% when
probe is noted, all measurementsmadesincethe
previousinspection shall beretaken with another
(a) velocity traverse;
calibrated probe. For this reason, it is recommended
(b) tracer dilution;
that atleast two calibrated probes be available for
(c) differential producer;
(d) ultrasonic time-of-travel;
A velocity probe may experience vibration under
(e) energy balance.
certain flow conditions. For non-LDVtype probes,
Considerations concerning the applicationof these
if such vibration is detected,the cause of the vibration
methods to steamcondensersarecovered in this
shall becorrected. For non-LDV probes,measure-
Thecooling-water flow determination
mentstakenunderconditions of significant probe
shouldbemadeconcurrently with the heattrans-
vibration shall be considered invalid. Indicatorsof
fer test.
probe vibration include asharpchange(usuallya Velocity Traverse Methods. Velocity tra- rise) in the probedifferential when the probe position
verse methods are generally most applicable to the is changed slightly, physical vibration ofexposed
measurement of flow in large conduits in which the part oftheprobe,ora relatively suddenonsetof
size of the probe will not affect the measured flow. a high level of periodic pressurepulsations.
Nuid Meters, Chapter 1-7, describesthegeneral At least 10 diameters of straight,unobstructed
considerations for acceptable velocity traverse meth- piping shall existupstreamand 5 diameters down-
ods. [7] For thepurposes of PTC 12.2 [4], the streamofthemeasuringstation.Traverseshallbe
Fechheimer and Keil Pitot-static type probes and the taken along at least three equally spaced diameters.
insertion-type fiber-optic laser Doppler velocimeter Thetraverselocations shall follow theChebyshef
(LDV)are explicitly recommended,althoughother weighing scheme described in Chapter 1-7 of Nuid
instruments which meetuncertaintyrequirements Meters [71, with a minimum of tenpointsalong
may be used. If theFechheimerprobe is used, it eachdiameter.Anexampleofacceptabletraverse
is recommended that the directional-sensing capabil- points is shown in Fig. 4.4.
ities of theprobebeused to determinethe local
flow angle, and that this flow angle be incorporated Tracer Dilution Methods. Tracer dilution
into the flow determination. If theLDVprobe is methods are particularly applicable to the measure-
used, it should be oriented so that it picks up the ment of flow in large conduits. Although no formal
component of flow parallel to the pipe axis. standard on their use currently exists,themethod
Pitot-static and other non-LDV type probes shall is discussed in Chapter 1-9 of Fluid Meters [7] under
be inspected and calibrated before and after the test theheading Method of Mixtures. If this technique
by a hydraulic laboratory to an uncertainty of 51% is used,theparties to thetest shall agree upon
using standards traceable to the NIST. The post-test thedetails of implementation, provided thatthe
calibration requirement may be waived if inspection guidelines outlined here are followed.
reveals no damage to theprobe. A deviationof A key requirement of the tracer is that it exhibit
morethan 1% betweenthepretestandpost-test minimal tendency to adsorb onto organic and inor-
calibrations shall be cause for investigation. Calibra- ganic surfaces. Recent applications of this technique
tions shall covertherange of Reynoldsnumbers havemostoftenusedRhodamine W fluorescing
(based on probe diameter) expected in the velocity dye as the tracer, although any dye which can be
measurements. For an LDV probe, calibration of the shown to be conservative (not subject to adsorption
LDV processing electronics against an NIST-traceable or other loss mechanisms) i s acceptable.Thedye


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S T D D A S M E P T C L 2 - 2 - E N G L L998 M 0759b70Ob05032 537 m
E STEAM 12.2-1998


I ~~
Relative radius
(a) 0.2891

(b) 0.5592

(c) 0.7071

(d) 0.8290

(e) 0.9572

All points weighed equally


concentration ismeasuredusing a calibrated preci- into the flowbefore the samplingpointshouldbe

sion fluorometer. General considerations relating to shut off before the test. In thecase of a closed-
the application of Rhodamine WT or similar tracers cycle system, a prolongedperiod of notreatment
may be found in FlowMeasurementsinSanitary may berequiredtopurgethecoolingsystem of
Sewers. [8] In addition to the general considerations treatmentchemicals.Chlorine, in particular, may
outlined in Fluid Meters [7] and Flow Measurements affect Rhodaminedyes.
inSanitarySewers [ 8 ] the precautionsdiscussed Complete mixing of the tracer with the flow must
belowshouldbeobserved. be achieved foran accurate flow measurement. As
The flow should be free of any chemicals or silt a general guideline, at least 100 diameters of pipe
concentrations which may affect the detectability of shouldexistbetween the injectionandsampling
the tracer. Chemical treatment which is introduced points,althoughthisdistance may besubstantially


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Ob05033 q73 m

reduced by the presence of flow disturbances such pling temperatures and correcting the readings to a
as pumps, elbows, valves, or orifices. The presence common temperature. For Rhodamine WT dye, the
of complete mixing atthesamplingcross-section temperaturecorrectionsmaybefound from the
shall bedetermined by traversebefore testing by following equation (SmartandLaidlaw [9]):
withdrawing samples at nine equally spaced points
along 1 diameter at the sampling cross-section and
verifying that the concentrations at all points agree
to within +1%. This verification shall be conducted
within +-25'/0 of the flow at which thecondenser where F, = fluorescenceatstandardtemperature
testsare to be run. T, and Fe is the measured fluorescence at tempera-
Injection of dyemay be througha manifold or ture T.
at a single point in theflow, so long as complete The tracer injection apparatus shall be calibrated
mixing of the dye at the sampling point is verified for injection flow before and after the test program.
as describedabove. The uncertainty of the injection rate shall be -Co.5%
The dye concentration must reach steady state at or better.
thesampling point before data to beused in the The fluorometer (or other concentration measure-
flow determinationaretaken.Thisdetermination ment instrument) shall be calibrated before and after
shall be made by continuously monitoring the tracer the test program. Calibrations shall be performed at
concentration at the sampling cross-section. a minimum of threeconcentrationsbracketingthe
Caremust be taken to ensure that noflow is expected dye concentration. Instrument uncertainty
introduced or removedbetweenthe injection and shallbe no morethan 21%.
samplingstations. It is not sufficient to simply ac- Periodic field calibration of thetracer injection
count for these flows, since a smallinflow or outflow apparatus and the fluorometerduring testing is highly
can lead to a large measurement error. An exception recommended to ensuredata integrity.
is thatany outflows between the section at which DifferentialProducers. Differential pro-
complete mixing has been verified and the sampling
ducers which areaccepted by this Code include
station will not affect the measured flow.
the orifice plate,the flow nozzle,andtheventuri
Precautions must be taken if the possibility exists
meter.Thesedevices will be most applicable to
that the injected dye may recirculate to the injection
smaller condensers, ¡.e., those with inlet piping less
site. In the case ofatime-varyingflow,such as a
thanabout 3 ft in diameter.
tidally influenced estuary, it is necessary to demon-
The installation of the differential producer shall
strate, by measurement before the start of the test,
follow the requirements of Nuid Meters [7] or ASME
thatno dyerecirculation exists. In the case of
MFC-3M (1 11 particularly with regard to the length
aclosed-cycle cooling system, it is necessary to
demonstrate, by measurement,thatanypreviously and finish ofthe flow element,andlocationand
injecteddye is thoroughlymixed throughoutthe finish ofthepiezometer taps.The flow element
cooling-water system before a test can begin. As a
together with any flow conditioning devices immedi-
rule, about five cycle-recirculation times are required
atelyupstream of theelementshallbecalibrated
for complete mixingtobe achieved (the cycle-
as a unit before and after the testingby an hydraulic
recirculation time is the total volumeofwater in
laboratory to an uncertainty of 2 1 Y.or better using
thecooling-watersystem dividedby thecooling-
NIST-traceablemethods.The'post-test calibration
water flow). requirement may be waived if a post-test inspection
It is desirable for bothtracer injection and sampling
revealsnodamage or depositsthat would affect
to beoneithertheinlet-water or theoutlet-water
flow meter accuracy. A deviation of more than 1%
side of the condenser. ln this case, either continuous
betweenthepretestandpost-testcalibrations shall
sampling or grab samples are acceptable. If injection
because for investigation.
and sampling
. - occur on opposite sides of the con-
denser, extreme care must be taken to account for
Time-of-Travel. lnall con-
temperatureeffects.Grabsamplesmaybebroughtduits, particularly large ones, flow maybemeasured
to a common temperaturebeforeanalysis.This is using the multiple-path,time-of-traveltypeultrasonic
thepreferredmethod. In the case of acontinuous flow measurementmethod.Theprovisionsgiven in
sampling system, temperaturecompensationcanbe PTC 18 [4] under the headingAcoustic Method
accomplished by measuringthe injection and Sam- shallgoverntheapplicationof this method.Several


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significant features are summarized here. A minimum suregauge is of the proper diameter and is sloped
of four parallel chordalpathsshall be provided, continuously downward from the gauge to the ori-
regardless of the size of the conduit. The metering fice, to avoid accumulation of water.Gauge pressure
section shall be preceded by atleast 10 diameters and temperature of the discharge shall be measured
and followedby atleast3diameters ofstraight either upstream or downstream of the orifice plate.
pipe.Thetime-of-travelinstrumentation shall be The differential pressure instrument, static pressure
tested at zero flow before andafter the test to ensure gauge, and the temperature measuring device shall
properandaccurateoperation. be calibrated before and after thetests. The differen-
Because this methodmaybeadverselyaffected tial pressure instrument attached to the orifice shall
by the presence of silt and other particulates or air becalibrated to an uncertaintyof 2 1 % ofthe
bubbles in theflow, it shouldbe verified that the expected orifice differential. The static pressure de-
sourcewater is suitablycleanbeforethemetering vice shall be calibrated to an uncertainty of 2 1 psi.
system is installed. The temperature measuring device shall be calibrated
Sinceultrasonic time-of-travel systemsare rela- to an uncertainty of +1 "F.
tively difficult and expensive to install, it is recom- The flow shall bedeterminedaccording to the
mendedthatprovision for its installation in the equations for gas flow through an orifice as given
cooling-water pipingbe madeduringdesignand in Part 11-111 of PTC 19.5 [4] or ASME MFC3M.
construction of the cooling system. 1111 Gasproperties,such as the expansionfactor,
density, and viscosity, shall be determined assuming In theenergy
that the orificeflow consistsofsaturated air. For
balance method, an energy balance on the turbine-
convenience, simplified equations yielding sufficient
generator cycle is performed in order to determine
accuracy for purposes of this paragrapharegiven
the rate at which heat is rejected to the condenser
in Appendix H.
(condenser duty) in the low-pressure exhaust steam.
As described in para.3.16.2, cooling-water flow 4.3.6 Hotwell Level. Thecondenser hotwell shall
canthen be determinedfromthecondenserduty be provided with a sight glass, graduated in at least
andthedifferencebetweenthe inlet and outlet l-in. increments. The level of water in the hotwell
waterbox temperatures. One advantage of this shall be monitored and remain within design limits
method is thatthecondenserduty is determined for the duration ofthetest.
Determination of the condenser dutyby the energy 4.3.7 Waterbox level. Waterbox level shall be-
balance method shall be performedaccordingthe monitoredthroughoutthe tests to ensurethat all
applicablesectionsof PTC 6 [4] for the testing of waterboxes are kept full. A means for verifying that
steam turbines. Because ofthecomplexity of this the condenser waterboxes are full of water should
test, it is recommended that the condenser be tested be used during thetest period.
at the same time as the steam turbine. The overall 4.3.8Waterbox Differential Pressures. Differential
uncertainty of the condenser duty measurement will pressuregaugesshall be provided to measurethe
have to be determined for eachcasebased on the pressure drop between the inlet and outlet waterbox
cycles,procedures,andinstrumentation used. nozzles. There shall be at least onedifferential gauge
Non-condensible Flow. Non-condensible for each parallel water circuit in the condenser. The
flow shall be measured by methods that have been gauges shall be calibrated before and after the test
shown to be accurate.ThisCoderecommendsthe to 2 1o/o of the maximum expected differential. Me-
use of anorifice plate locatedat or near the discharge chanical gauges orelectronic differential pressure
of the evacuating apparatus. The orifice plate shall gauges are acceptable. Mercury manometers are not
meet the specifications described in ASME-MFC-3M recommended due to the operational and environ-
[l I ] (see alsoSubsection4.1)or PTC 19.5. [4] mental hazards posed should the mercury be inad-
Provided that all specified installation criteria are vertently blown from the manometer.
followed, no calibration of the orifice meter is re-
quired. Particular attention should be paid to ensur-
ing that adequate lengths of straight pipe upstream This method describes the mea-
anddownstreamofthe orifice areavailable,that surement of the dissolved oxygen(DO) concentration
the pressure taps are properly located and finished, of the condensate. Prior to conducting the measure-
and that the pressure piping to the differential pres- mentsdescribed in thisSection,theconditions for


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testing in accordance with Subsection 3.1 1 of this 4.3.1 O Condensate Temperature. Condensate tem-
Codemustbeachieved. perature measurements shall be made in accordance
with the general procedures describedin para. 4.3.2. Sampling of the con- The thermowells should be located upstream of the
densate for DO shall be performed by extracting condensatepump.
condensate from the condensate outlet piping as
close as possibletothe hotwellbutprior to the 4.3.11Saline/Brackish Water Concentration. Sa-
condensatepump,and priortoaddition of any linity measurements shall be made by using Method
oxygen scavenging chemicals (seeFig. 4.1). Extrac- 2520 for "Salinity" from StandardMethodsforthe
tion shall be madeusing a pump. Caremust be ExaminationofWaterandWastewater. [6]
taken to avoid any air ingress in thesample line
from the hotwell outlet piping to the pump. Samples
shallbemeasured in each hotwell outlet which is Introduction. ThisCoderequires a de-
in use. termination ofthecondensertube bundle fouling.
The sample nozzle should extendinto the conden- Themeasurement is necessary in order to adjust
sate outletpiping 4 in. or 25% of the pipe diameter, thecondenser overall heattransfer coefficient test
whichever is less. Metal tubing shall be used to results to design or guarantee conditions. The fouling
connect the sample nozzle to the DO probe,and test consists of a measurement of the outlet tempera-
to connectthe DO probe to thesampling pump. tures of sets of two adjacent tubes. One of the tubes
The pump effluentmay be routed back to the of each set remains in the as-found fouled condition
condenserundervacuum, in order to reducethe while the neighboring tube has either been cleaned
pump head pressure. or replaced with a new tube. As required,the
condenser has justhad a generalcleaning. Other- Samples forcon- wise, the tube pair experience identical heat transfer
tinuous flow oxygen analyzersshould beat flow rates
conditions, ¡.e., steampressures, cooling-water flow
andtemperaturesrecommended by the instrument rates, and velocities. Theoutlet temperature measure-
manufacturers. Flow and temperature shall be held ments provide a comparison of the heattransfer
constant during the tests. rates of the tube pairs,and, consequently, the bundle
If sample tubing is used to transport the sample fouling resistance.
toa remotelocation,the tubing shall be sized to
maintain a minimum velocity of 5 to 6 Wsec. locations. The
Prior to the tests, sample lines and instrumentation of pairsoftubesselectedfor the fouling test shall
shall be flushed for a sufficient time to ensure that be oneper 2000 tubesper tube bundle, butnot
lines are free from air bubbles or pockets. fewerthanfourpairsor'morethan 16 pairsper
bundle. The pairs shallbe located at the approximate Oxygen Analysis. Portable or in-line oxy- centroidsofequaltubesectors within the tube
gen analyzers using membrane-covered galvanic or bundle pattern. However, it is not recommended to
polarographic oxygen sensors are the recommended placepairs within three tube rows of the bundle
method of analysis. The instrument used shall have periphery due to the atypical conditions there. The
a detection limit of less than 1.O ppm, with a number of pairs per number of tubes shall be the
maximum error of 21 .O ppm. same regardless of whether the condenseris a single-
The instrument shall be calibrated before and after pass,two-pass, or multipressure type.
the test. If calibration is performed using atmospheric
oxygen,theanalyzershall be given sufficient time
to reach equilibrium with the condensate DO level. Thetestshallbe conducted immediatelybefore,
It is recommended that theinstrumentanalysis during, or after the condenser heat transfer test, as
be verified by a wetchemistrytechnique prior to is convenient. Besides the outlet temperature,the
running the testsperPTC 12.3. I41 cooling-waterflow, inlet temperatures,and con-
If the oxygen sensor fouls from condensate con- denserpressures shall be measured.Themeasure-
taminants,the titrimetric methodshallbecomethe ment, calibration, test conditions, and limitations of
recommended method of analysis. The sample shall these parameters shall comply in all respects to all
be removed in thesamemanneras described in therelatedrequirements listed in thisSectionand
para., with thesample being collected at Table 3.1. A minimumof four sets of readings
the discharge of the extraction pump. spanning 30 min shall constitute a test.


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4.3.1 2.4 Outlet Temperature Installation.A tem- [c) Attachment of a suitable minimal blockage fix-
perature sensorshall be installed attheoutletsof ture into the tube interior that holds thesensor is also
eachofthetubes in amannerthat ensures tube permitted if it can be demonstrated the total added
blockage is minimized and an accuratedischarge blockage is less than 5% of the internal tube flow area.
temperature is measured.The installation shall be 4.3.1 2.5 Tube Temperature Rises. Tube tempera-
sufficiently rugged and suitably waterproofed to with- ture rises for the fouling tests shall be measured in
stand the hydraulic forces and temperatures of the generalaccordance with theproceduresdescribed
discharged cooling water.Thetemperaturesensor in this section. RTDs or thermocouples may be used,
lead wire fromthesampledtubesshallberouted providedthattheuncertaintyofthetemperature
andsecuredbetween the tubeholesonthe outlet measurement systemis at most 20.1 "F. If thermocou-
tube sheet.They shall bebundledandfed out ples are
used, it is recommended that a direct
through a new or existing waterbox penetration to differential temperature measurement setup be used.
the readout. If RTDs are used, it is highly recommendedthat
In the case of two-pass or multipressure condensers the pairs of RTDs which will be used on the moni-
in separateshells, tube pairs located in the bundle tored tubes be calibrated together, in order to mini-
mize the effect of any bias errors in the calibration
subsequent to the first shall have aninlet temperature
on the determination of the temperature difference
measurement similar to that described for the outlet
between the pairedRTDs. Provision shall be made for
calibration of the temperature measurement devices
Since the variety of installation situations will be before and after the fouling test, over the expected
numerous, only generalguidanceon affixing the range of temperature differences and within 5°F of
sensor to the tube sheet can be provided, as follows. the expected inlet-water temperature. Following the
(a) If an outlet tube stub exists, plastic collars can fouling test, all instrumented tubes shall be inspected
be utilized as shown in Appendix G. to ensurethattheyareclearandhave not been
(6) Direct attachment to the tubesheet i s permissi- influenced by blockage or anyotherfactor(other
ble as long as the sensor extends into the flow. thantube fouling) which mayaffecttheresults.


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S T D * A S M E P T C L Z - Z - E N G L L978 m 0757b70 Ob05037 019 m

CONDENSERS 12.2-1998


This Section defines all the computations required
to obtain results
in the Code. For both single-pass
R& = -
* ln
* k',
(5) (5.1.4)

andtwo-pass condensers,these include the heat

adjustments to design condi- and
tions, fouling resistance, subcooling, condensate dis-
solved oxygen, tubeside pressure drop, non-conden-
sible gas flow,
and uncertainty.
= -DI no
(2) (5.1.5)

the basicequationsare the same, multipressure

condenserperformance assessmentsare slightly dif- formetricunits.
ferent as is.described in para. 5.2.8. Note that when
5.1.4TubesideResistance. The tubesidethermal
the complete equations aregiven,U.S.Customary
resistance calculation is taken
from Rabas and
Units areassumed.
Crane. 111
Condenser Heat Load. Thecondenserheat
load shall be computed according to the following
R; = .O158 k+ (Re+).835(Pr+).462
1" (5.1.6)

where Re is the Reynolds number pvD3600/p and

Q+ W +* C i * ( T t - Tt) (5.1 .l) Pr i s the
Prandtl number cpcJk. This equation is
simplified for calculation in U.S. CustomaryUnits:


5.1.2 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient.

over- The R' ( k + 0.538 * 0.835 * P
0.482 (5.1.71
all heattransfer coefficient at the test conditions
shall be computed as follows: d9.l 65
*- v+ 0.835

u+ = Q+ (5.1.2) where
A, * LMTD+


Circulating water fluid properties are evaluated at

(Tt - Tt)
LMTD' = (5.1.3) average
the bulk temperature,
water TB, which is
(T; - T;) defined as
In ( (Tf - T Z ) )
T$ = 0.5 * (Tt + T;) (5.1.9)
The saturated steam temperature corresponding 7':
to pressure P: is determined from the ASME Steam 5.1.5FoulingResistance. The fouling resistance is
Tables. [ 2 ] from
the comparison


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method. For j pairs of tubes, the fouling resistance, R & = R+, (5.2.1)
R b is determinedby:

5.2.2TubesideResistance. Thetubesidethermal
(5.1 . l o ) resistance is calculated at thedesign conditions as

where the fouling resistanceforeach tube pair is

determined from:

1 This equation is simplified for calculation in U.S.

fj- (5.1.1 1 ) CustomaryUnits:
R' - ( T: - Ti,t;\
R: = (5.2.3)

- 1 1 0.373 d0.165
(&*OS38 * 0.835 * c+
P 0 . 4 8 2 )p 0*
.835 L

5.1.6ShellsideResistance. The shellsideresistance
at thetest conditions is determined by difference
as follows:

(5.1.1 2) Circulating water fluid propertiesareevaluated at

the bulk water temperature, TB, which is defined as

5.2.3FoulingResistance. Themanufacturer'sde-
It is unlikely that the'conditions duringa perform-
signdata usually express the fouling resistance in
ance test will ever exactly match the design condi-
terms of a cleanliness factor. If the design reference
tions. As a result, comparison of the measured con-
condenser pressure is based on a cleanliness factor
denser shell pressure to thedesign value is not
of 1 .O, thedesign fouling resistance, Rf, is equal
meaningful. Instead, it is first necessary to adjust
to zero.Forany othervalueofcleanlinessfactor,
the test results from the test conditions to the design the resulting fouling resistance is determined as
reference conditions. The correction procedures
which follow are based on adjusting the test calcu-
lated heat transfer resistancesfor differences between
the test anddesignconditions.Thesevaluesare (5.2.6)
then used to computetheadjusted overall heat
transfer coefficient and the test-adjusted condenser
steampressure at thedesignreference conditions. where
Thedesignreference conditions are determined
from manufacturer'sdata.Calculatedvalues, not
includedwith the data, are computed usingthe u* = c? (5.2.7)
A, * LMTD*
same procedures as developed in Subsection 5.1,
but substituting the design values for the test values.
5.2.1TubewallResistance. The tubewall resistance
is a constant which is dependent only on the tube-
wall thicknessandmaterial.Accordingly,


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S T D - A S M E P T C 1 2 - 2 - E N G L 1978 W 0757b70 Ob05037 771


to pressure Pj is determined from the ASME Steam
Tables. [21
If the test condition steam flow rate, W;, is not
5.2.4ShellsideResistance. l h e shellsidecondens- available, the expression W:/W may be substituted
ing heattransfer is the mostcomplexcomponent with Q+/Q*. The liquid propertiesareevaluated at
in theevaluationof a steamsurfacecondenser. the bulk average temperature of the condensatefilm.
Numerous correlations of the Nusselt equation have
This temperature can be approximated as follows:
been developed for the film coefficient for various
condensing situations. These correlations are based
on specificcondensing conditionsrequiring ade-
v = T: - 0.2 * LMTD* (5.2.1 3)
tailed knowledge of the shell and tube nest geome-
triesandthecondensingconditionsand resulting and
in significantly different prediction values of the heat
transfer coefficient. As a result, the test value of the T; = T: - 0.2 * LMTD' (5.2.14)
shellsideresistance is determined in para. 5.1.6
based on the difference between the test calculated 5.2.5 Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient. The over-
overallheattransfercoefficientandsumof the all heat transfercoefficient (OHTC),which is adjusted
calculated values for the other heat transfer resist- to thedesignconditions, is as follows:
In order to adjustthetestshellsideresistance
value to the design condition, some formulation is
necessary to correct for the difference in condensate
film temperature between design condition and test
condition. Because this requires an adjustment over
a limited range of conditions, rather than aprediction 5.2.6
of an absolute value of the shellside resistance, very The test condenser steam pressure,which is adjusted
precisepredictions are notrequired.TheNusselt to thedesignreferenceconditions, i s determined
equation used herein provides for film condensation using the following procedure:
on theoutside of horizontal tube bundles,and is
expressed as follows:
U* * A*
NTUO = -
c; * W*
(5.2.1 6)


Noting that
Theadjusted steampressure, P?, corresponding to
thesaturation steamtemperature, T f , as calculated
fromthe above, is determined from ASME Steam
(5.2.1 O)
Tables. [2]
5.2.7 Evaluation of Results/Acceptance Criterion.
then The difference between the test adjusted and design
reference steampressures is evaluated as follows:

(5.2.1 1)
If thepressuredifference is greaterthanorequal
to zero, the condenser performance is satisfactory
Combining equations 5.2.9 and 5.2.1 1, and considered acceptable. If the pressure difference


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is less thanzero,thecondenserperformance is pump turbine,thenthatestimated value shall be

worse than design and is considered unacceptable. added to the compartment heat load.
For multipressurecondensers the cooling-water
5.2.8 MultipressureCondensers. Multipressure
temperature between compartments cannot be mea-
condenserperformance is assessedseparately for
sured due to temperature stratification or inaccessi-
each pressure compartment. There are two types of
bility. The temperature canbe estimated by assuming
multipressurecondensers:the multishell multipres-
that the temperature rise i s proportional to the heat
sure condenser (Fig. 5.1) and the single-shell multi-
load in eachcompartment. The calculation proce-
pressurecondenser(Fig. 5.2).
dure is as follows: Condenser Heatload. The turbine ex-
hauststeam flows shall beassumedto be equally
divided between each of the multipressure compart-
ments. If othermajorsteamloadsarepresent in a
particular compartment, such as from a boiler feed Atheasured) = ATx + AT,, + AT, (5.2.19)


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where Q = Qx + Oy + 0,

AT, = (Ar)(%);

Arti (measured) = ATtx,; + ATty,; + A T , , ;

NOTE: A three-compartment condenser is used for

illustration here, but the procedure alsoapplies to
two-compartment multipressure condensers. OverallHeatTransferCoefficient. The

overall heat transfer coefficient at the test condition
for each compartmentis calculated usingthe method
outlined .in para. 5.1.2. Tubewall Resistance. The tubewall resist-

ance is calculatedthe sameas in para. 5.1.3. TubesideResistance.Thetubesideresist-
ance is calculatedthe sameas in para. 5.1.4. Fouling Resistance. The fouling resist-
ance is determinedfromcomparisonofadjacent
tubes, in the samemanner as for a single pressure
condenser. For j pairs oftubes, the fouling resistance, where the subscript 4 corresponds to the outlet of
Rf, for each pressure compartment is determined by: the high-pressurecompartment.

Arc,; (measured) = ATc,,,; + ATc,y,;+ ATc,,,;

Rr,y = -
c Rty,;

or i n a multishell multipressure condenser, the cool- Tc,Z,I = tl + ATc,x,;

ing-water outlet temperatures from eachcompart-
mentcanbe measuredand will beused in the TC,3,i = fC,2,,+ yc,y,;
calculation ofthe fouling resistance.Forsingle-
shell multipressurecondensers,thecooling-water Tc,4,i = &,),i + ATc,,;
temperature between compartments cannot be mea-
sured. These temperatures will instead be estimated
using the same procedure as outlined i n para. where the subscript 4 corresponds to the outlet of the high-pressurecompartment.


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STD-ASME P T C L Z * Z - E N G L 1998 9 0759b70Ob0509298b 9


1 If the calculated
testat condi-
tion is less than or equal to design value, this aspect
ofthecondenserperformance i s satisfactoryand
considered acceptable. If it is greater than the design
value,thecondenser perforknce i s worse than
designand is consideredunacceptable.

Rf,Y,i = ($)( In (
p T 9 -1 In (T5.Y - Calculations
Criterion. The dissolved
result shall be
T5.y - %3,i T,, - Tc,3,i determined by averaging the
measured dissolved
oxygenresultsat the specified time intervalsfor
eachcondenser outlet pipe. If theaveragedresult
is greater than the design value for any condensate
1 outlet dissolved oxygen measurement, the condenser
Rf’zri=(%)[ln (T,, - TC^,;) - (Ts,=- Tc,3,;)) performance is worse than design and is considered
T , , - %4,i T,, - Tc,4,; unacceptable. The shellside resist-

ance for each compartment is calculated the same 5.4 UNCERTAINTY ANALYSIS
as in para.5.1.6.
To determine if a test conducted in accordance
CondenserPressure Deviation Results with this Code meets the uncertainty criteria specified
Calculation. The condenser pressuredeviation results in Subsection1.3,anestimate of the uncertainty
calculation foreachcompartment is the same as in thetestresultsattributable to testmeasurement
the single pressure condenser, as outlined in Subsec- uncertainties must be performed as part of the test
tion 5.2.The cooling-watertemperaturebetween calculations. This uncertainty analysis shall be per-
compartments shall be estimatedusing the same formed in accordance with ASME PTC 19.1. [4]
method as outlined in para. Thepurpose of this Subsection is toprovide the
procedures to be used in propagating the individual
test measurement uncertainty terms into a test result
5.4.1 Uncertainty in TestAdjustedSteamPressure.
5.3.1TubesidePressure Drop Deviation Calcula- Anestimate of the uncertainty in the teststeam
tions Acceptance Criterion. The test measured tube- pressure, adjusted to the design reference conditions,
side pressure dropis adjusted for differences between is calculated as follows:
the testanddesignreference water-flow rates as
Unq = 46 4 + (5.4.11
A 6 = AP?($) (5.3.1)

If the calculated tubeside pressure drop is less than

or equal to the designvalue,thisaspect of the Bq2 = (@e6q)2 + (,9dgd)2 + (eq~?)2
condenserperformance is satisfactoryandconsid-
ered acceptable. If it is greater than the design value,
this aspect of the condenser performance i s worse + ( @ J $ ~ T $ ~+ ( Q ~ , ~ B r 7 , f ) (5.4.2)
+ (8~76~7)’ ~
than the designand i s consideredunacceptable.
5.3.2CondensateSubcooling Results Calculations


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E STEAM 12.2-1998

Degrees mg- D%-
of of of
Freedom r Freedom t Freedom t
21 1 12.706
2.201 11 2.080
12 2 4.303
2.074 22 2.1 79
3 3.1 82 13 2.1 60 23 2.069
4 2.776 24 14 2.1 45 2.064
15 5 25 2.571 31 2.1 2.060
16 6 2.447 26 2.1 20 2.056
7 2.365 17 2.1 1o 27 2.052
2.306 8 o1 18 2.1 2.048 28
19 9 2.262 2.093 29 2.045
10 2.228 20 2.086 30 or 2.000
Table gives values of t such that from -t to +t the area included is 95%.

Se’ = (@*S*)’ + (@)&,+)’ + (@&2 input test parameters. The final result referred to in
thepreceding sentence is the Codetest objective
being considered, ¡.e., thedesignreferencesteam
+ (8r;Sr;)’ + (@TiSri)2+ (@Tt $T;,>’ (5.4.3)
pressure, subcooling, dissolved oxygen, or tubeside
pressuredrop.The ratio of the change in the per-
+ (@r;,&:,>’ + (@T;,cSri,c)2+ (@Tz,~ST~,~)~ turbed parameter to the change in the output is the
sensitivity factor for that particular parameter.
The methodology and procedures for estimating the Sensitivity factors can also be obtained analytically
bias limits and calculating the precision indices for by partial differentiation of the equationsused in
each of theindependentmeasurementparameters computing the results. The equations to be used in
are provided in ASME PTC 19.1 [4] and are therefore thecomputationofeachof the sensitivityfactors
not repeatedhere. Also note that correlatedbias follow. In deriving these sensitivity factor equations,
analysis is beyond the scope of the current Code. it is assumedthat the error in the calculated fluid
Student’s t factor, G, is defined in PTC 19.1 [4] and steam properties (heat capacity, density, viscos-
and is a function of the degrees of freedom (¡.e., ity, etc.) due to errors in the measurement parameters
one less than the number of observations taken for aresmall,whencompared to the effect of these
a givenmeasuredparameter). A table of r factors measurement parameters on the overall test uncer-
is given in Table 5.1. If the number of observations tainty. Accordingly, these sensitivity factors neglect
is greater than 30, the t factor can be taken as 2.0. fluid property error effects.
The r factor is used to convert standard deviations Sensitivity Factor for Steam Flow Rate:
to 95% confidenceintervals.
5.4.2 Sensitivity Factors. The sensitivity factors (O),
used in the above,can be determined by either of
the following techniques.
The centraldifference method canbeemployed
with separate perturbations of the individual instru- (5.4.4)
ment uncertainties. That is, using the data reduction
proceduresandequations given previously in this
Section,compute the averagetest resultfromthe
averagetestdata.Then, using the sameequations,
systematically compute the change in the final test
resultcaused by a smallchange in each ofthe where


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S T D * A S M E P T C L2-E"ENGL L778 0759670Ob05044 259


F1 = 0.001 6908°.02736T?
i i
i = l
LMTDE; - x
i = l


Sensitivity Factor for Circulating-Water Flow Rate: 1

F3 = (5.4.1 1)
0.001 69oe0.02736T3

(5.4.7) Sensitivity Factor for Cleanliness Factor Fouled Tube

Inlet Temperature:

L W+ J (5.4.1 2)

Sensitivity Factor for Inlet- Water Temperature:

i= 1
.. .
(5.4.8) L

1 Sensitivity Factor for Cleanliness Factor Fouled Tube

Outlet Temperature:

Sensitivity Factor for Outlet-Water Temperature:



Sensitivity Factor for Cleanliness Factor Clean Tube

Inlet Temperature:
Sensitivity Factor for SteamPressure:

i= 1

- F1 * * R: * A,
Sensitivity Factor for Cleanliness Factor Clean Tube
(5.4.1 O)
F3 * R: + W + * C; * ( T t - T;) Outlet Temperature:


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(5.4.1 9)


5.4.4 Uncertainty in CondensateSubcooling. This

estimate follows:
5.4.3 Uncertainty in TubesidePressure Drop. An
estimate of the uncertainty in the test tubeside pres-
suredrop,adjusted to thedesignreference condi-
tions, is calculated as follows: where b, t, and S have the definitions of Subsection
2.2, and


with the sensitivity factors

@r, and @Tc = 1.O
(5.4.1 7)
where T, = temperature of condensate
5.4.5 Uncertainty in Dissolved Oxygen in Conden-
and sate. This estimate follows:

where B, t,, and S have the definitions of Subsection
2.4 and are determined directly from the dissolved
The sensitivity factors are as follows: oxygen instrument and number of readings.
I V v


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E STEAM 12.2-1998



or of tubes
(o) Tube rnaterial(s)
The generalorganization of the report of testis
given in this Section. Specific data requirements are
(P) Number of tubes plugged during tests
(q) Diagram of the tubesheet layout
summarized in Subsection 6.2.
(r) System configuration (once-through or closed)
6.1.1 Objective of the Test. ThisSectionshall (S) Source of cooling water
explain why the test was conducted, and what was (t) Description of circulating water pumps
to be accomplished by the test. (u) Description of condensate pumps
(v) Overall description of cooling system
6.1.2 Conclusions. This Section shall be a statement
of the conclusions derived from the test, including 6.1.5Description of TestingSetup. ThisSection
whether or not the equipment met expected perform- shalldescribe the overalltestsetup in sufficient
ance, andanassessment of the overallquality of detailtoallowforinterpretation of the test data.
the test as determined from the uncertainty analysis. Sketches, photographs, and drawings should be in-
cluded where appropriate.
6.1.3 Identification of the EquipmentTested. This (a) Condenser pressure measurement locations
Sectionshallclearlyidentify the particularpiece (b) Condenser pressure primary devices
of condensing equipmentwhichwastested. The (c) Inlet temperature measurement points
followinginformationshouldbeincluded. (d) Discharge temperature measurement points
(a) Plant where the equipment is installed (e) Circulating water-flow measurement methods,
(b) Owner of the condenser details, and equipment
(c) Unit served by the condenser (0 Description of non-condensibleflowmea-
(d) Manufacturer of the condenser surement
(e) Serialnumber (g) Method of hotwell level measurement
6.1.4 Description of EquipmentTested. ThisSec- (h) Method of waterbox level measurement
tion shall describe the equipment in sufficient detail (i) Locations of waterbox differential pressure taps
to allow the reader of the testreporttoduplicate 0) Locationandmethod of condensate dissolved
allanalysesandtoformindependent judgment of oxygen measurement
the testresults.Thefollowinginformationshould (k) Locations of tubes for fouling measurements
be included. 6.1.6
Discussion. ThisSectionshouldincludea
(a) Type of condenser discussion of backgroundinformationrelevantto
(b) Number of passes the tests, including the following:
(c) Dimensioned drawings of condenser (a) History of operation of the equipment, includ-
Id) Special features ing any unusual operation incidents, repairs, or modi-
(e) Effective surface area fications to it.
(0 Distance from exhaust flange or prime mover to (b) Agreements made prior to or after the testing
inlet flange of condenser which affect the execution of the test or the analysis
(g) Area of steam inlet to condenser of the results.
(h) Elapsedtimesincecondenserwasplaced in (c) A detailed description of all pretest inspections
service and the conclusions reached from those inspections.
(i) Elapsed time since last cleaning
Q Method used for cleaning 6.1.7 Test Data at Operating Conditions. This Sec-
(k) Number of tubes in each pass tionshallincludealisting of thereduceddata
(/) Active length of tubes (instrumentreadingswithcalibrationsandcorrec-
(m) Outside diameter of tubes tionsapplied,averagedoverthetestperiodand


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expressed in engineering units). It shall also include 6.2

The reduced test data for each run shall be listed
conditions. in the report. The list given below is a guide to the
Test Data Adjusted to DesignConditions. information that should be included. All information
This Section shall list test results as specified in this relevant to the test, required for analysis of the data,
Code to guaranteeconditions.Whereappropriate, orpertinent to the interpretation ofthe testresults
it should also include atablecontaining the test shallbeincluded.
resultsalong with themanufacturer’sperformance 6.2.1 GeneralInformation
curves. (a) Run number
Analysis. Thereportshall in- (b) Date
(c) Time
clude the uncertainty analysis for eachrun.
Pressure. Pressures recorded at
6.1.10 Appendices. The following appendices shall
each point for each tube bundle.
be included in the test report.
(a) Samplecalculation. Thesamplecalculation 6.2.3 Circulating Water SalinityandChemistry
shall be included using the data from one run. The
calculation shall be presented in sufficient detail that 6.2.4 inlet Temperature. Temperatures recorded at
each inlet-watermeasuring point.
the reader can repeat the calculations for the other
test runs. 6.2.5 Outlet Temperature. Temperaturemeasure-
(b) List of Instrumentation. This list shall include ments made at each point in each circulating-water
all instruments used in the tests, and shall include: conduit.
(I) manufacturer
(2) model number 6.2.6CondensateTemperature. Temperaturemea-
(3) serialnumber surements made at each point ineach active conden-
(4) operating settings sate outlet conduit.
(5) claimed accuracy 6.2.7 Cooling-Water Flow
(6) calibration coefficients
(a) Velocity traverse
(c) List of personnel. All personnel who substan- Velocities measured at eachpoint in the velocity tra-
tively participated in the planning, execution, analy- verse.
sis, or reporting of the test shall be listed along with (b) Acoustic
their organizational affiliations andfunction in the Individual path velocities
testing. Average flow velocity
(d) Uncertainty analysis sample computation. This (c) Dye dilution
sample calculation should be included for one run, Temperature of sample water
andshall be presented in sufficient detail that the Background fluorescence
reader can repeat the calculations for the other test Fluorescence of standard
runs. Fluorescence of circulating water
6.1.11Distribution of Data. The following infor- (d) Differential producer
mation shall be made available to all parties to the Differential pressure across meter
test as soon
as possibleafterthecompletion of (e) Energy balance
the test: All data required by PTC 6 141 to evaluatethe
(a) Daily log of test events. energydelivered to thecondenser
(b) Copies of all manually acquired data. 6.2.8WaterboxPressure Drop
(c) Hard copies of all reduced data.
(d) Daily log of test events. 6.2.9 Hotwell level Reading
(e) Computerrecords; 6.2.1 O Waterbox level Reading
(7) Data acquired by computershallbemade
available in a format agreed to by all parties. 6.2.1 1Non-condensible Flow Rate
(2) If the data are compressed for convenience (a) Orifice plate pressure drop
in distribution, a copy of the decompression software (b) Fluid temperature
shall be included with the data. (c) Fluid static pressure


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E STEAM PTC 12.2-1998

(a) Tube locations
(b) Tube inlet temperature
(c) Tube outlet temperature
6.2.13DissolvedOxygenContent in Condensate
6.2.1 4 Subcooling
6.2.15TubesidePressure Drop
6.2.16Numerical Conclusions. ThisSectionshall
include a comparison of measuredperformance to
requirements. The analysis of uncertainty of individ-
ual measurementsand overall test uncertainty.


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To provide more guidance for the Code user, the NONMANDATORYAPPENDICES

Committee has preparedAppendices A through K.
TheseAppendicesarenonmandatoryand are pro- A Guideline:FIowchartdChecklists
vided for information. They complement and amplify B Guideline: Automatic Data Acquisition
the instruction of the main body of PTC 12.2. Their C Guideline: Performance Monitoring
review is important for a full appreciationofthe D Guideline: Example Calculations
testmethods in currentpractice. E Detail: Uncertainty
TheseAppendicesare divided into threecatego- Pressure
ries. The first category provides guidelines for proper F Detail: GeothermalSurfaceCondensers
use of the Codeand to help the testengineer G Diagnostic: Air Binding
conduct the test.Thesecondcategoryadds detail H Diagnostic: Non-Condensible Removal Equipment
to sectionsoftheCode which require supporting I Diagnostic:Tube Fouling
documentation. The final category includes diagnos- J PhysicalPropertiesof Sea Water
tic tests to assess common classes of surface con- K References
denser problems.


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S T D - A S M E P T C 12.2-ENGL L998 W 0759b70 Ob05050 5 5 2

(This Appendix is not a part of PTC 12.2 and is included for information purposes only.)

In an effort to guide usersof theCode in the

instrumentationselectionandpreparation process,
the following flowchartsandchecklists havebeen
created.These will help the user properly plan all
necessary stages of the test. They should be general-
ized to fit the individual needs. These aids should
not be substituted for a site-specific test plan, instru-
mentation list, required calibration methods, or any
other mutually agreed-upon testing procedure.
Undernocircumstancesshould theseaids limit
or confine the user. If a more comprehensive testing
plan is necessary, it is up to thetestingparties to
produce a document that is mutually inclusive in
all the areas of importance. This Appendixcan serve
as a starting point for suchanundertaking.


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S T D - A S M E P T C L Z - Z - E N G L L778 D 0757b70Ob05052 325


Determine the overall scope of the test. Evaluate the specific parameters that need to be tested.
Select the most cost-effective instruments and/or methods to measure all of the necessary param-
Perform a pretest uncertainty analysis regarding the parametersto be measured.
Install instruments in asensibleorder.Begin with the pressureinstruments.Thesemust all be
calibrated at their respective locations to compensate for environmental changes.
All temperature instruments mustbe calibrated prior toinstallation, including any extension cable
associated with energized or voltage-producing sensors.
Install all temperature instruments in a logical order. Run extension wire or cable back to data-
logging device (where appropriate).
Check logging device for operation, including a continuity check on all the test parameters.
Inspect installation and assure that no open circuits and/or faulty ground loops exist.
When all channels are properly working (data logger use only) begin pressure calibration.
At this point check all local instruments for proper operation; calibrate where appropriate (thermo-
couples, gages, transducers, etc.).
Make certain that all calibrations are clearly recorded and traceableto an accepted standard.
After calibrating, checkfor measurement feasibility by logging all pressures, flows, and temperatures
at the operational conditions.
Correct any problems with instruments, loggers, and associated hardware.
Conduct a preliminary test as close to the agreed-upon operational requirements as possible. (1
hr max) Check all average values for feasibility.
If all equipment functions correctly prepare
for the performance test. Coordinateall efforts through
the operating department and the designated parties.
Make certain that any cycle isolation that needs doing is taken care of prior tostarting.
If a separatecooling-water flow test is to be conducted simultaneously, coordinatewith alltesting
Consider any special cycle isolation necessary to conduct concurrent tests.
unit load or steam
Prepare a test schedulewith alltestingloperating parties. Include start/stop times,
flow, operating requirements, and any other pertinent information regarding the operation of the
condenser. Incorporate these into a logical and achievable test schedule.
Follow the test schedule and begin testing.
Make any schedule changes necessary to meet the scope and objectives of the test. Keep a test
log to document any deviations from thetest plan or the original testing schedule.


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Ob05053 2bL m

Evaluate the
apparatus being Meet with Agree on a
tested (review responsible site-specific
size, location, and c parties; begin ). scope and
ease of instrument to prepare a objective to
installation) test plan conduct test

Discuss and Determine the Investigate the
determine all
specific test
criteria used r
possibility of
using station
in the final instruments

After agreement has

been reached in
most cost- Make alist of previous areas,
effective the necessary c prepare an
instruments instrumentation instrumentation
list as described
in the test plan

Calibrate and
use plant

Prepare a

* in the order * site-specific
given in the for the test
appropriate test plan plan

Check all
Calibrate all Compose a instruments prior
instruments to the actual test
and field
check all
D- agreed-upon + by conducting a
preliminary test
test schedule
connections (1 hr m a ) *
"After unit has
reached stability"
Prepare all necessary Verify that enough
data sheets for back personnel are
up or general available for START TEST
information (Control conducting and "Follow
room readings, assisting during the schedule in
station instruments, test (assure unit test plan"
etc.) 'Note any stability, follow
deviations from the test schedule) "Log
original test plan' any changes"



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Condenser cooling
water flow

of recommended

Are taps

a long straight monitoring or

section of trending

Inside diameter of Can be very

piping shouldbe as costly if a distance must
Smooth as possible determination
at lhe measuring for testing I be eauivatent I
installation to at least 10
section (measuring is required pipe diameters
section length should
be at least

expertise is vendor/engineer on the accuracy
usually expertise will and or
usually found be necessary reliability
within the required

The proper number
of sampling points Cost effective
Will require when installed
must be determined access to installation
(choose the in smaller pipe
condenser may require diameters
appropriate waterbox or calibration
distribution for
sampling) ~~ ~

producer) quare
Dilution Black box root extraction and
calculations computation direct reading linearization
must be needed for final device (certain needed for final
pelformed to determination inputs are interpretationin
determine flow engineering units

The appropriate
The appropriate The appropriate choice for this
choice for this The appropriate
choice for this application is the choice for this
application is a application is lhe
dye dilutionflow permanent or application ist h e
pitot tube traverse; portable ultrasonic orifice or nozzle;
overall accuracy 'flow meter'; *overall accuracy'
overall accuracy
2570 (Of flow)
2370 (of now)
overall accuracy =2% (of flow)
=S% (of flow)



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4 A A
Recommended Recommended
accuracy accuracy

1 Yes

Local indication
with local common, high-speed
and remote data collection contained
indicators or difficult or not (needs no
applicable power source)

acquisition indication m
needed? only?

1'"" lNo
Adaptable to
process Can be
external power into a process a local process
needed instrument

No extensive
available for experience is during test can
needed for only be done on
installation a manual basis

4 Yes

Durable under
Is cost a contained most
governing power source environmental
factor? not necessary lest conditions

The appropriate
The appropriate choice for this The appropriate
choice for this application is choice for this
application IS application is
capillary fluid
transducerhransmittey vacuum gauges; mechanical gauges;
overall accuracy overall accuracy overall accuracy
f 0.25% (range)
20.1% (range)




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nhis Appendix is notapart of PTC 12.2 and is included for informationpurposesonly.)

This Appendix is a guide for the implementation (b) Flexible network whichcan analyzesensor and
of an automatic Data Acquisition System (DAS). The acquisition faults.
DAS can enhance data collection and analysis. The (c) Flags and alarms for out-of-range values.
DAS can accomplish the following: (d) Graphics for data trending and results presen-
(a) Simultaneous reading andrecording of all data tation.
points. (e) Mass data storage and ease of data retrieval.
(b) Providedata collection frequencyexceeding (0 Ease of calculation development and export data
that described in Section 3. for third-party thermodynamic model analysis.
(c) Provide data collectiontime measurements/ The DAS can provide certain enhancements that
synchronization as described in Section 3. manualdata collection cannot offer,suchas:
(d) Provide data accuracy exceeding that described (a) Real time data at veryhigh sampling frequency.
in Subsection 4.3. (b) Reduction in manual data collection personnel.
A portable,computer-based DAS together with (c) Reduction in data recording errors.
state-of-art sensor technologyandanalog-to-digital (ci) Quick test conditionhesults validation which
converter reliability can accomplish the above objec- leads to prevention of retest and associated costs.
tives.This DAS could also fulfill the following: ASMEPTC 19.22 [4] deals with thissubject in
(a) Portability and ease of configuration. detaiI.

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(This Appendix is not a part of PTC 12.2, and is included for information purposes only.)

C.l INTRODUCTION misemaybeconsidered which balancestheone-

time high capital costsandmaintenancecost of
While the main body of the Code is written for
the continuous system's permanent instrumentation
thepurposeofacceptancetesting, this Appendix
against the repetitive Set-up costs and data collection
addresses techniques that permit trending and con-
oftheperiodic test. It shouldalso be recognized
denserperformanceevaluations during operation.
that more complex and reliable levels of performance
Satisfactory performance monitoring canbe achieved
monitoring will require increased quantities of instru-
without the stringent instrument accuracy required
for acceptancetesting.Thatlack of necessityof
anabsolutenumerical level of testresults is what
distinguishes the monitoring test plan focus, Set-up,
and data from acceptance testing. Relative measure-
ments and repeatability are critical. If the data prove
to be repeatable during the same operating condi-
tions,correctionfactors to absoluteperformance C.4 PARAMETERS TO MONITOR
levels canalwaysbedevelopedfromananalysis The following parametersarerecommended for
of thosedatasets. monitoring in a general order of importance, though
The following discussion describes the considera- the actual list is alwaysdictated by theoverall
tions of condenser performance monitoring tests. program'sobjectives.
(a) Condenser terminal temperature difference
(b) Condenser back-pressuredeviation fromdesign
PERFORMANCE MONITORING TEST (c) Circulating-water flow or relative flow
STRUCTURE (d) Temperature rise of circulating water
(e) Tube-bundle hydraulic pressure drop relative to
Performance monitoring can range from periodic discharge waterbox-to-piping pressure loss
to real-time on-line testing.Implementationofa (fl Condenser tube bundle fouling
performance monitoring program will vary signifi- (g)Air in-leakage
cantly betweenplantsand will bebased onlocal (h) Condensate subcooling
needs, economics, and resources including the con-
methods of data collection and interpretation.
Adecision which significantly characterizesa
condenserprogram is whetherto monitor periodi-
cally, continuously, or both. The major benefits of
continuouscondenserperformance monitoring are
theknowledgeof when changes occurand what Themainbody of Codedescribesrequirements
the related circumstances were in order to develop for acceptancetestmeasurements.Thesecan be
theearliestoperationalormaintenance response; slightly relaxed and adapted for performance moni-
the ability to anticipate if there will be more severe toring as long as the sensor in question is still
changes from the initial indications; and the continu- sufficiently precise to reliably reflect the same relative
ous assessment of how the condenserinfluences test value as conditions change. The following dis-
power generation and costs. Nonetheless, a compro- cussionandtableapply.


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S T D - A S M E P T C L2.2-ENGL L998 D 0757b70 Ob05058 8 4 3 D

Performance Monitoring Thisincludescirculating-water flow devices,feed-

Requirement Methods water flow devices, and plant streamventuris.A
Cooling- Dilution,
Dye Pump Curves/TDH calibration of plant devices during an accurate test i s
Water Flow Traverse,
etc. correlations, heat
necessary to monitorthe flow properly. For example,
balance, calibrated
flow instrument, outlet correlate pump TDH outlet waterbox pressure drop,
waterbox DP or a Pitot-static type center readingduring a previous
dye-dilution test. With regard to pressure and temper-
Cooling-Water Traverse, full rake Thermowells, partial ature instruments, refer to the Sections in this Code
Outlet rake, thermowells which address the choices for instrumentation. Some
Temp. correlated to one time new instrumentation is likely required for a successful
temperature traverse program. In addition, an automated quick purge of
the pressure measurement lines before reading and
Tube Adjacent Tube Differential waterbox some added temperature hardware at the outlet to
Cleanliness and waterbox outlet
reflect the temperature profile more adequately than
pressures, expected
backpressure, outlet a few shallow existing thermowells will significantly
temperature profile, enhancethe monitoring results.
terminal temperature
Pressure NlST Calibrated Existing locations near
Electronic bundle; calibration of Refer to Section 5 for the detailsof the computation
Transducer at sensors required of parameters for trending. All variables are recom-
Prescribed mended to be plotted with respect to time, inlet-
Locations water temperature, and generation. Normalize data
with respect to design heat transfer coefficient, foul-
Temperature NlST calibrated Existing locations; ing, circulating-waterflow, orair in-leakage. Plot
devices at calibration check the ratio of the bundle vs. the outlet box pressure
prescribed required
drop to aid in diagnosis of fouling increases. Bench-
mark significant conditions such as tubecleaning.
Data validity canbeensured by examiningthe
Air In-leakage Flow Meter Same as code or
continuous meter type
statistical data variation and the degree of the compli-
ance with respect to inlet temperature, station gener-
ation,orcirculating-water flow. The data should
Severalnotesarerelevant to theabove. Most be precise, consistent,
installed plant flow devices are not sufficiently accu- approximationscanbemadedependingonthe
rate to serve as a primary flow measurement device. experience of the personnel and program goals.


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(This Appendix is not a part of PTC 12.2, and is included for informationpurposesonly.)

Thisexample is presented to illustrate a thermalperformancetestof a steamsurfacecondenser.The

example is based on a test of a single-passcondenser which providesheat rejection andcondensationof
the turbine exhaust steam from an electric power- generating unit. Table D.1 provides the design reference
dataforthecondenser.Table D.2 summarizesthedata collected during the test.Table D.3 summarizes
the water and steam properties for the design and test conditions, which were determined using the ASME
Steam Tables. I21 Table D.4 summarizes the data and calculations for the cleanliness factor determination,
conducted in parallel with the test.
The example calculations follow the calculation procedures of Section 5.

D.1.1 Condenser Heat Load. Thecondenserheat load at the test conditions is computed as follows:

= 1.4687E + 0.8 * 0.998 * (90.7- 74.9)

= 2.3 161 E + O9 Btu/hr (D.l. l )


W+ = 294,410 (gpm) * 62.19 (Ib/ft3) * 8.0208 (min . ft3/hr gal)

= 1.4687E + 08 Ib/hr

D.1.2 Overall Heat TransferCoefficient. The overall heattransfer coefficient at the test conditions is
computed as follows:

U' = Q'
A, * LMTD+

- 2.31 61 E + O9 = 564.1 3 Btu/hr-ft2-"F

- (D.1.2)
239,476 * 17.14


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Condenser Description

Type Single Pressure

No. passes 1
No. tubes 26550
Tube material 90/1O CU/NI
k (Btdhr . ft2 . "F) 26
Tube OD (in.) 0.875
Tube gage (BWC) 18
Tube wall (in.) 0.049
Effective length (ft) 39.375
Outside tube surface area (sq ft) 239476
CW flow area (sq ft) 87.42

Design Conditions
Inlet CS temp ("F) 65
Outlet CW temp ("F) 80.6
CW flow (gpm) 280000
CW flow (Ib/hr) 1.3989E + 08
Cleanliness factor (%) 85
Condenser pressure (in. . HgA) 1so
Condenser pressure (psia) 0.74
Heat load (Btu/hr) 2.1 760E + O9
Tubeside pressure drop (it water) 14.5
Condensing flow (Ibhr) 22221 85


( T t - T;)
- (90.7 - 74.9) = 17.1'F (D.1.3)
In - In (101.14 - 74.9)
( TT;; -
- TT$
T) 101.14 - 90.7


T; = f { Q } = 101.14OF

from ASME SteamTables. [2]

D.1.3 Tubewall Resistance

R; = d, 0.875 (D.1.4)
24 * k; * In($) = 24 * 26.00

= 0.0001 6656 hr-ft2-OF/Btu

D.1.4 Tubeside Resistance. The tubeside heat transfercoefficient calculation is taken from Rabas and Cane. (11


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S T D O A S M E P T C 12.2-ENGL L778 m 0757b70 Ob050bL 338 D

Standard Number Average Measurement
Value Point Test Measurement Deviation
Inlet CW temp ("F) 50 0.1 1 60 75.0
2 60 74.9 0.143
Average 74.9

Outlet CW temp ("F) 1 94.5 60 0.475

2 92.3 60 0.532
3 89.7 60 0.376
4 87.3 60 0.592
5 93.2 60 0.670
6 92.1 60 0.332
7 89.5 60 0.456
8 87.0 60 0.327
Average 90.7

CW flow (gpm) 29441O2115' 12

Condenser pressure (psia) 1 0.992 60 0.0511

2 0.987 60 0.0430
3 0.987 60 0.0371
4 0.982 60 0.0409
5 0.958 60 0.0542
6 0.958 60 0.0485
7 0.972 60 0.0381
8 0.982 60 0.0419
9 0.987 60 0.0266
10 0.977 60 0.0213
11 0.992 60 0.0329
12 0.982 60 0.0409
Average 0.982

Condensing flow (IWhr) 14 24083 5 18953

pressure drop [ft. water) 12 15.7
* The average water flow rate was based on one Pitot tube traverse. The standard deviation was based on twelve Pitot tube readings of the
pipe centerpoint.


2.005°.373 0.777°.'65
= 0.0451
(0.3539°.538 * 62.19°.835 * 0.998°-462) * 7.500.835

= 0.00057987 hr-ft2-"F/Btu (0.1.5)


v+ =
3600 * P+ * Ai

- 1.4687E + 08 = 7.50 ft/sec (D.1.6)

3600 * 62.19 * 87.42


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STD-ASME PTC L 2 . E " E N G L L998 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 Ob050b2 274 9

Design Test
Condenser Pressure (in. Hga) 1.S 22.0
Condenser Sat. Temp. ("F) 91.72 101.14
Density (Ib/ft3)* 0.0022 0.0029


Bulk Avg. CW Temp. ("F) 72.8 82.8
Specific Heat (Btu/lb-"F) 0.9986 0.9981
Thermal Cond (Btu/hr-ft-"F) 0.03489 0.3539
Viscosity (Ib/ft-hr) 2.275 2.005
Density (Ib/ft3) 62.28 62.1 9
* Steam density is based on saturation conditions. This is generally of sufficient accuracy for use in the
adjusted steam side resistance calculation. If greater accuracy is required, the moisture content of the
steam can be determined from the steam enthalpy, where the steam enthalpy is determined from the
calculated heat duty and the measured condensing steam flow rate.

Tube Tl J2 Tf J, Rf
Set "F "F "F OF hr . f t 2 . "F/Btu
~ ~~~ ~ ~~

1 74.9 101.14
93.1 91.9 0.0001 83
74.9 2 101.14
93.7 92.3 0.000205
74.9 3 101.14
93.8 92.3 0.000218
74.9 4 101.14
93.4 91.9 0.000226
5 74.9 101.14
93.2 91.6 0.000247
6 74.9 101.14
93.1 91.4 0.000266
74.9 7 101.14
93.9 92.6 0.0001 86
74.9 8 101.14
94.0 92.8 0.0001 69
9 74.9 101.14 92.3 93.9 0.000232
10 74.9 101.14
93.8 92.0 0.000266
11 74.9 101.14
93.2 91.5 0.000264
12 74.9 101.14
93.0 91.4 0.000252
13 74.9 101.14 91.5 93.2 0.000264
14 74.9 101.14
93.1 91.3 0.000283
Avg. 0.000233


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S T D - A S M E P T C 12.2-ENGL 1998 m 0 7 5 9 b 7 0 Ob050b3 100 m

D.1.5FoulingResistance. The fouling resistancecalculations,performed in accordance with para. 5.1.5,

are provided in Table D.4. The resulting fouling resistancewas:

1 l4
Rf = - 2 RX; = 0.000233
14 i = 1
hr-ft2-OF/Btu (D.1.7)

D.1.6ShellsideResistance. Theshellsideresistanceatthetestconditions is determinedbydifference as


564.1 3
0.0001 -
6656 0.00057987 (0:;);)
-- 0.0002330

= 0.00072 hr-ft2-"WBtu (D.1.8)


D.2.1 Tubewall Resistance. Thetubewallresistance is aconstant which is dependentonly on thetube
wall thicknessandmaterial.Accordingly,

R: = R+, = 0.00016656

D.2.2TubesideResistance. Thetubesideheattransfer coefficient is calculated at the design conditions as


2.275°.373 0.777°.'65
= 0.0451
(0.3489°.538* 62.28°.835 * 0.999°,462) * 7.14°.835

= 0.000637 hr-ft2-"F/Btu (D.2.2)


v* =
3600 * P* * A;

- 1.3989E + 08 = 7.1 4 ft/sec (D.2.3)

3600 * 62.28 * 87.42

D.2.3 FoulingResistance. Thedesign fouling factor is determinedfromthedesigncleanlinessfactor as



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R?=-=(1 - c?) (' - = 0.00029379 hr-ft2-"F/Btu (D.2.4)
U* 51 0.56


u* = Q*
A, * LMTDt

2.1 760E + O9
- (D.2.5)
239,476 * 17.80

= 51 0.56 Btu/hr-ft2-"F


and at thedesign condition

Tf = f { @ ) = 91.72"F

from ASME Steam Tables. [2]

D.2.4 ShellsideResistance. Theshellsideresistanceadjusted to thedesignconditions is determined as
l . Calculatethecondensate film temperatureatdesign condition as

T;c = - 0.2 * LMTD'

= 91.72 - 0.2 * 17.8 (D.2.7)

= 88.16"F

2. Calculatethecondensate film temperatureatdesign condition as

T f = T: - 0.2 * LMTD+

= 101.14 - 0.2 * 17.1 (D.2.8)

= 97.72OF

3. Solve for theadjustedshellsideresistance,where ,u, K, and p arethephysicalpropertiesatthedesign

and testtemperaturestakenfromAppendix J.


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S T D * A S M E P T C 12.2-ENGL L778 W 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 Ob05Db5 T83 W

= 0.00072 * 24083 1 4
0.35908 * (G)
62.138 'I3

= 0.000706 hr-ft2-OF/Btu (D.2.9)

D.2.5 OverallHeat TransferCoefficient. The overall heattransfercoefficient,adjusted to thedesign

conditions, is equal to:

R& + Rf' (2) +R? + R$

R? = R; = 0.000637 hr.-ft2-OF/Btu (D.2.10)

R? = 0.00029379 hr-ft*-OF/Btu (D.2.11)

0.0001 6656 + 0.000637 - + 0.00029379 + 0.000706

530.87 Btu/hr-ft2-"F (D.2.12)

D.2.6 Effectiveness - NTU MethodofEvaluation. Thetestcondensersteampressure,adjusted to the
designreferenceconditions, is determined as follows:

U,* A,
NTUO = -

-- 530.87 * 234,476 = o.891o6

0.9986 * 1.3989E + 08

- 80.6 - 65.0 e-0.89106

1 - e-0.89106 = 91.450F (D.2.14)


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S T D - A S M E P T C 12.2-ENGL L778 m 0757b70Ob050bb 7LT m

= f {Q} = 0.73 psia

from ASME Steam Tables. [2]

D.2.7 Evaluation of Results. The difference between the test adjusted and design reference steam pressures
areevaluated as follows:

= 0.74 - 0.73 = 0.01 (D.2.15)

Thus, thecondenser is operating slightly betterthanthedesign level ofperformance.


The test measured tubeside pressure drop is adjusted for differences between the test and design reference
water-flow ratesas follows:

- 5.7 (1.3989E + 08)'.8
1.4687E + 08

= 14.4 ft, water = 6.24 psi

Thus,thecondensertubesidepressuredrop is 0.1 it. water less than thedesignvalue.

D.4.1Uncertainty in TestAdjustedSteamPressure
D.4.1.1 Sensitivity Factors. The sensitivity factors are computed by substituting the design and test values
into theequations provided in Subsection 5.4.
Sensitivity Factor for SteamFlow Rate:

(O; .3
;3 R:) psia
0,: = F, * F2 * = 1.7942E - 08 -


F1 = 0.001 69OeO.O2'36@

= 0.001 690 e0.02736 91.82

= 0.02084 psia/"F (D.4.2)


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S T D = A S M E P T C L 2 - E " E N G L L778 m 0757b70 Ob050b7 65b m


Sensitivity Factor for Circulating Water Flow Rate:

e,+ =
-+ 0.835 *
R: (2) +R!]

= -1.2662E - O9 -

Sensitivity Factor for Inlet Water Temperature:

F1 * F2 * R: 1 R!
@T; =
R: (-)
u+* In T: - T t (T: - T;) TZ - T;
T: -Ti

= 0.01 141 psia/"F (D.4.5)

Sensitivity Factor for Outlet Water Temperature:

= -0.0330 psia/"F (D.4.6)

Sensitivity Factor for SteamPressure:

= 0.7901 psidpsia (D.4.7)


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S T D - A S M E P T C L2.2-ENGL L998 m 0759b70 Ob050b8 7 7 2 m


f3 =
0.001 690


= 37.1 824 "Flpsia

Sensitivity Factor for Cleanliness factor fouled Tube Inlet Temperature:

= 3.991 5f-O6 psia/'F (D.4.9)

Sensitivity Factor for Cleanliness Factor Fouled Tube Outlet Temperature:

= 3.5361 E-O6 psiaPF (D.4.1O)

SensitivityFactor for CleanlinessFactorCleanTube Inlet Temperature:

= 6.1 345,546 psia/"F (D.4.11)

Sensitivity Factor for Cleanliness Factor Clean Tube Outlet Temperature:

= 4.91 36f-O6 psia/"F (D.4.12)

D.4.1.2 Bias Limits and Precision Indices. The bias limits and theprecisionindices for each of the
measuredparametersaredetermined in accordance with the methodologyprescribed in ASME PTC 19.1.


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S T D = A S M E P T C 12.2-ENGL L778 W 0757b70 Ob050b7 h27 m

[41 The values in Table D.5 are provided for example purposes only. Although these values are typical for
atestconducted in accordance with this Code, actual valuesmust be determined for aspecific test and
will depend on thecondenserdesign,theinstrumentationused, and theoperatingconditionsatthe time
of the test.For this example,thebias limits and precision indices are as follows:
D.4.1.3 Uncertainty in Result. An estimate of the uncertainty in the teststeampressure,adjusted to the
designreferenceconditions, is calculated as follows:

Bias Limit:


Bq’ = (1.7942E-O8* 60,20712+ (1.2662OE-O9* 5,140,450)2+ (0.7901* O.05l2

+ (0.01 *140.20)’ + (0.0330* 0.50)’+ (3.9915E-O6* 0.2012

+ (3.5361E-O6 * 0.75)2+ (6.1345E-O6* 0.20)’ + (4.914E-O6 * 0.75)2

= 0.001 psia2


BQ = 20.043 psia

Precision Index:


S k = (1.7942f-O8* 9.15212+ (1.2662Of-O9* 558,106)2+ (0.7901* 0.065)2

+ (0.0114* 0.0212)2+ (0.0330* 0.065)2+ (3.9915f-O6* 0.021)2

+ (3.5361E-O6* O.09l2+ (6.1345f-O6* 0.021)2+ (4.9135E-O6* 0.09)2

= 4.914E-O5 psia’



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S T D * A S M E P T C L Z - Z - E N G L L998 m I l 7 5 9 b 7 0 Ob05070 340 m

Se = ?0.0070 psia

Combined Uncertainty:
Based on the number of readings for each measurement parameter, as provided in Table D.2 for this sample
calculation, the pooled degrees of freedom was determined to be greaterthan 30; therefore,theStudent's
t-valuefromTable 5.1 is 2.00. Thecombineduncertainty is thendetermined as follows:

= 4 0.0432 + (2 * 0.0070)2 (D.4.15)

= 20.044 psia

D.4.2 Uncertainty in TubesidePressure Drop. Anestimate of theuncertainty in the testtubesidepressure

drop,adjusted to thedesignreferenceconditions, is calculated as follows:

= - - -14'2
- - 0.90446 (D.4.16)
hP: 15.7

The sensitivity factors are as follows:

1.8 * AP", -
- 1.8 * 14.2
ow+= (D.4.17)
W+ 1.4687€+08

ft Water
= 1.7403 E-O7 - Ib/hr

Thebias limit andprecisionindexarecomputed as follows:

B A C = -d ( @ A P ; 6 d p d 2 +(@w+Bw+)2

= 1/ (0.90446 * 0.2)2+ (1.7403f-O7 * 5,140,450)i

= 2 0.91 ft Water (D.4.18)

= d(0.90446 * 0.042)2 + (1.7403E-O7 * 558,106)2

= 50.104 ft Water (D.4.19)

In accordance with theWelsh-Satterthwiteformulafrom ASME PTC 19.1 [4] andusing 11 degrees of

freedom for both the circulating water flow rateandthetubeside pressuredrop, the pooled degrees of
freedom for determiningtheStudent'st-value is:


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Parameter xs ( x9* ( x 94/11

Press Drop .9045 x .O42 .O014 1.893E - 07
Flow 1.74E - 07 X 556,106 .O094 8.090E - 06
79 8.2.O1 08 E-O6

Pooled degrees of freedom = (0.108)2/8.279€-06 E 14

The Student’st-value at 95% coverageand 14 degrees of freedom is 2.145. Thecombineduncertainty is

thencomputedas follows:

Und? = 1/ (0.91)* + (2.145 * 0.104)* = 50.94 ft Water (D.4.20)


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ty Parameter Measured limit Index

Steam Flow 3.2622E-O8 p s i d l b hIb/hr 29,152260,208 Ib/hr

W (52.5%) (t0.21 Yo)
CW Water Flow 1.26621509 psidlb/hr 25,140,450 Ib/hr 558,106 lWhr
W+ (53.5%)

0.01 inlet CW Temp 14 psia/OF 20.20"F 50.021 "F

W 0.0330 Outlet Temp psia/OF 20.50"F t0.065OF

Condenser Pressure 0.7901 psidpsia ?O.OS psia t0.0085 psia
/OF 3.9915E-O6
CF Fouled Tubes +O.02l0F t0.20°F
Inlet Temp
pSia/"F €-O6 CF
Fouled Tubes 50.75"F 20.090°F
Outlet Temp
psia/OF 6.1345E-O6
CF Clean Tubes 50.20"F 20.021 O F
inlet Temp
T:, 1
pSia/"F 4.9136E-O6
CF Clean Tubes 20.75"F 20.090"F
Outlet Temp
T 2


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S T D * A S M E P T C 12-2-ENGL 1778 m 0757b70 Ob05073 0 5 T W

(This Appendix is not a part of PTC 12.2 and is included for information purposes only.)

The results of the condenser performance test -

the test steam pressure adjustedto the design condi-
tions and the tubeside pressure drop adjusted to the
design conditions - are determined using the test
measurement values in accordance with the calcula-
tion methodsdelineated in Subsections 5.1, 5.2,
and 5.3. In accordance with PTC19.1 [4], error
estimates of the measured parameters are propagated
into uncertainty estimates oftheresults by Taylor
expansions. Bias andprecisionerrors are
propagated separately and combined as the last step
in the uncertainty analysis. The propagation of the (E.l.l)
individual measurementparameters into a resulting
uncertaintyrequiresthedevelopmentof sensitivity
factors which relates a unit error in each measured
parameter to the total error in the result. These can
bedeveloped by thecentraldifferencemethodor
analytically. The sensitivity factors provided in para.
5.4.2 were determined analytically by partial differ-
entiation of theequationsused in calculating the
results.ThisAppendixprovidesthederivations for Be = dW:
these condensing pressuresensitivityequations, etc.
The sensitivity equations for the othertest objective
parametersshown in Subsection5.4,such as tube
pressure drop, would be more directly determined. are the uncertainties in the measured values of each
of the parameters.
The same equation also appliesfor the propagation
oftheprecisionindex, with theprecisionindices,
S, substituted for thebiaslimits, Bi.
The calculation procedures in Subsections 5.1 and
5.2areexpressed in a series of equations.Although
these equations could becombined into asingle
The adjusted steampressure is a function of the equation which relates the test adjusted steam pres-
following independentmeasuredparameters: sure as a function of the measured parameters shown
in Equation E.1.1, this would result in an exception-
ally involved equation to differentiate.Instead,the
partial derivatives of succeeding equations are deter-
mined and combined by the chain rule. The equa-
tions from Subsections 5.2 required for the
development of the sensitivity factors are repeated
Expansion by theTaylor Series methodresults in: in the order of differentiation as follows:


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S T D - A S M E P T C 12-2-ENGL 1778 D 0757b70 0b05074 T7b m

from ASME Steam Tables. [2]




Uo * A,
NTUO = -
c; * W *

( T t , ;- Tt,,;)
LMTD:,; = (E.1.12)

The development of the partialderivativesbegins

with Eq. E.1.2. An approximateregression of the
partial derivative ofthe ASMESteam Table [2] values
(~.1.6) wasdevelopedfor the range of 32" to 150°F as

*($*(F) * [E]
(P*) 2/3
dPF = (-)cfT,O
a T;

R : = " - u+
R1 f , - R ; ( ? ) - R j (E.1.7)

dp.165 * w+ -0.835
(S) TZ - T:
= 1 - e-NTUo
where the outside effective area of each one of the
fouledorcleantesttubesdivided by itsheatpick-up (Note thatand Tj are exactdesignvalues;there-
is considered to approximately
to From
A & + , then, Eq. E.1.4:


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S T D - A S M E PTC 12.2-ENGL L778 m 0757b70Ob05075 722 m

d N W O = aNTUO (E.1.16)



(Note that Ao,c;, and W* areexactdesignvalues;

therefore, their partial derivatives are equal to zero.) The design steam flow rate is an exact design value;
From Eq. E.1.5: therefore, the partial derivative is equal to zero. The
error in the circulating waterandsteamproperties
atthedesign-adjustedandtest conditions is not
exact; however, the magnitude of the partial deriva-
tives of these properties will have a negligible effect
on the resulting sensitivity factors for the measured
parameters. As aresult,theuncertaintyanalysis
hasbeen simplified by assumingthatthese partial
derivativesareequal to zero.
The derivation of the sensitivity factor for the test
measured steam flow rate is completed at this point,
(Note that R,,,, R,, and R, areexactdesignvalues;
therefore, their partial derivatives are equal to zero.)
Thesetermsare then combined using the chain B q and S,,q = d K
rule as follows:
Thus, combining Eqs. E.1.13,E.1.14, and E.1.17:

F2 = (S) (-)=
* (F
* ) r$)

' Btu '
sensitivity factors for there-
follows, beginning with Eq.
From Eq. E.1.6:

(dRa2 = (-)aR:
(dQ2 (E.1.15)



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S T D D A S M E P T C L 2 - 2 - E N G L L978 m 0757b70Ob0507b8b7 m

1 R:
Evaluation of the partial derivative termsof Eq.
E.1.19 first requires substitution of Equations E.1.11
and E.1.12 into Eq. E.l. O,l and then substitution of
Eq. E.1.8,E.1.9, and E.l.10 into Equation E.1.7.The
resulting equationcanthenbesolved for each of
the partial derivatives. These derivativesandthe
resulting sensitivity factors follow.
Sensitivity Factor for Circulating Water Flow: Sensitivity Factor for Outlet Water Temperature:


u++ 0.835R:
+ R);
a RT: ;
U+ * Ini-)
T: - TT
T: -
(T; - G)
T; - T;

Thus combining this with Eqs.E.1.13,E.1.14, and

E.1.16 yields the following: Then applying Eq. E.1.20 and combining Eqs. E.1.13,
E.1.14, and E.1.16:

+ (%* 3 (E.1.20)

which is equal to
(!$) (E.1.23)

o,+ = Fl * F, * R: (E.1.21)
Sensitivity Factor for Steam Pressure:
R: r

Sensitivity Factor for Inlet Water Temperature:

Then applying Eq. E.1.20 and combining Eqs. E.1.13,

E.1.14, and E.1.16: and from Eq.E.1.13:


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S T D - A S M E P T C 12-2-ENGL L778 m 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 Ob05077 7 T 5 m

Then applying Eq. E.1.20 and combining Eqs. E.1.13,

E.1.14, and E.1.16:

Then applying Eq. E.1.20 and combining Eqs. E.1.13,

[ c-72
1 E.1.14, and E.1.16:

- Fl * f2 * R: * A,,
f3 * R: (c
* W+ * c; * - c)

l . I ($)
Sensitivity Factor for Cleanliness Factor Clean Tube
Sensitivity Factor for Cleanliness Factor FouledTube Inlet Temperature:
Inlet Temperature:

Then applying Eq. E.1.20 and combining Eqs. E.1.13, Then applying Eq. E.1.20 and combining Eqs. E.1.13,
E.1.14, and E.1.16: E.1.14, and E.1.16:

Sensitivity Factor for Cleanliness factor Fouled Tube Sensitivity Factor for Cleanliness Factor Clean Tube
Outlet Temperature: Outlet Temperature:


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APO, = APL)-(

Expansion by theTaylor Series methodresults in

the following:


Then applying Eq. E.1.20 and combining Eqs. E.1.13,

E.1.14, and E.1.16:

The same equation also applies for the propagation

oftheprecisionindex, with theprecisionindices,
Sj, substituted for the bias limits, Bi.
The sensitivity factors are then as follows:



The adjusted tubeside pressure drop is calculated O
+, =
- ( )
- 1.8 * APZ -
as follows: aw. W+ Ib/hr


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S T D * A S M E P T C L2.2-ENGL L778 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 Ob05077 578

(This Appendix is not amandatorypart of PTC12.2,SteamSurfaceCondensers;andisincluded for informationpurposesonly.)

F.l GENERAL The flowof non-condensible gases should be

measured to compare performance testflow with the
Geothermal steamexhaustingfromthe turbine
specified design flow rate. If the flow is substantially
containsnon-condensible gas quantitiesthatare
higheror lower thanthedesign flow, the non-
significantly greater than those of conventional units.
condensible removal system (ejector system or vac-
Non-condensible gases andfluids of geothermal
uum pumps) maybe adversely affected,which inturn
units maycreate fouling filmsorscaling of the
outsidesurface of the condenser tubing due to
chemical and mechanical actions. Caution must be
formance since the effect of fouling on the outside
surfaces of condenser tubes is not addressed in this
Code. In thismanner,an additional test point is
recommended for monitoring the flow rate and con-
stituentsof the non-condensible gases exhausting
from the turbine. In addition,the quality of the
turbine exhaust steam should be determined to verify
that it closelycompares to the steam quality as F.3 GUIDELINES
specified for the condenser performance design.
Since there are very few geothermal applications
of surface condensers, a limited amount of reliable
performanceanddesign information is available.
For this reason, thisCoderecommendsthatany
The performance test points and test point loca- performance levels for geothermal condensers should
tions for geothermal surface condenser will be similar be mutually agreed upon bythepurchaserand
to those illustrated in Fig. 4.1 of thisCode. manufacturer or the parties to the test, as applicable.


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(This Appendix is not a part of PTC 12.2 and is included for information purposes only.)

C.1 INTRODUCTION The principal objective of an air-binding test is

to identify the presence of airbinding and to quantify
The air binding (air blanketing) test method em-
the extentof air binding at full load. Other objectives
ploys the use of thermocouplesto identify air binding may include identifying and quantifying theextent
zones. Air-bound regions of a tube bundle are those ofair binding anddeaerationperformance during
which have a high air mole fraction. The temperature one and two vacuum pump operations, or one and
in the air-bound regionapproximates the cooling- two air-ejector operationsat various loads and under
water inlet temperatureandthere is significantly various controlled airin-leakagerates.
reduced cooling-water temperature risein the portion
of the tube(s) which extend(s) through the air-bound
region. Therefore, an accurate measure of tube tem- C.3 DESCRIPTION OF TEST METHOD,
perature rise can be used to determine the location EQUIPMENT,ANDINSTRUMENTATION
and extent of the air-bound region.
The application of 1/16-in. diameter typeE thermo-
couples, located in a uniform pattern, insulated and
encased in flexible shields and installed as the hot
junction in the discharge flow path of the selected
C.2 TEST OBJECTIVES tubes, will identify air-bound regions. The discharge
paththermocouples are installed with the aid of
Air binding is thesymptomofone or moreof
nylon or plastic fittings (see Fig. G.1). The thermocou-
the following:
plesmay be attached to thetubesheet with tube
(a) Air in-leakage in excess of air-removal system's collars and "P" clips and/or epoxy and routed to a
capacity of the bundle. connection in the waterbox. Several alternate meth-
(b) Diminished air-removalequipmentcapacity odshavebeenused to install the thermocouples.
due to problems such as excessive vapor carryover. Thethermocouplesare specified to be accurate
(c) Insufficient spacearoundthetube bundle to to 20.3"F (+0.15"C). They are installed in a uniform
permit steam to enter atall points around the periphery pattern with at least onethermocouple per1O0 tubes.
of the bundle and to achieve full steam penetration. The air-cooling zone is provided with a minimum of
(d) Off-design operating conditions such a slow one thermocouple per 50 tubes. One thermocouple
load operation and start-ups (¡.e., cycling). is also installed in the inlet waterbox of the same
(e) Steam by-passingto the air-removal sectionbe- bundle.Thiscan provide a reference junctionto
cause of design or construction deficiencies or be- measure the temperature rise. Another thermocouple
cause of component failures (¡.e., baffle corrosion). is installed in the inlet waterbox to measure absolute
(0 A high hotwell level preventing steam from en- inlet-water temperature. Air binding which runs the
tering the bottom portion of the bundle. full lengthofthe bundle will result in threetube
(g) Excessive pressure drop in the air-removal sys- sections having virtuallyno temperaturerise. Air
tem (air-removal zone or piping between the air-re- binding is also often unevenly distributed along the
mova1 zone and air-removal equipment). length of the bundle andthenmayresult in a
(h) Ineffective air-removal zone design. significantly less thanexpectedtemperaturerise.


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S T D * A S M E P T C 12.2-ENGL L998 m 0759b70 Ob05081 1 2 b m




1/16in. diameter
Type E thermocouple



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S T D * A S M E P T C 1 2 - 2 - E N G L 1778 m 0757b70 Ob05082 Ob2 m

(This Appendix is notapart of PTC 12.2 and is included for informationpurposesonly.)

H.l GENERAL (r) Intercondensedaftercondenser cooling-water

flow rate
Under certain conditions the pressure in the con-
denser could be set by the performance of the non- H.2.2 Critical Measurements. The critical measure-
condensible removal equipment. This equipment is ments neededto assess steam-jet ejector performance
either a steam-jet ejector system, a liquid-ring vac- are as follows:
uum pump, or a combination of both, often referred (a) Suction pressure and temperature
to as a hybrid system. To avoid this situation the (b) Motive steam pressure and temperature
removal equipment should be capable of following (c) Air-vapor flow rate
thecondenserperformanceoverits full rangeof (d) lntercondenser cooling-water inlet temperature
anticipated flow rates, accompanying normal air-in and flow rate
leakage, andcooling-watertemperature.


The liquid ring vacuum pump is aspecifictype
The operating principle of a steam-jet ejector is of rotary positivedisplacement pump using liquid
that thepressureenergy in themotive steam is as the principal element in non-condensible gas
converted into kinetic energy in the nozzleand compression. The compression is performed by the
this high-velocity jet of steamentrainsthe non- liquidring as aresultofthe relative eccentricity
condensible gas being pumped. The resulting mixture between the pump casing and multibladed impeller.
of steam and gasentersthediffuserwherethe Theeccentricity results in nearcomplete filling
velocityenergy is converted to pressureenergy so then partial emptying of each impeller blade cham-
that the pressure of the mixture at the ejector dis- ber during eachrevolution.The partial filling and
charge is higher than the pressureatitssuction. emptying creates a piston action within each set of
Anejector stagehas operating limitations on its impeller blades.
compression range.
Consequently, two or more A portion of the liquid inthe casingis continuously
stages must be arranged in series to achieve a desired discharged with the gas and the cooler serviceliquid
suction pressureat thecondenser.Condensersare is introduced to removetheheatgenerated during
usedbetweeneach stage to condensethemotive operation.
steam loadfromtheupstreamejector.
H.3.1 PerformanceVariables. Variables that can
H.2.1 PerformanceVariables. Variables that can affect vacuum pump performance are as follows:
affect steam-jet ejector performance are as follows: (a) Suction pressure and temperature
(a) Suction pressure and temperature (b) Discharge pressure, back pressure and air
(b) Discharge pressure, back pressure on system system
(c) Motive steam pressure,
and (c) Speed
moisture (d) Absorbed horsepower
(d) Air-vapor flow rate (e) Seal-water flow and temperature
(e) Intercondenser/aftercondenser cooling-water (fl Cooling-water flow and temperature
inlet temperature (g) Air-vapor flow rate


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S T D - A S M E P T C 1 2 - 2 - E N G L 1778 m 0757b70 Ub05083 T T 7

H.3.2 Critical Measurements. The critical measure- m,,= molecularweightofvapor atcondenser

ments needed to assess vacuum pump performance vent.
are as follows: mc= molecularweightofnon-condensible gas
(a) Suction pressure and temperature atcondenservent.
(b) Seal-water flow and temperature Pr= absolute total pressureatthecondenser
(c) Cooling-water flow and temperature vent.
(d) Air-vapor flow rate P,,= absolutevaporpressurecorresponding to
the temperature at the condenser vent.

For a water-vapor and air mixture, where molecu-

lar weight steam = 18 and molecular
air = 29
The condition of the air-vapor mixture at the vent
connectionfromthecondenser has little effect on
theperformanceevaluation of the condenser.The
condition can,however,havea dramatic effect on
theperformanceof the ventingequipmentanda
high vapor-to-air mixture could be an indication of H.5 AIR IN-LEAKAGE
a problem with thecondenser. With the exception of boiling water reactor opera-
A temperature at the condenser vent connection tions,in-leakagecan be determined by measuring
higher than or equalto the condenser outlet cooling- thenon-condensible flow atthedischarge of the
water temperature is an indication of a high vapor aftercondenser with asteam-jetejectorsystemor
load that could adversely affect non-condensible the discharge of the separator with a vacuum pump
removal equipment performance. system.
For anorifice withan average discharge coefficient
H.4.1 Air-Vapor Mixture. The condition of the air- of 0.607 with flangetapconnections, use the fol-
vapor mixture exiting the condenser can be deter- lowing:
minedby accuratelymeasuringitspressureand
temperature at the condenser vent connection.
The amount of vapor to saturate the non-condensi-
bles can be calculated from the following formula:

P= density of gas at actual condition (Ib/ft3)
d= orifice diameter in (in.)
AH= differential pressure(in. of H20)
ß= beta ratio (orifice dialpipe dia.)
where PT= total pressure of mixture (psia)
W,= unit weight of vaporper unitweight of P,,= partial pressure of water in mixture (psia)
non-condensible. T= temperature of mixture ("F)


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vhis Appendix is not a part of PTC 12.2 and is included for information purposes only.)


The fouling factor can be acquired through testing
individual tubes before and after cleaning in a heat
transfermeasuringdevice. Thesedevicesaretest After all sectionshavebeentested in as-received
rigsdesigned to measureheattransferofasingle condition and a representative heat transfer coeffi-
tubesampletaken from acondenser.Therigsare cient (Ud has been calculated,thetubes can be
removed from the machine and acid cleaned. After
designed to measureheatload, inlet temperature,
acid cleaning,thetestcanberepeated to obtain
outlet temperature, cooling-water flow, and effective
U, the heat transfer coefficient of a clean tube.
The fouling factor is the ratioof heattransfer
used to simulate steamtemperatureranging from
coefficient of fouled tube to the heat transfer coeffi-
actual steam to heat tape, depending on the design
cient of the clean tube:
of thedevice.Thesemeasurementscan thenbe
used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient
of thesampletube. It shouldbenoted that this
method is not theprescribedmethod of PTC 12.2
but is noted asan accepted diagnostic test for result Some of the machineswill enable threetesting stages
confirmation. to determine heat transfer resistance of tube material,
This methodrequiresremovingatubefroman inside diameter fouling, and outside diameterfouling
agreed-upon area of the condenser. Careful consider- for complete picture of where heat transfer capacity
ation should be given to the selection of the tube is lost.The tube is testedas received for theheat
transfercoefficient in theas-found condition. The
to be tested. If the tube is fouled more than average,
tubecanthen be removed from the rig and the
the test would yield a deflated fouling factor, while
outsidediametercleaned. Caremustbetaken not
a cleaner than average tube would yield an inflated
to disturb the inside diameter fouling. The difference
fouling factor. The section of the tube to be tested
between the heat transfer coefficient as found and
mayskewresults; for example, in thecase of cal-
the heat transfer coefficient of the tube when tested
cium-based scales, scale will build rapidly from inlet
after outside diameter cleaning only is the amount
to outlet ends of the tube. This effect can be resolved of heattransferresistanceattributable to outside
by testing several sections of the tube and averaging diameter fouling. The third heat transfer coefficient
the results after the tubehas been selected, removed, is determined after the tube has been removed from
and put into the heat transfer test rig as received. the rig andhadtheinsidediametercleaned.This
Care must be taken to insure the fouling remains clean-tube heat transfercoefficient should be compa-
on the tubewall in order to achieverepresentative rable to the ASME value calculated using the sum
testresults. of resistances method for new tubes. In performing
Once the tube is in the device and steadystate this series of tests repeatability of the rig is crucial.
has beenreachedatthesimulatedsteamtempera- Currentrigsaredemonstratingrepeatability in the
tures,use: range of 23%.


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(This Appendix is not a part of PTC 12.2 and is included for information purposes only.)


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STD-ASME PTC 12-2-ENGL L998 m 0759b70 Ob0508b 708 m

Temperature, F'

Temperature, F'
The normalseawater concentration used in this
chart has 34.483 g of solids per 1000 g seawater.



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S T D O A S M E P T C L Z - Z - E N G L L798 D 0759b70 Ob05087 bllq

Temperature, "F



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S T D - A S M E P T C L Z - Z - E N G L L998 0757b70 Ob05088 580 E

Temperature, "F
30 40 60 80 100 120 140





30 40 60 80 100 120 140
Temperature, "F

The normal seawater concentrationused in this
chart has 34.483g of solids per 1000 g seawater.



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STD ASME P T C L2*2-ENGL-L998 m 0 7 5 7 b 7 0 Ob05089 417 D

TemDerature. F


Temperature, 'F



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S T D * A S M E PTC L 2 - 2 - E N G L L778 0759b70 Ob05070 L39 m


[ll Rabas,T.J.,Oane, D., “AnUpdate of lntube PTC 19.5, lnstruments and Apparatus: Part Il
ForcedConvectionHeatTransferCoefficient with of Fluid Meters [1972]
Physical Properties,’’
Advances in Heat PTC 19.22, Digital Systems Techniques [1986]
Transfer, Vol. 6, pp. 503-564, 1970. PTC 24, Ejectors [1976]
[2] Meyer,C.A.etal, ASME SteamTables.Third [51 Heat ExchangeInstituteStandards for Steam
Edition, The American Society of Mechanical Engi- SurfaceCondensers, 9thEdition, 1995.
neers, New York, NY, 1993. [61 Standard Methodsfor the Examination of Water
[3] Taborek, l., Design Methods For Heat Transfer andWastewater, 17th Edition, 1985.
Equipment, in Heat Exchangers: Design and Theory [7] H.S. Bean (editor), FluidMeters:Their Tbeory
Sourcebook, ed. by Afgan, .N. andSchlunder, E., and Application, sixth edition, The American Society
HemispherePublishing Company, 1974.
ofMechanical Engineers, New York, N Y 1971.
141 Performance Test Codes, The American Society
[8] Now Measurements in SanitarySewers by
of Mechanical Engineers, New York, NY:
PTC 2, Definitions andValues [1980]
Dye Dilution, Monograph, SS 7-80, Turner Designs,
Sunnyvale,CA, 1980.
PTC 6, SteamTurbines [1996]
PTC 9, DisplacementCompressors,Vacuum [9] Smart,P.L., and I.M.S. Laidlaw, An Evaluation
Pomps,andBlowers 119701 o f FluorescentDyes for Water Tracing, Water Re-
PTC 12.3, Deaerators 119971 sourcesResearch, Vol. 13, No. 1 , February 1977.
PTC 18, Hydraulic Turbines [ 1 9921 [l O] Test Methods for Dissolved Oxygen in Water,
PTC 19.1, MeasurementUncertainty [1985] ASTMStandard D888-87.
PTC 1 9.2, lnstrurnents and Apparatus: Pressure [l 11 MFC-3M-1989, Measurement of fluid flow
Measurement [ 1 9873 inPipesUsing Orifice,Nozzle andVenturi, The
PTC 19.3, Instruments and Apparatus: Temper- AmericanSocietyofMechanical Engineers, New
ature Measurement [ 1 9741 York,NY, 1990.


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