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ASSESSMENT OF LITERACY AND NUMERACY ABILITY AMONG

MATHEMATICS MAJOR IN STATE UNIVERSITIES

A Research Proposal
Submitted to the Faculty of the College of Teacher Education
Southern Leyte State University
In Partial Fulfillment of the Course Requirements for the Degree of

BACHELOR OF SECONDARY EDUCATION


Major in Mathematics

JUSFER P. BETANCOR
BABELINO B. GETES
DIOSSELIN A. POTOT

October 2017
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Literacy and Numeracy skills play the important role in the society

nowadays. Without this skill, you cannot easily find an opportunity that

you want. More opportunities are offer to each individual who has the

knowledge and experience on different field. Literacy (knowledge) and

numeracy (application) is the application of what you learn through

experience, job and in school. A lack of mathematical competence

closes those doors. Students have different abilities needs and interest.

All students deserve an opportunity to understand the power and beauty

of mathematics. Students need to learn a new set of basic mathematics

that enables them to compute fluently and to solve problems creatively.

According to National Institute for Literacy (1998) defines literacy

as an individual’s ability to read, write, speak in English, compute and

solve problems at levels of proficiency necessary to function on the job,

in the family of the individual and in society. As information and

technology have become increasingly shaped our society, the skills we

need to function successfully have gone beyond reading.


Dubin and Kuhlman (1992) literacy has taken its meaning that go

beyond the simple definition of reading and writing. Acknowledge that

the word literacy itself has come to mean competence, knowledge and

skills. Take for example, the common expressions such as computer

literacy, civic literacy, health literacy, and a score of other usages in

which literacy stands for know-how and awareness of the first word in

the expression.

Literacy not just an ability but skill enables man not just to use to

reading and writing but to become globally competitive in any kind of

field, comprehend and solve problem.

On the other hand, a numeracy skill is the ability to apply basic

mathematical principles and processes in everyday contexts at home,

school and work. It is to enable a person to fully function in a modern

society and the ability to use appropriate aids.

National Numeracy Programme (NNP) (2012) describes

numeracy as the application of mathematical understanding in daily

activities at school, at home, at work, and in the community and

suggests that: Mathematics is a part of numeracy, but to be numerate

means you are able to apply some of these mathematical skills in many

more contexts than in mathematics lessons and across several subject

areas.
Ginsburg et al (2006) suggest that most definitions of numeracy

refer to this richer engagement by including a connection to context,

purpose, or use. For example, in some cases the focus is on the needs

of the workplace and competition in the global economy, or on critical

numeracy needed for active participation in the democratic process, or

access to other learning.

According to Ruairi Quinn, (TD Minister for Education and Skills)

Literacy and Numeracy are among the most important life skills that our

schools teach. No child should leave school without having mastered

these skills to the best of their abilities.

The importance of literacy and numeracy help people gains the

fundamental skills necessary to achieve success in life. There is a huge

national strategy to improve literacy and numeracy and to support

students to live a satisfying and rewarding life as well as being an active

participant as an active and well informed resident. Literacy and

numeracy skills are crucial for accessing the broader curriculum

because they are used in many aspects of our lives. Workplace

numeracy, literacy and employability skills are often used in conjunction

with one another. These required skills often overlap and are necessary

for any task.

This study attempts to measure the literacy ability and numeracy

ability of third year mathematics major students of the three external


campuses of Southern Leyte State University, College of Teacher

Education of the academic year 2017-2018 and the purpose is to

determine literacy and numeracy abilities of the students as factors that

can affect their math achievement.

Statement of the Problem

The main objective of the study is to determine if the literacy and

numeracy abilities of the students affect their math achievement.

Literacy ability and numeracy ability of 3rd year BSED Math Major

Students in SLSU-CAES, Hinunangan, SLSU-CTE, Tomas Oppus and

SLSU- CBM, San Juan in the academic year 2017-2018 will be test.

And it will specifically answer the following.

1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 age; and

1.2 gender?

2. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

2.1 literacy ability; and

2.2 numeracy ability?

3. What is the math achievement of the respondents?

4. Is there a relationship between the literacy ability and numeracy

ability of the respondents?


5. Does literacy and numeracy ability relates the math achievement of

the respondents?

Statement of Null Hypothesis

Ho1: there is no significant relationship between the literacy ability and

numeracy ability of the respondents.

Ho2: The literacy and numeracy ability does not relates the math

achievement of the respondents.

Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will benefit the following:

Students. In this research, they can gain more learning’s or

background about how literacy and numeracy skills are interconnected

and important in math education, to their learning’s and apply it to the

outside world.

Instructors. The propose research will make easier for the

instructors to teach subjects that are related to literacy and numeracy

skills. They can get ideas and improve their teaching methods in

teaching students.

Administrator. The result of this study is very helpful for them to

identify what are the lacking practices in teaching-learning process, and

for them to encourage teachers to integrate appropriate learning styles

in instruction.
Researcher. The result of this study is important for them to be

guided in using strategies to be used in classroom. As they are soon to

be teachers.

Future Researcher. It can help them as a guide to enhance

more from their future research. They can get information or ideas of

this research that are related to their topic.

Theoretical Framework

Theories of Literacy Development

There are a number of theories associated with literacy

development. These theories are based on people’s ideas about early

literacy development and how children learn. In trying to discuss the

subject matter, we explore by asking ourselves a number of questions

such how our ideas about literacy have developed. What researchers

and educators have influenced the way reading and writing is

approached today? It is important for teachers who work with young

children and their families with the history of early literacy as a

foundation for current practices.

Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Development

The cognitive development theory by Jean Piaget contends that

there are different phases of intellectual development and each stage is

associated with certain behavioral activities. It is these activities that


guide educators and theorists in literacy on what is and what is not

tenable. Educationalists using this theory believe that the nature of

content that is given to pupils for learning must relate their level of

intellectual development. In other ways, the emphasis is sequencing

learner’s activities based on their stages of intellectual development.

This position is based on Piaget’s theory that children’s cognitive growth

occurs in a sequential pattern through four related stages. In this way,

what and how a child learns is determined largely by the child’s present

stage of development.

Maturation Theory

The maturation theory states that children would be ready to read

when they have developed certain prerequisite skills and there is little

that teachers and parents can do to hurry the process of cognitive

development. In other ways, the theory advocates for not teaching

reading until children were mature enough for instruction. Scholars for

this theory hypothesized that this could happen when children were at

mental age of 6 ½. Aldridge & Goldman (2007) noted that the

Maturational Theory of child development was developed by Arnold

Gesell with his colleagues including Morphette and Washburne who

constructed a set of behavioral norms that illustrate sequential and

predictable patterns of growth and development. Gesell contended that

all children go through similar stages, although each child may move
through these stages at their own rate (Godwin, Herb, Rickets &Wymer,

2013).

Emergent Literacy Theory

The Emergent Literacy Theory states that there are levels of

literacy behaviors which children acquire before they formally get into

classroom which facilitates the acquisition of reading and writing skills at

a conventional level. Emergent literacy theorists believe that literacy

development starts in the maternity award and is continuous and

ongoing. This early literacy development provides educators with

instructional guidance to promote early literacy growth among their

students. Theorists believe that children’s development in the areas of

listening, speaking, reading, and writing are all interrelated.

Noddings (1990a) points out certain characteristics that

constructivists teachers must have an ethical commitment to inquiry in

order to aid students in their investigations, and the receptivity and

responsiveness of an ethic of care which involves sharing and listening

to students, taking interest in their purposes as well as in those of the

teachers’ truth.

Theories of mathematical learning and understanding

According to Romberg (Grouws, 1992), there is no general

agreement on the definition of learning, how learning takes place and

what constitutes reasonable evidence that learning has taken place.


Some say it is observable changes in behavior, others that it means

acquiring new knowledge and other say that it is the creating of

disequilibrium. Psychologists have made different philosophic

assumptions about the nature of the learning process. Those who hold

that learning is determined by the forming connections between the

environment stimuli and useful responses are called associationist. A

representative of this view, E.B. Thorndike (1922), recommended that in

mathematics, for example, students perform much drill and practice on

correct procedures and facts to strengthen correct mental bonds.

Associationists also argued that curricula should be structured to keep

related concept well separated, so that students did not form incorrect

ties.

Conceptual Framework

The main objective of the study is to determine literacy and

numeracy abilities of the students as factors that can affect their math

achievement. In order to get a logical result, prior thing to do is to test if

the literacy and numeracy abilities of a student are factors that affect

their math achievement. In three external campuses of Southern Leyte

State University, College of Teacher Education (CTE) an assessment

was conducted. Questionnaire that will test and determine the literacy

and numeracy skills of a student will be answered by the respondents,

3rd year BSEd Mathematics major students in SLSU-CAES, SLSU-

CBM, SLSU-CTE in the academic year 2017-2018.


Southern Leyte State University

College of Teacher Education (CTE)

3rd Year Math Majors

Literacy and Numeracy Ability

Math Achievement

Figure 1.Schematic diagram of the conceptual framework of the

study.

Scope and Limitation

This study is concern with the literacy and numeracy skills of the

BSEd 3RD year mathematics major students of Southern Leyte State

University- College of Teacher Education.

The sites of this study were in Southern Leyte State University-

CAES, Hinunangan Southern Leyte, Southern Leyte State University-

CBM, San Juan Southern Leyte and Southern Leyte State University-

CTE, Tomas Oppus Southern Leyte. The variables of this research


study were the grade point average and the scores of the students from

the given questionnaire.

Definition of Terms

For better clarification and understanding of the terms related to

this study, these following terms are define conceptually and

operationally.

Literacy Ability. It refers to the comprehension, spelling and

vocabulary attained by the students.

Numeracy Ability. It refers to the mental arithmetic calculation which

includes addition, subtraction, multiplication and division, time, written

arithmetic to test the student's ability to identify the trends correctly,

make comparisons in order to draw conclusions and interpret

information accurately.

Math Achievement. It refers to grades of the respondents in their major

subjects in second semester A.Y. 2016-2017.


CHAPTER 2

Review of Related Literature

Eccles, J. (2011). Traditionally, girls’ lower performance in

mathematics was explained as relating to both internal and external

contextual factors – for example, lower perceived support for learning

mathematics. Other studies attributed the girls’ drop in performance to

their mathematics feelings that their classrooms were unattractive,

uncomfortable and hostile

In a review of the literature Bishop and Forgasz (2007) discussed

the meanings of equity in education and in so doing mapped the

theoretical development of these ideas through research concerned

with particular social groups, including gender. They reported that, in

one sense, equity is defined as an outcome of education with access to

learning a condition for achieving equity. This meaning of equity was

associated with equality and the three aspects that Fennema (1995)

originally identified with respect to gender: equal outcomes, equal

opportunities and equal treatment.

Aldridge & Goldman (2007) the maturation theory states that

children would be ready to read when they have developed certain

prerequisite skills and there is little that teachers and parents can do to

hurry the process of cognitive development. In other ways, the theory


advocates for not teaching reading until children were mature enough

for instruction. Scholars for this theory hypothesized that this could

happen when children were at mental age of 6 ½. (Godwin, Herb,

Rickets &Wymer, 2013) contended that all children go through similar

stages, although each child may move through these stages at their

own rate.

According to deficit theory, (1989) differences in educational

outcomes occur because of inherent deficiencies or weaknesses in girls'

experiences, knowledge, and skills. Liberal feminist researchers argued,

however, that these deficiencies were due to socialization and that by

attending to these deficiencies through particular educational programs

equality of outcomes could be achieved. Radical feminist researchers,

on the other hand, embraced differences between the genders and

argued that patriarchal structure denied women the opportunity to use

these differences as strengths for learning and achieving in

mathematics.

Gherasim, Butnaru, and Mairean (2013), found gender effects in

such variables as achievement goals, classroom environments and

achievement in mathematics among young adolescents showing that

girls obtained higher grades in mathematics than boys. Girls reported

(a) higher classroom support, lower performance-avoidance and (b)

more mastery of the learning materials. Another important aspect found


by researchers was teaching practice, especially the behaviour of the

teacher, such as (a) being responsive and helpful (b) being supportive.

Emergent Literacy Theory

The Emergent Literacy Theory states that there are levels of

literacy behaviors which children acquire before they formally get into

classroom which facilitates the acquisition of reading and writing skills at

a conventional level. Emergent literacy theorists believe that literacy

development starts in the maternity award and is continuous and

ongoing. This early literacy development provides educators with

instructional guidance to promote early literacy growth among their

students. Theorists believe that children’s development in the areas of

listening, speaking, reading, and writing are all interrelated.

E.B. Thorndike (1922), recommended that in mathematics, for

example, students perform much drill and practice on correct

procedures and facts to strengthen correct mental bonds.

Associationists also argued that curricula should be structured to keep

related concept well separated, so that students did not form incorrect

ties.

Piaget’s theory of Cognitive Development

The cognitive development theory by Jean Piaget contends that

there are different phases of intellectual development and each stage is

associated with certain behavioral activities. It is these activities that


guide educators and theorists in literacy on what is and what is not

tenable. Educationalists using this theory believe that the nature of

content that is given to pupils for learning must relate their level of

intellectual development. In other ways, the emphasis is sequencing

learner’s activities based on their stages of intellectual development.

This position is based on Piaget’s theory that children’s cognitive growth

occurs in a sequential pattern through four related stages. In this way,

what and how a child learns is determined largely by the child’s present

stage of development.

The social theory of Lev Vygotsky believe that cognitive

development results directly from social interactions (Eggen & Kauchak,

2010,p. 45). Through these social interactions, a child moves towards

more individual learning. Vygotsky's principle of cognitive development

is More Knowledgeable Other (MKO) and Zone Of Proximal

Development (ZPD). He believed that learning occurs through social

interaction with a person who has a better understanding or a higher

ability level than the learner, with respect to a particular task, process or

concept (McLeod, 2007).

Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics

(NCTM, 1989) that increased attention should be given to mental

computation. A national statement on Mathematics for Australian

Schools (Australian Education Council and the Curriculum Corporation,

1991) was released in 1991 recommending substantial change in


emphasis among mental, written and calculator methods of computation

and between approximate and exact solutions. A major objective is to

redirect the computational curriculum in schools to reflect a balance in

the emphasis on methods of solution. Before the Statement, the

curriculum was divided as: 75% written computation, 25% Calculator,

Estimation, Mental Computation. With the new statement it would be

25% for each method of computation.

Theories of mathematical learning and understanding

According to Romberg (Grouws, 1992), there is no general

agreement on the definition of learning, how learning takes place and

what constitutes reasonable evidence that learning has taken place.

Some say it is observable changes in behavior, others that it means

acquiring new knowledge and other say that it is the creating of

disequilibrium. Psychologists have made different philosophic

assumptions about the nature of the learning process. Those who hold

that learning is determined by the forming connections between the

environment stimuli and useful responses are called associationist.

Noddings (1990a) points out certain characteristics that

constructivists teachers must have an ethical commitment to inquiry in

order to aid students in their investigations, and the receptivity and

responsiveness of an ethic of care which involves sharing and listening


to students, taking interest in their purposes as well as in those of the

teachers’ truth.

Australian Council for Educational Research (2006) the

importance of literacy and numeracy skills is well established. These

skills have a significant impact both on individuals and society as a

whole. They are foundational skills, providing the base on which to learn

other, more complex skills. Literacy and numeracy skills underpin

workforce participation, productivity and the broader economy, and can

also impact on social and health outcomes. Individuals without these

skills are at risk of not being able to participate in the workforce or

engage fully in social and civic life.

Sen (1999) emphasizes individuals without basic literacy and

numeracy skills cannot assume a full and equal role in social and

political discourse. If schooling plays an important role in the production

of basic literacy and numeracy skills, low earnings and low levels of

civic participation could be a consequence of limited education. Or do

the consequences of education arise because additional schooling

enhances non-cognitive skills such as reliability, time management and

the ability to get along with others and to work effectively in teams.

Nola et al (2011) concluded that the data collected on literacy and

numeracy achievement shows that the gap in average achievement

between Indigenous and non-Indigenous students evident by the end of


the early years in primary school is maintained through to the end of

primary schooling. Despite a gap in average achievement, it is evident

that Indigenous students in this study experienced growth in their

literacy and numeracy skills through the final years of primary school.

Developing stronger links between schools and Indigenous

communities, promoting attendance among Indigenous students, quality

teaching, ensuring a good start to schooling, and developing a school

culture in which Indigenous students feel included and supported to

learn are key aspects of closing the gap in educational achievement for

Indigenous students.

T. Akey (2006), concluded that the class environment where

teachers who students see as supportive promote student feelings of

control and confidence in their ability to succeed. Akey’s work showed

that several aspects of school context (e.g., teacher support, student-to-

student interaction, and the academic and behavior expectations of the

teacher) were significantly related to student attitudes and behaviors.

The way students perceive teacher characteristics will affect their

attitudes towards mathematics. Maat and Zakaria (2010) identified a

significant relationship between learning environment and attitude

towards mathematics. Students with a higher perception of the learning

environment and a more positive perception of their teachers have more

positive attitudes towards mathematics. Rawnsley and Fisher (1998)


also found that students had more positive attitudes toward

mathematics when their teacher was perceived to be highly supportive.

Mental computation according to Grafton (1896) refers to

nonstandard algorithms for computing exact answers. It is also referred

to as the process of calculating an exact arithmetic result without the aid

of an external computational or recording aid. (Hope, 1986; Regs,

1986). It is recognized as important and useful in everyday living as well

as valuable in promoting and monitoring higher-level mathematical

thinking (Reys et al., 1995).

Math abilities can be assessed by various methods, including, for

example, arithmetic with oral or written instructions. One measure of

math ability in an educational context has traditionally been math word

problems (DeCorte&Verschaffel, 1987; Riley &Greeno, 1988). Children

are usually asked to read (or listen to) the math story or the problem

presented, write down the mathematical operations necessary for

completing the task, and then solve the problem and come up with an

answer. One way to categorize math problems has been suggested by

Jordan and Hanich (2000). They have categorized word problems into

four item types, each type defined by the problem-solving strategy

required: compare, change, combine, and equalize. This categorization

will be used in this study also, with some adjustments.


Jean Piaget (1979), human intellectual development progresses

chronologically through four sequential stages. The order in which the

stages occur have been found to be largely invariant, however the ages

at which people enter each higher order stage vary according to each

person's hereditary and environmental characteristics. He defined

intelligence as the ability to adapt to the environment. Adaptation takes

place through assimilation and through accommodation, with the two

processes interacting throughout life in different ways according to the

stage of mental development.

(Cochran,Barson&Davis, 1970) A constructivist view of

knowledge implies that knowledge is continuously created and

reconstructed so that there can be no template for constructivist

teaching (Peterson&Knapp,1993). Since this point of view holds that the

learning involves student's constructing their own knowledge, this leads

to a redefinition of the teacher's role to one of facilitator. This also leads

to teaching that imphasizes the importance of listening to and valuing

students' perception, even when their understanding differs from

conventional knowledge.

Caine and Caine (1994) argue that brain research confirms that

multiple complex and concrete experiences are essential for meaningful

learning and teaching. They add that the brain is designed as a "pattern

detector" and that the function of educators should be to provide

students with the kind of experiences that enable them to perceive "the
patterns that connect". Children from a very young age are sensitive to

quantity. They perceive differences in number; they see correlation

among different numbers of events; their actions contain quantity and

they use words referring to basic mathematical events (Gelman, 1980;

Van den Walle and Watkins, 1993) have pointed out the importance of

taking into account children's informal mathematical connections as

building block for normal mathematics. Ginsburg (1989) suggests that

students need to learn that it is acceptable, "even desirable", for them to

connect conventional arithmetic with their own informal knowledge,

intuition and invented procedures.


CHAPTER 3

Research Design

This study determines the literacy and numeracy ability of 3rd year

math major students of the three external campuses of Southern Leyte

State University- College of Teachers Education. The descriptive-

correlation method was used in this study Bagayana (2006), wrote the

study focuses on the present condition the purpose is to find new truth

which may come in different forms such as increased quantity of

knowledge, a new generalization.

Research Locale

The areas of the study were SLSU- CAES, Hinunangan,

Southern Leyte, SLSU- CBM, San Juan, Southern Leyte and SLSU-

CTE, Tommas Oppus, Southern Leyte.

Research Respondents

The respondents of this study were the 3rd year math major

students of SLSU- CAES, Hinunangan, Southern Leyte SLSU- CBM

San Juan, Southern Leyte and SLSU- CTE, Tommas Oppus, Southern

Leyte.
Sampling Procedure

The researcher gained permission from SLSU- CAES, SLSU-

CBM and SLSU- CTE. The campus administrators of SLSU-CAES,

SLSU- CBM and SLSU-CBM were contacted to gain permission to use

the school's teachers and students, as the research site. The

researcher developed a Quantitative questionnaire with questions to

measure the achievement of students in Mathematics.

Research Instrument

The main tool used in this study was a researcher made

questionnaire. A set of self-made questionnaire was constructed for the

student’s respondents and it has been done with pilot testing to ensure

its affectivity and validity. After pilot testing, there were some questions

that is being rejected, revised and retained

Research Procedure

The original title proposed by the researchers were checked,

revised, and rechecked by the researchers' adviser to maintain

conformity on the subject of research. The self-made questionnaire

aims to draw out proper responses on the objective of this study. The

self-made questionnaire was presented to, analyzed and checked by

the research adviser to ensure the validity of responses it would elicit.


Statistical Treatment of Data

The statistical tools that are used in organizing data are the following:

1. Frequencies and percentage. It could be used to determine

the percentage of the respondents.

2. Determine the mean. It is used to measure the central

tendency.

3. Comparing the relationship. It is used to measure of

correlation to determine the relationship of two sets of

variables quantitatively.

4. Regression Analysis is used to model the relationship between

a response variable and one or more predictor variables.


CURRICULUM VITAE

JUSFER P. BETANCOR
Brgy. San Jose, San Juan, Southern Leyte
Contact Number: 0946-413-2032

Career Objective

Personal Information

Nickname : Jasping/ Ping


Age : 20
Date of Birth : January 17, 1997
Place of Birth : Villa Kananga Butuan City
Religion : Catholic
Nationality : Filipino

Educational Attainment

Tertiary Southern Leyte State University


College of Businees and Management
Bachelor of Secondary Eduction
Major in Mathematics
June 2014- present

Secondary Agusan National High School


A.D. Curato St. Butuan City
June 2010 – March 2013

Agusan Pequeῆo National High School


Agusan Pequeῆo, Butuan City
June 2009 – March 2010
CURRICULUM VITAE

DIOSSELIN A. POTOT
Brgy. Salvacion, Silago, Southern Leyte
Contact Number: 0935-772-2541

Career Objective

Personal Information

Nickname : Linlin
Age : 19
Date of Birth : November 22, 1997
Place of Birth : Salvacion, Silago, Southern Letye
Religion : Catholic
Nationality : Filipino

Educational Attainment

Tertiary Southern Leyte State University


College of Businees and Management
Bachelor of Secondary Eduction
Major in Mathematics
June 2014- present

Secondary Hingatungan National High School


Hingatungan, Silago, Southern Leyte
June 2010 – March 2014
CURRICULUM VITAE

BABELINO B. GETES JR.


Brgy. Lipanto, St. Bernard, Southern Leyte
Contact Number: 0936-891-6719

Career Objective

Personal Information

Nickname : Bobby
Age : 19
Date of Birth : October 27, 1997
Place of Birth : Lipanto, Saint Bernard, Southern Letye
Religion : Catholic
Nationality : Filipino

Educational Attainment

Tertiary Southern Leyte State University


College of Businees and Management
Bachelor of Secondary Eduction
Major in Mathematics
June 2014- present

Secondary Himayangan National High School


Himayangan, Lilo-an, Southern Leyte
June 2010 – March 2014
Statement of the Problem

The main objective of the study is to determine if the literacy and

numeracy abilities of the students affect their math achievement.

Literacy ability and numeracy ability of 3rd year BSED Math Major

Students in SLSU-CAES, Hinunangan, SLSU-CTE, Tomas Oppus and

SLSU- CBM, San Juan in the academic year 2017-2018 will be test.

And it will specifically answer the following.

1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms

of:

1.1 age; and

1.2 gender?

2. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

2.1 literacy ability; and

2.2 numeracy ability?

3. What is the math achievement of the respondents?

4. Is there a relationship between the literacy ability and

numeracy ability of the respondents?

5. Does literacy and numeracy ability relates the math

achievement of the respondents?


Chapter IV

PRESENTATION OF RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Demographic Profile of the Respondents by Age and Gender

Table 1

The Demographic Profile of the Respondents in terms of Age and

Gender

Gender
Male Female Total
Age 17 Count 1 1 2
% of Total 2.0% 2.0% 4.1%
18 Count 6 13 19
% of Total 12.2% 26.5% 38.8%
19 Count 6 12 18
% of Total 12.2% 24.5% 36.7%
20 Count 1 1 2
% of Total 2.0% 2.0% 4.1%
21 Count 0 1 1
% of Total 0.0% 2.0% 2.0%
22 Count 0 2 2
% of Total 0.0% 4.1% 4.1%
23 Count 1 0 1
% of Total 2.0% 0.0% 2.0%
25 Count 2 0 2
% of Total 4.1% 0.0% 4.1%
31 Count 0 1 1
% of Total 0.0% 2.0% 2.0%
47 Count 1 0 1
% of Total 2.0% 0.0% 2.0%
Total Count 18 31 49
% of Total 36.7% 63.3% 100.0%
The dominant age of the respondents is 18 and 19 years old, this

means that it is the ideal age of the college students in the 3rd year. The

highest age of the respondents is 47 years old while the lowest age is

17 years old. 63.3% of the respondents were female while 36.7% were

male. This means that there were more female students who take

mathematics as their field of specialization than male.

The present finding does not support Turney (1975) conclusion,

that through the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, young gentlemen

were taught to read, speak and write, Book Keeping, Geometry,

Trigonometry, and Mensuration, Surveying and received a general

education in history and astronomy while young women learned

needlework, morals, manners and virtuous percepts as well as reading

writing and arithmetic. That is because in the twenty-first century’s

education, not just men, but also women were provided quality basic

education through the Education for All (EFA) movement by UNESCO

(Dakar, 2000).
Profile of the Students on Their Literacy and Numeracy Ability

Table 2:

The Literacy and Numeracy Ability of the Respondents by College

College Literacy Ability Numeracy Ability


Mean Standard Description Mean Standard Description
Deviation Deviation
CAES 9.64 2.373 Very Good 9.79 2.455 Very Good

CBM 11.93 1.534 Superior 11.33 1.633 Superior

CTE 9.30 2.179 Very Good 9.65 1.785 Very Good

*Legend

Fair Good Very Good Superior Excellent

0-3 4-6 7-9 10-12 13-15

The literacy ability and numeracy ability of the respondents were

verified in this table. We use the empirical rule in interpreting the data to

determine how this will be distributed in a normal curve. Through the

means and standard deviations of literacy ability and numeracy ability of

the respondents by college, we can conclude that 68% of CAES

respondent’s literacy ability is between 7.16 and 11.913, and 68% of

their numeracy ability is between 7.35 and 12.245. The literacy and

numeracy ability of CAES is either Very Good or Superior. In CBM, 95%

of the respondent’s literacy ability is between 8.812 and 14.998 and

95% of their numeracy ability is between 8.04 and 14.596. The literacy
and numeracy ability of CBM is either Superior or Excellent. In CTE,

68% of the respondent’s literacy ability is between 7.121 and 11.479

and 68% of their numeracy ability is between 7.765. The literacy and

numeracy ability of CTE is either Very Good or Superior. All

respondents in all colleges have a high literacy and numeracy abilities.

People with higher literacy and numeracy abilities are more likely to be

mentally and physically healthy, live longer, be more productive at work,

and commit fewer crimes (EU Skills Panorama, 2014).

Literacy ability of each college scores almost the same with their

respective numeracy ability. The findings are a good sign, that they

might be successful in their future life as a teacher and as citizen of the

community. Achievement in literacy and numeracy has been shown to

be a key determinant of educational outcome (Rothman & McMillan,

2003). Making a successful transition from school to full-time

employment, occupation and earning are positively related to numeracy

and literacy (Green & Riddell, 2001; Lamb & McKenzie, 2000). On a

broader level, literacy and numeracy are essential ingredients for

effective communication and participation in adult life (OECD &

Statistics Canada, 2000). And those skills are essentials to become an

effective teacher.

Since that majority of our respondents are females, this is one of

the factors why our results are high. According to Rothman (2003),

gender is a factor that influences both literacy achievement and


numeracy achievement, with females scoring higher on tests of reading

comprehension and males scoring higher on tests of mathematics.

Table 3

The Math Achievement of the Respondents by College

College Good Very Superior


Good
(2.1-2.5) (1.6-2.0) (1.1-1.5)

CAES 0 10 4

CBM 0 14 1

CTE 9 7 4

Table 3 shows the math achievements of the respondents by

college. The respondent’s math achievements of CAES are either very

good or superior. Majority of it falls in “very good” which is in accord with

their literacy and numeracy abilities (Table 2). In CBM, out of 15

respondents, only 1 has a superior math achievement and the rest has

a “very good”. Even with those math achievements, their literacy and

numeracy abilities (table 2), based on the assessment, are superior. In

CTE, only 20% of the respondents got a superior math achievement,

35% got very good, and 45% got good. Even a lot got only good math

achievement, their literacy and numeracy abilities are within very good

(Table 2).

Since that the respondents are specializing math and taken

advance math subjects for the past two years, they are expected to
have superior or at least very good math achievements. But our data

reveals that even the respondents in the same college which given the

same treatment and instructions have different math achievements. To

some extent, people differ in mathematics achievement because they

vary in abilities that are important for learning mathematics. Studies

reveal that individual differences in maths performance have been

found to be associated with individual differences in memory (Swanson

& Sachse-Lee, 2001), processing speed (Geary, 2011, Taub et al.,

2008), intelligence (Deary, Strand, Smith, & Fernandes, 2007), attention

(Dulaney, Vasilyeva, & O'Dwyer, 2015), language ability (Vukovic &

Lesaux, 2013) and spatial skills (Rohde and Thompson, 2007, Tosto et

al., 2014). Our present findings also support the conclusion of Kurtus

(2012) that even with the same environment there are a lot of reasons

why students got different math achievements; it includes external

factors, such as the subject matter is too difficult, the teacher is hard to

understand. Studies reported that teacher should have good

understanding of subject domain to improve the math achievement of

students (Ball, 1993; Grossman, et. Al., 1989; Rosebery., et. al., 1992).

School context and facilities are also reported to influence math

achievement in this study. School safety and facilities (Reyonds et. al.,

1996), temperature of the class (Harner, 1974), features of the school

buildings (Cash, 1993), and crowdedness of school (Rivera-Batiz and

Marti, 1995) were also reported to influence the achievement of


students. Collectively, these results point out that attention should be

given to school context and facilities to improve the math achievement

of students. Other reasons have to do with poor attitudes, such as didn’t

do homework and goofed off in class (Kurtus, 2012). Kurtus (2012) also

added that there are reasons related to the personal issues such as test

anxiety and problem concentrating. Even though majority of the

respondents are female, it has nothing to do with our result. In contrast

to other studies (Campbell, 1995; Gray, 1996; Kimball, 1989), gender

was not found an important factor influencing the math achievement of

students. Similar results were found by Beaton et al., (1996) and Mullis

et al., (1997).

Table 4

Relationship between Literacy and Numeracy Ability of all

Respondents Taken as One Group

Variables r-value p-value Description

Literacy and .515 .000 Large Correlation and


Numeracy Statistically Significant
*Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The relationship between literacy and numeracy ability of all

respondents taken as one group is verified in this table. The Pearson-

product moment correlation was used in getting the relationship of our

variables.
The data reveals that our variables, literacy and numeracy

abilities, are strongly correlated (r=.515) and statistically significant (p=

.000). This means that there is a relationship between the literacy ability

and numeracy ability of the respondents. Based on our finding, we can

say that literacy and numeracy ability of an individual have common

factors which can affect them. According to Greabell, (1992) literacy

and numeracy share common elements. They are abstract, symbolic,

cognitive process, and they both require working knowledge of the

interaction of numerous discrete skills. Ward and Fulton (2002) also

stated that both literacy and numeracy are affected by the values and

norms of the society in which they are used. From the perspective,

students learn literacy and numeracy both formally and informally at

home and at school. Adams (2003) on other hand also added that

literacy and numeracy abilities are vital for creating and maintaining an

inclusive, equal society. These skills have a significant impact both on

individuals and society as a whole. They are foundational skills,

providing the base on which to learn other, more complex skills.


Table 5

Relationship between Literacy and Numeracy Ability of all

Respondents Taken as Separate Group by College

College r- p- Description
value value

CAES .672 .008 Large Correlation and Statistically Significant

CBM .095 .736 Small Correlation and Not Statistically Significant

CTE .299 .200 Moderate and Not Statistically Significant


*Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

The relationship between literacy and numeracy ability of all

respondents taken as separate group by college is verified in this table.

The Pearson-product moment correlation was used in getting the

relationship of our variables in each college.

The data reveals that the literacy and numeracy ability of CAES

have a large correlation (p= .672) and statistically significant (p= .008).

The result is the same with the relationship between literacy and

numeracy ability of all respondents taken as one group (Table 4). The

data shows that the respondent’s literacy and numeracy ability in CAES

developed at the same level. Evidence shows that reading and

mathematical abilities are correlated, and in particular that reading and


mathematical disabilities often show comorbidity (Miles et al., 2001;

Fuchs et al., 2004; Dirks et al., 2008; Rubinsten, 2008; Slot et al.,

2016).

The literacy and numeracy ability in CBM have a small correlation

(p= .095) and not statistically significant (p= .736). The result is different

relationship between literacy and numeracy ability of all respondents

taken as one group (Table 4). This is because the literacy and

numeracy ability are all high, independent with each other. One of the

reasons is their high literacy ability. Fite (2002) stated that students who

can read fluently can do anything academically. However, they must be

taught how to be successful in other academic domain (Fite,2002) .

The literacy and numeracy ability in CTE have a small correlation

(p= .299) and not statistically significant (p= .200). The result is almost

the same with the relationship between literacy and numeracy ability of

all respondents taken as one group, but not statistically significant

(Table 4). The data shows that the respondent’s literacy and numeracy

ability in CTE is developed at not the same level. Some studies suggest

that there are common factors underlying mathematical and reading

disabilities, e.g., phonological abilities (Slot et al., 2016). Arithmetical

ability is not a single entity but is made up of many components

(Dowker, 2005, 2015) and different components appear to be

differentially related to reading ability. It is usually found that reading

difficulties are more associated with difficulties in retrieval of arithmetical


facts than with other aspects of arithmetic (Miles et al., 2001; Simmons

and Singleton, 2006, 2009; Goebel and Snowling, 2010).

Table 6

The Regression Coefficient of the Literacy and Numeracy Ability

relates to the Math Achievement

Coefficients a
Model Standard
Coefficients

Beta t Sig
1 (Constant) 45.895

Literacy .429 3.541 .001

Numeracy .387 3.195 .003

a. Dependent Variable: Math Achievement

The coefficient table provides us with necessary information to

predict math achievement from literacy and numeracy ability as well as

determine whether the literacy and numeracy ability contributes

statistically significant to the model. We can use the values in the “Beta”

column under the “standardized coefficient” to represent the regression

equation as y’= a + B1 x1 + B2x2 or math achievement = 76.043 + .429

(literacy ability) + .387 (numeracy ability). The equation states that in

every one point increase in literacy ability contributes .429 point

increase in math achievement and in every one point increase in


numeracy ability contributes .387 point increase in math achievement.

Furthermore, the P-value of literacy and numeracy ability was .001 and

the P-value of numeracy ability was .003 which is meaningful addition to

our model because changes in the predictor’s value are related to

changes in the responses variable.

Our finding reveals that numeracy and literacy abilities are

predictors of math achievement, which mean they are the factors that

can affect our math outcomes. Our finding agreed with the conclusion of

MacGregor and Price (1999), that vocabulary, number and symbol

sense, as well as the ability to read and comprehend word problems are

important factors affecting achievement in math. Rothman (2003), also

conclude that achievement in literacy and numeracy has been shown to

be a key determinant of educational outcomes. Chu (2016) also

conclude, that as an example of basic brain and cognitive processes

that might be common across academic domains, consider that

children's ability to rapidly name stimuli (e.g., letters, numbers, colors),

measured by Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) tasks, has been found

to predict mathematics and reading achievement.


CHAPTER V

SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

SUMMARY

The main objective of the study is to determine if the literacy and

numeracy abilities of the students as factors that can affect their math

achievement. Literacy ability and numeracy ability of 3rd year BSED

Math Major Students in SLSU-CAES, Hinunangan, SLSU-CTE, Tomas

Oppus and SLSU- CBM, San Juan in the academic year 2017-2018 will

be test. And it will specifically answer the following.

1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 age; and

1.2 gender?

2. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of:

2.1 literacy ability; and

2.2 numeracy ability?

3. What is the math achievement of the respondents?

4. Is there a relationship between the literacy ability and numeracy

ability of the respondents?


5. Does literacy and numeracy ability relates the math achievement of

the respondents?

This study determines the literacy and numeracy skills of 3rd year

math major students of Southern Leyte State University- College of

Agriculture and Environment Science, Hinunangan, Southern Leyte

State University- College of Business and Management San Juan and

Southern Leyte State University- College of Teacher Education Tomas

Oppus. The areas of the study were SLSU- CAES, Hinunangan,

Southern Leyte, SLSU- CBM, San Juan, Southern Leyte and SLSU-

CTE, Tommas Oppus, Southern Leyte. The descriptive correlation

method was used in this thesis. This was to find new truth which may

come in different forms such as increased quantity of knowledge, a new

generalization. The main tool used in this study was a researcher made

questionnaire. A set of self-made questionnaire was constructed for the

student’s respondents and it has been done with pilot testing to ensure

its effectivity and validity. After pilot testing, there were some questions

that is being rejected, revised and retained. The statistical tools that are

used in organizing data are the frequencies, percentage, Pearson

product- moment correlation and regression analysis. Frequency is

used to determine the average age of the respondents. Percentage is

used to determine the percentage of the respondents’ gender. Pearson

Product- Moment Correlation Coefficient is used to measure the

relationship of two sets of variables quantitatively and their significance.


Regression Analysis is used to model the relationship between a

response variable and one or more predictor variables.

FINDINGS

The findings of the study were as follows:

1. The dominant ages of the respondents are 18 and 19 years

old, which means that this is the ideal age of the college

𝟐
students in third (3rd) year. of the respondents population
𝟑

𝟏
were female while of it were male which means that there
𝟑

were more female students who take mathematics as their

field of specialization.

2. Literacy ability of each college scores almost the same with

their respective numeracy ability. The findings are a good sign,

that they might be successful in their future life as a teacher

and as citizen of the community. Through the means and

standard deviations of literacy ability and numeracy ability of

the respondents by college, we can conclude that 68% of

CAES respondent’s literacy ability is between 7.16 and

11.913, and 68% of their numeracy ability is between 7.35 and

12.245. The literacy and numeracy ability of CAES is either

Very Good or Superior. In CBM, 95% of the respondent’s

literacy ability is between 8.812 and 14.998 and 95% of their


numeracy ability is between 8.04 and 14.596. The literacy and

numeracy ability of CBM is either Superior or Excellent. In

CTE, 68% of the respondent’s literacy ability is between 7.121

and 11.479 and 68% of their numeracy ability is between

7.765. The literacy and numeracy ability of CTE is either Very

Good or Superior.

3. The respondent’s math achievements of CAES are either very

good or superior. Majority of it falls in “very good” which is in

accord with their literacy and numeracy abilities. In CBM, out

of 15 respondents, only 1 has a superior math achievement

and the rest has a “very good”. Even with those math

achievements, their literacy and numeracy abilities, based on

the assessment, are superior. In CTE, only 20% of the

respondents got a superior math achievement, 35% got very

good, and 45% got good. Even a lot got only good math

achievement, their literacy and numeracy abilities are within

very good.

4. The Pearson-product moment correlation was used in order to

find the relationship between literacy and numeracy ability of

all respondents taken as one group. The literacy and

numeracy abilities are strongly correlated and statistically

significant. This means that there is a relationship between the

literacy ability and numeracy ability of the respondents. Based


on our finding, we can say that literacy and numeracy ability of

an individual have common factors which can affect them.

5. Numeracy and literacy abilities are predictors of math

achievement, which mean they are the factors that can affect

the math outcomes or achievements of the respondents.

CONCLUSION

In our study we conclude that literacy and numeracy ability

are the factors that can really affect the math achievements of the

students. Proficiency in literacy and numeracy would be a great

help for the students to achieve high in mathematics.

Achievement in literacy and numeracy has been shown to be a

key determinant of educational outcomes. The literacy and

numeracy abilities derived from the test questionnaire have been

proven to have good correlation with education, and well-being.

RECCOMENDATION

Based on the findings and conclusions presented, the

following recommendations are suggested:

 The researchers recommend that the students should

always practice their numeracy and literacy abilities to

further development.
 Mathematics programs in the early grades should make

extensive use of appropriate objects, diagrams, and

other aids to ensure that all children understand and are

able to use number words and the base-10 properties of

numerals, that all children can use the language of

quantity (hundreds, tens, and ones) in solving problems,

and that all children can explain their reasoning in

obtaining solutions.

 Students should be given opportunities to use the

different representations to carry out operations and to

understand and explain these operations. Instructional

materials should include visual and linguistic supports to

help students develop this representational ability.

 There should be focus on improving students’

competence in numeracy, particularly their ability to

reason, to apply their learning and engage in problem-

solving processes.

 There should be a need to increase the proportion of

higher-performing students in both literacy and

numeracy and to increase expectations relating to the

performance of this cohort of pupils.


Republic of the Philippines
SOUTHERN LEYTE STATE UNIVERSITY
College of Business and Management
San Juan, Southern Leyte

Questionnaire on Assessment of Literacy and Numeracy Skills among

Mathematics Major in State University

Dear Respondent,

Good day! Please answer this questionnaire accurately and truthfully.

Your response will be used for research purposes to assess the

student’s literacy and numeracy skills. Your answer to this survey will be

treated with strictest confidentially.

Thank you very much.

Researchers

STUDENT’S QUESTIONNAIRE

Personal Background

Name: Year & Section: _____________

Instructions: Check the box provided for your answer.

1. Age.

16 yrs. old 18 yrs. old

17 yrs. old others specify:

2. Gender

Male Female
LITERACY QUESTIONNAIRE

Direction: Multiple Choices. Choose the letter of the correct answer.

1. 7.86 × 4.6 =

A. 36.156 B. 36.216

C. 351.56 D. 361.56

2. The pencil is __________ the table.

A. from B. on

C.at D. over

3. Reading comprehension: A car is bigger than a bicycle but smaller


than a bus.

A. A car is smaller than a bicycle B. A car is very big

C. A car is the biggest D. Abus is bigger than a car

4. What is the elapsed time between 12:35 am and 6:15?

5. Which of the following is the least?

A. 0.105 B. 0.501

C. 0.015 D. 0.15

6. Verb forms: Shawn gracefully.

A. Dance B. Dancing

C. Dances D. None of the above

7. Context Clues: She penned a letter to her aunt.

A. baked B. wrote
C. plays D. sing
8. Preposition: Please sign your name the dotted line you read
the contract.

A. On ---------- at B. In ----------- before

C. On ----------- after D. In ---------- under

9. Fill in the blank. Find the greatest common factor of 81 and 108?

10. Verb form: Justin and Ethan a movie.

A. Have watched B. watching

C. Are watching D. watched

11. Fill in the blank. What is 55% of 90%?

12. What is the product of 17.19 and 10.17?

13. Figures of Speech: The avalanche devoured anything standing in its


way.
A. Simile B. Hyperbole

C. Metaphor D. Personification

14. Pronouns: If you see Yuna today, please give __________ this
book.

A. Her B. She

C. Them D. Him

15. Find the quotient of 1710 that is being divided by 21 .


NUMERACY QUESTIONNAIRE

Direction: Choose the letter of the correct answer

1. 47% of 90.

A. 42.55 B. 42.3

C. 50.90 D. 71.30

2. 17 x 29 =

A. 433 B. 493

C. 415 D. 483

3. Convert 36 minutes to hours.

A. 0.6 B. 0.61

C. 0.5 D. 0.55

4. 0.98+0.77+1.27+3.34+.05

A. 6.41 B. 6.51

C. 6.43 D. 6.55

5. Find n: 6/n x 4/5

A. 8 B. 7.5

C. 6.5 D. 9

6. 8 × 6 - 9 ÷ 3 + 4

A. 49 B. 18

C. 20 D. 48
7. 5/7 + 3/6

A. 31/42 B. 51/42

C. 27/42 D. 35/40

8. In three more years, Miguel's grandfather will be six times as old as


Miguel was last year. When Miguel's present age is added to his
grandfather's present age, the total is 68. How old is each one now?

A. 75 years old; 10 years old B. 57 years old; 11 years old

C. 76 years old; 12 years old D. 58 years old; 13 years old

9. One-half of Heather's age two years from now plus one-third of her
age three years ago is twenty years. How old is she now?

A. 24 years B. 44 years

C. 42 years D. 22 years

10. A piece of 16-gauge copper wire 42 cm long is bent into the shape
of a rectangle whose width is twice its length. Find the dimensions of
the rectangle.

A. 8cm and 16 cm B. 7cm and 14 cm

C. 2 cm and 4 cm D. 6cm and 7cm

11. If one side of a square is doubled in length and the adjacent side is
decreased by two centimeters, the area of the resulting rectangle is 96
square centimeters larger than that of the original square. Find the
dimensions of the rectangle.

A. 24 cm by 10 cm B. 22 cm by 8 cm

C. 12 cm by 6 cm D. 14 cm by 4 cm
12. The number of the students of one school is a natural number that is
between 600 and 500. If we were to divide the students into 20 groups
or 12 groups or 36 groups, we get a remainder of 7 in every time. What
is the number of students in this school?

A. 557 B. 547

C. 567 D. 577

13. Mr. Johnson's class has 28 students. If three fourth of his students
are absent due to heavy rainfall on a particular day, how many students
does he have left in his class on that day?

A. 14 B. 7

C. 21 D. 0

14. A boat travels 6 miles NW and then 2 miles SW. How far away the
boat is from its starting point?

A. 6.12 miles B. 6.42 miles


C. 6.22 miles D. 6.32 miles

15. A six-meter-long ladder leans against a building. If the ladder makes


an angle of 60° with the ground, how far up the wall does the ladder
reach? How far from the wall is the base of the ladder?

A. 6.40 m; 0.5 m B. 5.40 m; 2 m


C. 5.20 m; 3 m D. 6.30 m; 1 m
Republic of the Philippines
SOUTHERN LEYTE STATE UNIVERSITY
College of Business and Management
San Juan, Southern Leyte

Questionnaire on Assessment of Literacy and Numeracy Skills among


Mathematics Major in State University

Dear Respondent,

Good day! Please answer this questionnaire accurately and truthfully.


Your response will be used for research purposes to assess the
student’s literacy and numeracy skills. Your answer to this survey will be
treated with strictest confidentially.

Thank you very much.

Researchers

STUDENT’S QUESTIONNAIRE

Personal Background

Name: Year & Section: _____________

Instructions: Check the box provided for your answer.

1. Age.
16 yrs. old 18 yrs. old
17 yrs. old other specify:
2. Gender
Male Female
LITERACY QUESTIONNAIRE

Direction: Multiple Choices. Choose the letter of the correct answer.

1. 7.86 × 4.6 =

A. 36.156 B. 36.216

C. 351.56 D. 361.56

2. The pencil is __________ the table.

A. from B. in

C. at D. over

3. Reading comprehension: A car is bigger than a bicycle but smaller


than a bus.

A. A car is smaller than a bicycle B. A car is very big

C. A car is the biggest D. A bus is bigger than a car

4. What is the elapsed time between 12:35 am and 6:15?

5. Which of the following is the least?

A. 0.105 B. 0.501

C. 0.015 D. 0.15

6. Verb forms: Shawn gracefully.

A. Dance B. Dancing

C. Dances D. None of the above

7. Context Clues: She penned a letter to her aunt.

A. baked B. wrote
C. plays D. sing
8. Preposition: Please sign your name the dotted line you read
the contract.

A. On ---------- at B. In ----------- before

C. On ----------- after D. In ---------- under

9. Fill in the blank. Find the greatest common factor of 81 and 108?

10. Verb form: Justin and Ethan a movie.


A. Have watched B. watching
C. Are watching D. watched
11. Fill in the blank. What is 55% of 90% ?
12. What is the product of 17.19 and 10.17 ?
13. Figures of Speech: The avalanche devoured anything standing in its
way.
A. Simile B. Hyperbole

C. Metaphor D. Personification

14. Pronouns: If you see Yuna today, please give __________ this
book.

A. Her B. She

C. Them D. Him

15. Find the quotient of 1710 that is being divided by 21 .


NUMERACY QUESTIONNAIRE

Direction: Choose the letter of the correct answer

1. 47% of 90.

A. 42.55 B. 42.3

C. 50.90 D. 71.30

2. 17 x 29 =

A. 433 B. 493

C. 415 D. 483

3. Convert 36 minutes to hours.

A. 0.6 B. 0.61

C. 0.5 D. 0.55

4. 0.98+0.77+1.27+3.34+.05

A. 6.41 B. 6.51

C. 6.43 D. 6.55

5. Find n: 6/n x 4/5

A. 8 B. 7.5

C. 6.5 D. 9

6. 8 × 6 - 9 ÷ 3 + 4

A. 49 B. 17

C. 20 D. 48
7. 5/7 + 3/6 =

A. 31/42 B. 51/42

C. 27/42 D. 35/40

8. In five more years, John's grandfather will be seven times as old as


John was last year. When John’s present age is added to his
grandfather's present age, the total is 76. How old is each one now?

A. 75 years old; 10 years old B. 65 years old; 11 years old

C. 76 years old; 12 years old D. 55 years old; 21 years old

9. A clown waves at people every 3 minutes, second clown waves every


4 minutes, and third clown waves every 5 minutes. When will all 3
clowns wave at the same time?

A. 60 minutes B. 55 minutes

C. 65 minutes D. 70 minutes

10. A piece of 16-gauge copper wire 42 cm long is bent into the shape
of a rectangle whose width is twice its length. Find the dimensions of
the rectangle.

A. 8cm and 16 cm B. 7cm and 14 cm

C. 2 cm and 4 cm D. 6cm and 7cm

11. A triangle has a perimeter of 50. If 2 of its sides are equal and the
third side is 5 more than the equal sides, what is the length of the third
side?

A. 25 B. 20

C. 30 D. 15
12. A water tank is emptied at a constant rate. Initially, 36,000 gallons of
water were in the tank. At the end of five hours, 16,000 gallons
remained. How many gallons of water were in the tank at the end of the
third hour?

A. 26000 gallons B. 27000 gallons

C. 25000 gallons D. 28000 gallons

13. Mr. Jones’s class has 55 students. If three fifths of his students are
absent due to heavy rainfall on a particular day, how many students
does he have left in his class on that day?

A. 33 B. 43

C. 22 D. 37

14. Cole has six times as many dimes as quarters in her piggy bank.
She has 21 coins in her piggy bank totaling $2.55. How many of each
type of coin does she have?

A. 3 quarters and 18 dimes B. 18 quarters and 3 dimes

C. 3 quarters and 15 dimes D. 15 quarters and 3 dimes

15. What is the sum of first 100 counting numbers?

A. 2500 B. 5500
C. 5050 D. 2050
ABSTRACT

Title : ASSESSMENT OF LITERACY AND NUMERACY


ABILITY AMONG MATHEMATICS MAJOR IN
STATE UNIVERSITIES

Researchers : Jusfer P. Betancor


Diosselin A. Potot
Babelino B. Getes Jr.

Degree : Bachelor of Secondary Education


Major in Mathematics

School : Southern Leyte State University

Adviser : Mr. Val Romelino Patual

Date Completed : October 2017

The purpose of the study was to determine the literacy and


numeracy abilities of the students as factors that can affect their math
achievement. This study utilized the respondent’s grade point average
(GPA) of their four major subjects (mathematics) during their second
year in college, second semester A. Y. 2016-2017 to measure their
achievement. The descriptive- correlation method was used in this
study. The finding reveals that numeracy and literacy abilities are
predictors of math achievement, which means they are the factors that
can affect the respondent’s math outcomes. The researchers conclude
that literacy and numeracy ability are the factors that can really affect
the math achievements of the students.
Keywords: literacy ability, numeracy ability, math achievement.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Adams, G and Englemann, S (1996), Research of direct instruction: 25


years beyond DISTAR, Educational Achievement Systems, Seattle.

Australian Council for Educational Research 2006, Growth in literacy


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APPROVAL SHEET

The thesis entitled ASSESSMENT OF LITERACY AND NUMERACY


ABILITY AMONG MATHEMATICS MAJORS IN STATE
UNIVERSITIES prepared and submitted by JUSFER P. BETANCOR,
DIOSSELIN A. POTOT, and BABELINO B. GETES JR. in partial
fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of BACHELOR OF
SECONDARY EDUCATION (Major in Mathematics) is hereby
accepted.

THESIS ADVISORY COMMITTEE

VAL ROMELINO G. PATUAL GENTI L. BUNGCARAS


Adviser Data Analyst

VANGILIT G. RETOME, PhD ELYSHA S. ALVARADO, Ed.D


Research Professor Censor

THESIS EVALUATION COMMITTEE

VANGILIT G. RETOME, PhD VAL ROMELINO G. PATUAL


Program Chair, Member Adviser, Member

JOSHUA EDSON G. ORDIZ, MST CIONELYN DE JOSE


Expert, Member Statistician

CERENIO G. ADRIATICO, CPA, Ph.D


Chairman

Accepted as partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree


of BACHELOR OF SECONDARY EDUCATION (Major in
Mathematics)

October 24, 2017 FREDERICK C. ANIGA, Ed.D


Date of Oral Defense College Dean
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
Title Page i
Approval Sheet ii
Acknowledgement iii
Abstract iv
Table of Contents v
List of Tables vii
List of Figures viii
List of Appendices ix

Chapter
I INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study


Statement of the Problem
Statement of Hypothesis
Framework of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope and Limitations
Definition of Terms

II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

III. METHODOLOGY

Research Designs
Research Locale
Research Respondent
Sampling Procedure
Research Instrument
Research Procedure
Statistical Treatment of Data

IV. PRESENTATION OF RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


V. SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSION
AND RECOMMENDATION

Summary
Findings
Conclusion
Recommendations

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

Appendix A Transmittal Letter


Appendix B Research Instrument
Appendix C Location Map

CURRICULUM VITAE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The success of this research paper was appreciative deliberate to


the people who yield their support, encouragement, adjuration, concern
and assistance during the time of working it.
First and foremost to our Almighty God who has always been
guiding our minds and give us a strength and determination to fulfill our
study.
To our beloved parents who always there to support including
their financial assistance.
To Mr. Joshua Edson G. Ordiz our research instructor for his
advice and correcting our research paper to make it possible.
To Dr. Elysha S. Alvarado our censor for giving her time
correcting our thesis paper.
To the Campus Dean of SLSU - CBM, Dr. Gary Garcia, for
allowing us to conduct a research in their school.
To the Campus Dean of SLSU - CAES, Dr. Nelfa Gil, for her
warm welcome and for approving our letter to conduct a research to
their students as our respondents.
To the Campus Dean of SLSU - CTE, Dr. Frederick Aniga, for his
moral support and being good to us when we we're in their school and
for having his approval to conduct a research to their students as our
respondents.
To the research respondents for their cooperation in answering
the questionnaire prepared by the researchers.
To the panelists who yield their effort and time during the oral
defend.
And to all who are always there to guide and teach us in a good
thing and to make our research attainable.

THE RESEARCHERS
DEDICATION

The success of this work is humbly and wholeheartedly dedicated

to the following:

To our Beloved God for giving us wisdom and strength to finish

this study.

To our Beloved Parents for their financial and whole support.

To our Beloved Sisters, Brothers, relatives and friends .

With all your support. This piece or work is dedicated to all of you.