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DEFINITION OF RESEARCH

Research is a careful, critical, disciplined inquiry, varying in techniques and method according to
the nature and conditions of the problem identified, directed toward the clarification or resolution (or
both) of a problem. [Good, 1963]

Research is simply the systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic or
problem. After a careful, systematic search for pertinent information or data on a specified topic or
problem, and after the research worker has analyzed and interpreted the data, he eventually faces
another essential task – that of preparing the research report. [Aquino, 1964]

Research is the process of gathering data or information to solve a particular or specific problem
in a scientific manner. [Manuel & Medel, 1976]

Research is an attempt to gain solution to problems. It is the collection of data in a rigorously


controlled situation for the purpose of prediction or explanation. [Treece & Treece, 1977]

Research is a purposive, systematic, and scientific process of gathering, analyzing, classifying,


organizing, presenting, and interpreting data for the solution of a problem, for prediction, for invention,
for the discovery of truth or expansion or verification of existing knowledge, all for the preservation and
improvement of the quality of human life. [Calderon & Gonzales, 1993]

PURPOSE OF RESEARCH
“The purpose of research is to save man.”

“The goal of research is the good life.”

“The principal purpose and goal of research is the preservation and improvement of the quality
of human life.”

“To satisfy man’s craving for more understanding, to improve his judgment, to add to his power,
to reduce the burden of work, to relieve suffering, and to increase satisfaction in multitudinous ways –
these are the large and fundamental goals of research.”

Specific Purposes & Goals of Research


1. To discover new facts about known phenomena.
2. To find answers to problems which are only partially solved by existing methods and
information.
3. Improve existing techniques and develop new instruments or products.

Under 2 & 3

a. To improve educational practices for raising the quality of school products


b. To promote health and prolong life
c. To provide man with more of his basic needs – more and better food, clothing,
shelter, etc.
d. To make work, travel, and communication faster, easier, and more comfortable.
4. To discover previously unrecognized substances or elements.
5. Discover pathways of action of known substances and elements.
6. To order related, valid generalizations into systematized science.
7. To provide basis for decision-making and business, industry, education, government, and in
other undertakings.
8. To satisfy the researcher’s curiosity.
9. To find answers to queries by means of scientific methods.
10. To acquire a better and deeper understanding about one phenomenon that can be known and
understood better by research.
11. To expand or verify existing knowledge.

VALUES OF RESEARCH TO MAN


1. Research improves the quality of life.

Research has led man to search for ways in improving his life. It has led him to focus on
improving processes and which he must live.

2. Research improves instruction.

Studies on the different strategies and approaches in the different subject areas and
year levels have been conducted to determine which strategy or approach is best and effective
in teaching.

3. Research satisfies man’s need.

Modern facilities are the products of research.

4. Research reduces the burden of work.

Modern devices are some of the products of research which lessen man’s burden of
work.

5. Research has deep-seated psychological aspects.


It guides man in his effort to obtain good results which contributes to his satisfaction
and self-fulfillment.
6. Research improves the nation’s economy

CHARACTERISTICS OF RESEARCH
1. Research is systematic.
2. Research is controlled.
3. Research is empirical.
4. Research is analytical.
5. Research is objective, unbiased, and logical.
6. Research employs hypothesis.
7. Research employs quantitative or statistical methods.
8. Research is original work.
9. Research is done by an expert.
10. Research is accurate investigation, observation and description.
11. Research is patient and unhurried activity.
12. Research requires an effort-making capacity.
13. Research requires courage.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN RESEARCH AND PROBLEM SOLVING


Research
1. There may not be a problem, only interest in answering a question or a query.
2. A research problem is more rigorous and broader in scope.
3. The research problem is not necessarily defined specifically.
4. All research is intended to solve some kind of problem, but this is not the primary aim.
5. Research is conducted not primarily to solve a problem but to make a contribution to general
knowledge.
6. Research is concerned with broad problems, recurrent phenomena, and application through
generalization. It is concerned with defining and outlining the properties of phenomena, with
forecasting future occurrences so that they may be predicted and controlled, and with
describing the relationship of phenomena by explaining how and why certain events occurred or
could have occurred. In this process, research also generates more problems to explore.

Problem Solving
1. There is always a problem to be solved.
2. A problem to be solved is less rigorous and less broad.
3. The problem to be solved has to be defined specifically and identified definitely.
4. Problem solving does not always involve research.
5. Problem solving is always intended to solve a problem.
6. Problem solving is concerned with a specific problem, and once the problem is solved, this is the
end of it.

KINDS AND CLASSIFICATIONS OF RESEARCH


1. According to purpose
a. Predictive Research has the purpose of determining the future operation of the variables
under investigation with the aim of controlling or redirecting such for the better.
b. Directive Research determines what should be done based on the findings.
c. Illuminative Research is concerned in the interaction of the components of the variable
being investigated.
2. According to goal
a. Basic or pure research is done for the development of theories and principles. It is
conducted for the intellectual pleasure of learning.
b. Applied is the application of the results of pure research. This is testing efficacy of
theories and principles.
3. According to the levels of investigation
a. In Exploratory Research, the researcher studies the variables pertinent to specific
situation.
b. In Descriptive Research, the researcher studies the relationship of the variables.
c. In Experimental Research, the experimenter studies the effects of the variables on each
other.
4. According to the type of analysis
a. In the Analytic Approach, the researcher attempts to identify and isolated the
components of the research situation.
b. The Holistic Approach begins with the total situation, focusing attention on the system
first and then on its internal relationships.
5. According to choice of answers to problems
a. In Evaluation Research, all possible courses of action are specified and identified and the
researcher tries to find the most advantageous.
b. In Developmental Research, the focus is on finding or developing a more suitable
instrument or process than has been available.
6. According to statistical content
a. Quantitative or Statistical Research is one in which interferential statistics are utilized to
determine the results of the study.
b. Non-Quantitative Research is one in which the use of quantity or statistics is practically
not included.
7. According to time element
a. Historical Research describes what was.
b. Descriptive Research describes what is.
c. Experimental Research describes what will be.

HINDRANCES TO SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY


1. Tradition
This is accepting that customs, beliefs, practices, and superstitions are true and parts of the daily
lives of men.
2. Authority
This is accepting without question, an opinion about a certain subject which is given by someone
who is considered an authority.
3. Inaccurate Observation
This is describing wrongly what is actually observed.
4. Overgeneralization
This is establishing a pattern out of a few instances.
5. Selective Observation
This is persisting to believe an observed pattern from an overgeneralization and ignoring other
pertinent matters.
6. Made-up Information
This is making up information to explain away confusion.
7. Illogical Reasoning
This is attributing something to another without any logical basis.
8. Ego-involvement in understanding
This is giving explanation when one finds himself in an unfavorable situation.
9. Mystification
This is attributing to supernatural power, the phenomena that cannot be understood.
10. To err is human
This is an attitude that admits the fallibility of man.
11. Dogmatism
This is an unwritten policy of certain institutions and governments prohibiting the study of
topics that are believed to run counter to the established doctrines of such institutions or
governments.

SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF RESEARCH


One of the characteristics of a good research is that, it is systematic. It follows the scientific method of
research which includes the following sequential status:

1. Determining the problem;


2. Forming a hypothesis;
3. Doing the library research;
4. Designing the study;
5. Developing the instruments for collecting data;
6. Collecting the data;
7. Analyzing the data;
8. Determining implications and conclusions from the findings;
9. Making recommendations for further research.

*Adviser

WRITING THE PROPOSAL


After the idea comes the proposal.

The proposal is basically a way to demonstrate to faculty members that you have identified a
question or a problem that is workable and that you can provide yourself with a systematic guide for
proceeding with the project.

You may not embark on collecting data for a project until your adviser has approved your
proposal. Many students have struggled with inappropriate date because they didn’t take the time to
think through what their real questions were.

If the proposal is not coherent, data should not be collected. You cannot say, “let me collect my
data now and I’ll decide later what to do with it.” Until your proposal is formulated, it’s difficult to know
exactly what the data is needed or what may be the best way to go about getting it. It would be
frustrating indeed to conduct your research before writing the proposal and have faculty then say that
you should broaden or narrow your subject. Finally, you should have agreement with your adviser on
your data collection tolls before the proposal is completed as this may be one of the crucial elements of
a successful thesis.

Your adviser will provide feedback on your methodology, your approach to the literature review,
and etc. based on your proposal. A clear, well-stated, organized proposal indicates readiness to move-on
to the next step. The more information you can include in your proposal, the further along you will be
when it comes time to write your thesis. Every word in your proposal is a word in your thesis if your
proposal is well thought through. Your proposal serves as a map, providing direction for completing your
thesis; thus, it behoove you to think more deeply about the information you can provide in your
proposal.

Don’t forget that your proposal should be written in the future tense; it is a plan of what you
hope to accomplish. “I plan to do this…” or “I will do…” in your thesis, you change these words to past
tense, “I did this…” and expand on them.

*FINAL PAPER
The written product in its final form must be approved by a co

THE RESEARCH PROBLEM


A problem is:

“any significant, perplexing and challenging situation, real or artificial, the solution of which
requires reflective thinking.”

“a perplexing situation after it has been translated into a question or series of questions that
help determine the direction of subsequent inquiry.”

Elements of a Research Problem


1. Aim or purpose of the problem for investigations. Why?
2. The subject matter or topic to be investigated. What?
3. The place or locale where the research is to be conducted. Where?
4. The period of time of the study during which the data are to be gathered. When?
5. Population or universe from who the data are to be collected. Who?

Guidelines in The Selection Of A Research Problem or Topic

1. The research problem or topic must be chosen by the researcher himself.


2. It must be within the interest of the researcher.
3. It must be within the specialization of the researcher.
4. It must be within the competence of the researcher to tackle.
5. It must be within the ability of the researcher to finance; otherwise he must be able to find
funding for his research.
6. It is researchable and manageable, that its,
a. Data are available and accessible.
b. The data must meet the standards of accuracy, objectivity, and verifiability.
c. Answers to the specific questions can be found.
d. The hypotheses formulated are testable, that is they can be accepted or rejected.
e. Equipment or instruments for research are available and can give valid and reliable
results.
7. It can be completed within a reasonable period of time unless it is a longitudinal research which
takes a long time for its completion.
8. It is significant, important, and relevant to the present time and situations, timely, and of
current interest.
9. The results are practical and can be implemented.
10. It requires original, critical, and reflective thinking to solve it.
11. It can be delimited to suit the resources of the researcher, but big or large enough to be able to
give significant, valid and reliable results and generalizations.
12. It must contribute to the national development goals for the improvement of the quality of
human life.
13. It must contribute to the fund of human knowledge.
14. It must show or pave the way for the solution of the problem or problems intended to be
solved.
15. It must not undermine the moral and spiritual values of the people.
16. It must not advocate any change in the present order of things by means of violence but by
peaceful means.
17. There must be a return of some kind to the researcher, either one or all of the following, if the
research is completed:
a. Monetary, either increase in salary or publication of the results in which there is some
kind of royalty.
b. Advancement of position or promotion.
c. Improved specialization, competence, and skill in professional work especially if the
research subject is related to the profession.
d. Enhanced prestige and reputation.
e. Satisfaction of intellectual curiosity and interest, and being able to discover truth.
18. There must be a consideration of the hazard involved either physical, social, or legal.

The Title
Guidelines in writing the title:

1. Generally, the title is formulated before the start of the research work. It may be revised and
refined later if there is a need.
2. The title must contain the subject matter of the study, and locale of the study, the population
involved, and the period when the data were gathered.
3. It must be broad enough to include all aspects of the subject matter studied or to be studied.
Hence, the title indicated what is expected to be found inside the thesis report.
4. It must be as brief and concise as possible.
5. Avoid using the terms “an Analysis of”, “A Study of”, “an investigation of”, and the like. All these
things are understood to have been done or to be done when a research is conducted.
6. If the title contains more than one line, it must be written like an inverted pyramid, all words in
capital letters.

Statement of the Problem


Guidelines in formulating the general problem and the specific sub-problems or specific questions:

1. The general statement of the problem and the specific sub-problems or questions should be
formulated first before conducting the research.
2. It is customary to state specific sub-problems in the interrogative form. Hence, sub-problems
are called specific questions.
3. Each specific question must be clear and unequivocal, that it, it has only one meaning.
4. Each specific question is researchable apart from the other questions, that is, answers to each
specific question can be found even without considering the other questions.

Assumptions
An assumption is a self-evident truth which is based upon a known fact or phenomenon.

Guidelines in the use of basic assumptions:

1. You cannot assume the value of your study.


2. You cannot assume the reliability of the instruments you propose to use in your research.
3. You cannot assume the validity of the basic data.
4. You cannot assume that your population is typical.
5. An assumption is not tested, neither it is defended nor argued.
6. Each specific question must be based upon known facts and phenomena.
7. Answers to each specific question must contribute to the development of the whole research
problem or topic.
8. Summing up the answers to all specific questions will give a complete development of the entire
study.
9. The number of specific questions should be enough to cover the development of the whole
research problem or study.
10. Generally, there should be a general statement of the problem end then this should be broken
up into as many problems

Hypothesis
A hypothesis is a tentative conclusion or answer to a specific question raised at the beginning in
the investigation.

It is an educated guess about the answer to a specific question.

Forms of Hypothesis

1. Operational form- stated in the affirmative


2. Null form- stated in the negative

Purposes, functions and importance of hypotheses or specific questions:

1. They help the researcher in designing his study: what methods, research instruments, sampling
design, and statistical treatments to use, what data to gather, etc.
2. They serve as bases for determining assumptions.
3. They serve as bases for determining the relevance of the data.
4. They serve as bases for the explanation or discussion about the data gathered.
5. They help or guide the researcher in consolidating his findings and in formulating the
conclusions.
Related Literature and Studies
Related literature is composed of discussion of facts and principles with which the present study is
associated. Related studies, on the other hand, are studies, or inquiries, or investigations already
conducted to which the present proposed study is related or has some bearing or similarity. They are
usually unpublished materials such as manuscripts, thesis and dissertations.

Importance, Purposes, and Functions


A survey or review of related literature and study is very important because such reviewed literature
and studies serve as a foundation of proposed study. This is because related literature and studies guide
the researcher in the following ways:

1. The help or guide the researcher in searching for or selecting a better research problem or topic.
By viewing related materials, a replication of a similar problem may be found better than the
problem already chosen. Replication is the study of a research problem already conducted but in
another place.
2. They help the investigator understand his topic for research better. Reviewing related literature
and studies could clarify vague points about his problem.
3. They ensure that there is no complete duplication of other studies. There is duplication if an
investigation already made is conducted again in the same manner.
4. They help and guide the researcher in locating more sources of related information. This is
because the bibliography of a study already conducted indicates references about similar
studies.
5. They help guide the researcher in making his research design especially in:
a. The formulation of specific questions to be researched on;
b. The formulation of assumptions and hypotheses if there should be any;
c. The formulation of conceptual framework;
d. The selection and application of the methods of research;
e. The selection and application of sampling techniques;
f. The selection and/or preparation and validation of research instruments of gathering
data;
g. The selection and application of statistical procedures;
h. The analysis, organization, presentation, and interpretation of data;
i. The making of the summary of implications for the whole study; and
j. The formulation of the summary of findings, conclusions, and recommendations.
6. They help and guide the researcher in making comparison between his findings with the findings
of other researchers on similar studies with the end in view of formulating generalizations or
principles which are the contributions of the study to the fund of knowledge.

Characteristics of Related Literature and Studies


1. The surveyed materials must be as recent as possible.
This is important because of the rapid social, economic, scientific, and technological changes.
Findings several years ago may be of little value today because of the fast changing life style of the
people.

There are exemptions, however. Treatises that deal on universals and things of more or less
permanent nature may still be good today. There are mathematical laws and formulas and statistical
procedures that had been formulated long, long time ago which are being used today with very, very
little improvement. This is also true with natural and physical laws. Books on these, though written a
long time ago, are still being cited today.

2. Materials reviewed must be objective and unbiased.

Some materials are extremely or subtly one-sided, either political or religious, etc. Comparison
with these materials cannot be made logically and validly. Distorted generalizations may result.

Some materials are extremely or subtly one-sided, either political or religious biased. These
should be avoided.

3. Materials surveyed must be relevant to the study.

Only materials that have some bearing or similarity to the research problem at hand should be
reviewed.

Only materials that have some bearing or similarity to the research problem should be cited.

4. Materials surveyed must have been upon genuinely original and true facts or data to make them
valid and reliable.

These ate cases where fictitious data ate supplied just to complete a research report. Of course, this
kind of deception is hard to detect and prove. Thus, this is real problem to honest researchers.

5. Reviewed materials must not be too few or too many.

They must only be sufficient enough to give insight into the research problem or to indicate the
nature of the present investigation. The number may also depend upon the availability of related
materials. Sometimes there is a paucity of such materials. Ordinarily, from ten to fifteen related
materials are needed for a master’s thesis and from fifteen to twenty-five for a doctoral dissertation
depending upon their availability, as well as their depth and length of discussions. For an undergraduate
thesis, from five to ten may do.

They must only be sufficient enough to give insight into the research problem or to indicate the
nature of the present investigation. The number may also depend upon the availability of related
materials. This is especially a problem with pioneering studies. Naturally, there are few related materials
or even none at all.

Sources of Related Literature and Studies


1. Books, encyclopedias, almanacs, and other similar references.
2. Articles published in professional journals, magazines, periodicals, newspapers, and other
publications.
3. Manuscripts, monographs, memoirs, speeches, letters, and diaries.
4. Unpublished theses and dissertations.
5. The constitution, and laws and statues of the land.
6. Bulletins, circulars, and orders emanating from government offices and departments, especially
from the Office of the President of the Philippines and the Department of Education, Culture
and Sports.
7. Records of schools, public and private, especially reports of their activities.
8. Reports from seminars, educational or otherwise.
9. Official reports of all kinds, educational, social, economic, scientific, technological, political, etc.
from the government and other entities.

Where to Locate the Sources of Related Literature and Studies


1. Libraries, government, school, or private libraries.
2. Government and private offices.
3. The National Library.
4. The Library of the Department of Education, Culture and Sports.

Collection of Data
“Data are collection of numbers, quantities, facts, or records, used as basis for drawing
conclusions or making inferences.”

“Data are what research is searching for and which are subjected to analysis, statistical
procedures, and interpretation so that inferences, principles, or generalizations are drawn. Data also
reveal unsatisfactory discovered facts and principles to remedy unsatisfactory conditions become
the basis of human progress and the improvement of the quality of human life.”

Tips in Working with Data


Students often ask how much data to gather and if there is such a thing as “too much”. Indeed
there is such a thing as too much, but you need to gather enough information to be able to answer
your question. On the other hand, maybe your question is too broad to lend itself to easy
manageability. Discuss this with your adviser. Please be aware when you send out questionnaires
that the return rate is often no more than 20 percent. You might want to plan accordingly.

Before you begin to gather your data you will need to secure the permission of the people you
plan to observe, interview, or survey. You also need to be mindful that you don’t abuse the privilege
of utilizing people as your subjects. As the data begin to come in, you might be overwhelmed by
them. The best thing to do is to organize everything to help you think about it and when we say
“organize” at this point we mean play with it: arrange it demographically, rearrange it
mathematically, list it numerically, and think about what you have before you.
Classification of Data According to Source
1. Primary data. Primary data are those gathered from primary sources. The primary sources are as
follows:
a. Individual persons
b. Organized groups or organizations such as associations, fraternities, schools, business
firms, the church, army, navy, air force, government, law making bodies, family, tribe,
etc.
c. Established practices such as marriage, religious rites, legal system, economic system,
democracy, system of morals, etc.
d. Documents in their original forms such as the Constitution, laws, orders, proclamations,
treaties, contracts, census and all kinds of original records, letters, diaries, etc.
e. Living organisms such as animals, fowls, and lower forms of living organisms.
f. Man-made material things such as buildings, machines, weapons, artifacts, appliances,
roads, bridges, dams, radio, television, electricity, etc.
g. Natural objects and phenomena such as rain, wind, typhoon, water, earthquake,
mountain, snow, etc.

2. Secondary data. Secondary data are those gathered from secondary sources. The secondary
sources are as follows:
a. Books including dictionaries, encyclopedias, almanacs, etc.
b. Articles published in professional journals, magazines, newspapers, and other
publications.
c. Unpublished master’s theses and dissertations, and other studies.
d. Monographs, manuscripts, etc.
e. All other second-hand sources. Secondary data are verbal (written) data.

Research Instruments or Tools


Instruments or tools for gathering data in research are of two categories or kinds:

1. Mechanical devices
a. Microscopes
b. Thermometers
c. Cameras, etc.
2. Clerical tools
a. Questionnaire
b. Interview
c. Empirical observation
d. Registration
e. Testing
f. Experimental
g. Library

Characteristics of a Good Research Instrument


1. The instrument must be valid and reliable.
2. It must be based upon the conceptual framework or what the researcher wants to find out.
3. It must gather data that would test the hypotheses or answer the questions under investigation.
4. It should be free from all kinds of bias.
5. It must contain clear and definite directions to accomplish it.
6. If the instrument is a mechanical device, it must be of the best or latest model.
7. It must be accompanied by a good cover letter.
8. It must be accompanied, if possible, by a letter of recommendation from a sponsor.

Questionnaire
“A questionnaire is a list of plan, written questions related to a particular topic, with space
provided for indicating the response to each question, intended for submission to a number of persons
for reply.”

“A questionnaire is simply a set of questions which, when answered properly by a required


number of properly selected respondents, will supply the necessary information to complete a research
study.”

Advantages of Questionnaire
1. The questionnaire is easy to construct.
2. Distribution is easy and inexpensive.
3. Responses are easy to tabulate.
4. The respondent’s replies are free.
5. Confidential information may be given freely.
6. The respondent can fill out the questionnaire at will.
7. The respondent can give more accurate replies.

Disadvantages of a Questionnaire
1. The questionnaire cannot be used with those who cannot read nor write well.
2. If many respondents may not return the filled up copies of the questionnaire purposely or
forgetfully, considerable follow-ups are necessary.
3. If a respondent gives wrong information, it cannot be corrected at once.
4. If a respondent may leave some or many questions unanswered because nobody urges him to
do so or he may not understand the significance of the information he gives.
5. Some questions may be vague and so the respondent may not answer them or if he does, he
may give wring replies.
6. The number of choices may be limited so the respondent may be forced to select responses that
are not his actual choices.

Interview
“The interview is one of the major techniques in gathering data or information. It is defined as a
purposeful face to face relationship between two persons, one of whom called the interviewer who asks
the questions to gather information and the other called interviewee or respondent who supplies the
information asked for.”

Purpose and Uses of the Interview


1. The researcher may approach an interview knowledgeable people to enable him to gain insight
to his problem, the variables his going to use, the formulation of his specific questions and
hypothesis, the statistical methods he is going to utilize, etc.
2. The researcher may also interview knowledgeable people about the proper construction and
validation of a questionnaire, or who can make any contribution of the enrichment of the study.
3. In case when the subject of the study is a person with some signs of abnormality, the
interviewer may wish to gain information from the overt, oral, physical, and emotional reactions
of the subject towards certain questions to be used for a possible remedy of the abnormality.
4. The researcher may also use the interview as a principal tool in gathering data for a study or just
to supplement data collected by other techniques.

Advantages of the Interview


1. It yields a more complete and valid information.
2. The interview can be used with all kinds of people, whether literate or illiterate, rich or poor,
laborer or capitalist, etc.
3. The interviewer can always clarify points or questions which are vague to the interviewee.
4. Only the interviewee respondents can make replies to questions of the interviewer.
5. The interviewer can observe the nonverbal reactions or behavior or the respondent which may
reveal rich pertinent information.
6. Greater complex questions can be asked with the interviewer around to explain things greater
complex data which are vital to the study can be acquired.
7. There is flexibility. The interviewer can effect a modification of the interview or any question if
there is a need so that the desired information can be gathered.

Disadvantages of the Interview


1. Sometimes, selected respondents are hard to contact or cannot be contacted at all because of
the distance of their place or due to some other reasons.
2. It is expensive if many interviewers have to be employed to meet a target date.
3. The responses may be inaccurate if the interviewee has no time to consult his records especially
if the needed data involve numerals.
4. It is time consuming if only the researcher conducts the interview.
5. It is inconvenient for both the interviewer and the interviewee in terms and sometimes in terms
of place.
6. There is no anonymity and so the interviewee may withhold some confidential but vital
information, especially if the information may possibly invite trouble
7. There is a tendency of interviewers to introduce bias because they may influence their
interviewees to give replies that would favor their researcher – employees.
8. If the interviewer modifies a question, the standardized construction of the question is lessened
and, categorization and tabulation become a problem.

What to Avoid in Interviews

1. Avoid exerting undue pressure upon a respondent to make him participate in an interview.
2. Avoid disagreeing or arguing with or contradicting the respondent.
3. Avoid unduly pressing the respondent to make a reply.
4. Avoid using language well over and above the ability of the respondent to understand.
5. Avoid talking about irrelevant matters.
6. Avoid placing the interviewee in embarrassing situations.
7. Avoid appearing too high above the respondent in education, knowledge, and social status.
8. Avoid interviewing the respondent in an unholy hour.

Observation
“Observation, as a means of gathering information for research, may be defined as perceiving
data through the senses: sight, hearing, taste, touch and smell. The sense of sight is the most important
and the most used among the senses. Observation is the most direct way and the most widely used in
studying behavior.”

Purposes of Observation
1. To enable the researcher to gather empirical data which are difficult to obtain by other means.
2. To enable the researcher to gather sufficient data to supplement or verify information gathered
by other means.
3. To enable the researcher to gather information or data needed to describe the aspect of a
variable being studied which cannot be described accurately without observation.
4. To enable the researcher to gather directly primary data or first-hand information of his study
for more accurate description and interpretation.
5. To enable the researcher to gather data from the laboratory or elsewhere through the
experimentation.

Advantages of Observation
1. The investigator is able to gather directly, first-hand information about the subject of his study.
2. The researcher can observe his subjects for as long as he needs the time and as many as he can
for greater accuracy and validity in description and interpretation.
3. Observation is a superior technique of collecting information form non-verbal behavior and
inanimate objects.
4. The subjects of inquiry can be observed in their natural settings and this will exclude artificiality
in description and interpretation.

Disadvantages of Observation
1. In observation in natural settings, there is a lack of control upon extraneous variables which may
adversely affect the validity of attributing certain causes upon certain affects.
2. There is a smaller size of sample if the universe covers a very wide area and the researcher
cannot afford to observe a substantial area.
3. It is very difficult to quantify data for standard tabulation especially in unstructured observation
and when recording is done in essay form.
4. Sometimes it is hard to gain entry into the area to be observed.
5. Lack of anonymity makes the observed subjects withdraw or keep secret some vital but sensitive
and controversial information.

Sampling
“Sampling may be defined as measuring a small portion of something and the making a general
statement about the whole thing.”

Why We Need Sampling


1. Sampling makes possible the study of a large heterogeneous population.
2. Sampling is for economy.
3. Sampling is for speed.
4. Sampling is for accuracy.
5. Sampling saves the sources of data from being all consumed.

Disadvantages of Sampling
1. If sampling is biased, or not representative, or too small, the conclusion may not be valid and
reliable.
2. In research, the respondents to a study must have a common characteristic which is the basis of
the study.
3. If the population is very large and there are many sections and subsections, the sampling
procedure becomes very complicated.
4. If the researcher does not possess the necessary skill and technical know-how in sampling
procedure, the sampling may become biased and unrepresentative.

TIPS IN RESEARCH WRITING

Manage Your Time


1. Use a timetable and checklist when preparing for your thesis.
2. Do not procrastinate!
3. Utilize available fragments of time.
4. Try to have a regular workplace and time.
5. Do not try to fight very distraction.
6. Discipline yourself.
Qualities of a Good Topic
1. The topic will enable you to fulfill the requirement.
2. The topic interests you enough to work on it.
3. The topic will teach you something.
4. The topic is of manageable scope.
5. You can bring something to the topic.
6. Enough information on the topic is available to you.
7. The topic lets you demonstrate all your abilities that is a thesis is meant to show.

Topics to Avoid
1. Do not choose a topic for which a single source will provide all the information you need.
2. Do not choose a topic on which you do not plan to do all the work yourself.
3. Do not choose a topic that is too broad for a research paper.
4. Do not choose a topic about which your conclusion will be irrelevant.
5. Do not start work on any topic unless you think it will hold your interest long enough to
complete the thesis.
6. Be wary of choosing a topic so neutral that you cannot express an attitude towards it.
7. Do not pursue a topic that seems to go nowhere for you.

Choosing a Topic
1. Expand a familiar area
2. Look to an area new to you
3. Try a textbook
4. Work from your strengths
5. Became a browser in the library
6. Try brainstorming
7. Explore computer links

How not to Plagiarize


1. Use quotation marks around all words and phrases from any research source, and also cite the
source in the txt of your paper.
2. Credit the source of any ideas.
3. Be sure every source document in your paper is also in “References”.
4. Give adequate introduction or otherwise clearly delineate borrowed words and ideas.

Outline
An outline is an orderly plan, in writing, showing the division of ideas and their arrangement in
relation to one another.

Importance
 Keeps ideas firmly in mind, even if writing the paper takes a long time.
 Lets you rearrange ideas and try out new arrangements without difficulty.
 Shows visually how parts and transitions fit together.
 Exposes strengths and weaknesses of the research paper in time to make adjustments before
(or even during) writing.

Content of Outlines
1. Every word in the outline should say something about the content of your paper.
2. The information for each subheading must be directly related to, and subordinate to, the
heading under which it appears.
3. Make relationships clear by using the same kind of section numbers for ideas of equivalent
importance.
4. Only principal points appear in an outline.

Writing Style
As in any good piece of writing, you should vary sentence structures and sentence length.
Insofar as possible, write in the active voice rather than the passive voice to help readers keep moving
along.

Especially in research paper, you should write as specifically as possible, and certainly avoid
substantiated generalizations. Also, beware of catchall words.

Consistency in the way you write is particularly important in a research paper.

1. Usually, write in the third person.


2. Write straightforwardly.
3. Always refer to individuals by their full name or by surname alone.
4. Guard against wording that shows bias regarding a person’s age, gender, race, political attitude,
religious beliefs, sexual orientation, or national origin.

Good Openings
1. Clarify the subject you are going to write about.
2. State your position on the subject you have chosen.
3. Relate your subject to something current or well known.
4. Challenge some generally held assumption about your topic.
5. Show something paradoxical about your subject or about the material you will present.
6. Use a brief quotation if you can find one that is applicable or provocative or that makes a
general statement about your subject.
7. State some striking facts or statistics you discovered about your topic.
8. Place your subject in time by giving some historical or chronological information.
9. Give a brief description or background resume of some person or event if significance to your
topic.
Bad Openings
1. Do not repeat the title.
2. Do not tell what you propose to do in the paper.
3. Do not feel compelled to repeat the thesis statement completely in the opening of the paper.
4. Do not ask a question.
5. Do not give a dictionary definition.
6. Do not write cute or folksy opening.

Good Endings
1. If you have written an argumentative or persuasive paper, remind the audience of what you
want them to do or think in response to your presentation.
2. Use a brief quotation that summarizes the ideas or attitude you have expressed throughout the
paper.
3. Make some statement about your thesis instead or merely repeating it.
4. Return to some initial generalization and show how you have proved, disproved, or enlarged on
it.
5. Link what you have written either to something known or to what seems a future possibility.
6. State a conclusion you have reached about your subject.

Bad Endings
1. Do not bring up a new idea.
2. Do not stop abruptly or simply trail off.
3. Do not ask question.
4. Do not make any statement or suggestion that needs extensive clarification.
5. Do not fumble.
6. Do not tell explicitly what you have done in the paper.
7. Do not make a change in your style.

Characteristics of a Good Title


A title that gives readers information about the contents of the thesis is preferable to one that
is vague or general. Titles don’t need to be stuffy or dull, but they should generally give readers some
idea at the outset of what the research is all about.

Usually, choose a title that is a phrase rather than a complete sentence.

Kinds of Titles to Avoid


1. Cite or coy titles seldom work well.
2. Do not use a question in place of a title.
3. Ever use a thesis statement as a title. Avoid long, detailed title that gives too much information.