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# Pressure Gradient

production-technology.org/pressure-gradient/

## Pressure and depth:

“Pressure and Depth” is the FUNDAMENTAL relationship in the oil industry. Your
understanding of the concept is crucial. The easiest way to calculate pressure from
depth is to use the pressure gradient of the given fluid.

Pressure gradients for incompressible fluids have units of pressure/depth. For example,
psi/ft, bar/m.

Pressure gradient seems difficult, but it is simply using the density of the fluid and
converting units:

## The density of pure water is 1000 kg/m3. To convert to gradient:

1 kg = 2.2 pounds
1 m = 39.37 inches
1 m = 3.28 feet

remember it.

## Calculating Pressure Gradient:

Most of the time you will not be given a fluid gradient or an average specific gravity, you
will need to calculate it.

## Average Gradient = 0.433 x Average SG

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If you are given the API gravity of oil instead of the SG, then use this formula:

Example:

WC = 70%

Water SG = 1.04

## Oil density = 141.5 / (131.5 + 36) = 0.845

Average density = 1.04×0.7 + 0.845×0.3 = 0.9815
Average Gradient = 0.433 x 0.9815 = 0.425 psi/ft.

Pressure-Depth Plot:
To find a pressure at a given depth, simply multiply the VERTICAL depth by the given
fluid gradient.

## We can draw this on a graph that we call thepressure-depth plot.

Obviously, denser fluids, and therefore higher fluid gradients result in higher pressure.

For example, if my depth is 2000 ft. and my gradient is 0.425 psi/ft, then my pressure is
2000 ft. x 0.425psi/ft = 850 psi.

## If the pressure at surface isn’t zero, then

the whole line shifts over according to the
surface pressure.

Example:

## From the previous example, a gradient of

0.425 psi/ft at 2000 ft. resulted in 850 psi
pressure.

## If my surface pressure was 150 psi, then

the pressure at depth would increase by
the same amount:

## Pressure @ depth = 850 psi + 150 psi =

1000 psi.

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If the fluid doesn’t reach the surface, then there is some ‘fluid level’, or depth, where the
pressure is zero and then the pressure increases according to the gradient.

Example:

Our total depth (2000 ft.) and gradient (0.425 psi/ft.) are the same as before. The fluid
level, however, is below the surface (zero) at 500 ft. What is the pressure at 2000 ft.?

## Calculating the Fluid Height or Column:

Similarly, if we know the pressure and the gradient, we can calculate the equivalent fluid
column resulting from that pressure.

## Fluid Height = Pressure / Gradient

Here the effect of increasing gradient is reversed, and denser fluid results in a shorter
fluid column for a given pressure.

Example:

## Well Inflow Performance

Introduction to IPR and VLP
Vogel’s inflow performance relationship
The Composite Inflow Performance Relationship
Pressure drawdown & Skin Factor
Multiphase flow regimes
Multiphase Flow Properties & Pressure Gradient Calculation
Multiphase flow correlations

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