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Duhok polytechnic

university
Faculty of Petrochemical Engineering
School Petroleum Production technology

Laboratory of petroleum production


EXPERIMENT NUMBERTWO
Smoke point

Instructor: Mr. Karwan & Mr. Muhammad


Author Name: Muhammad Akram
Experiment Contacted on: 13/Dec/2017
Report Submitted on: 20/Dec /2013
Group: A
The aim of this experiment:

The maximum flame height in millimeters at


which kerosene will burn without smoking,
tested under standard conditions; used as a
measure of the burning cleanliness of jet fuel
and kerosene.[ref 1]
Introduction:
The principle of the method specified is
burning the sample in an enclosed wick-fed
lamp that is calibrated daily against pure
hydrocarbon blends of known smoke point and
determining the maximum height of flame that
can be achieved with the test fuel without
smoking to the nearest 0, 5 mm. The smoke
point is related to the hydrocarbon type
composition of such fuels.
Generally the more aromatic the fuel the
smokier the flame. A high smoke point
indicates a fuel of low smoke producing
tendency.
Theory:
Although a low smoke point is undesirable in that it may
not give a satisfactory range of smokeless performance,
a high smoke point alone is no guarantee that a
kerosene has generally satisfactory burning
characteristics.
The smoke point test adequately reflects
the essential feature of hydrocarbon type composition
in relation to burning characteristics, as already
indicated, and consequently no analysis for composition
is necessary in the normal evaluation of burning oils.
Kerosene can vary widely in its burning quality as
measured by carbon deposition, smoke formation, and
flame radiation.
This is a function of hydrocarbon composition—paraffin
have excellent burning properties, in contrast to those
of the aromatics (particularly the polynuclear aromatic
hydrocarbons). As a control measure the smoke point
test, gives the maximum smokeless flame height in
millimeters at which the fuel will burn in a wick-fed lamp
under prescribed conditions. The combustion
performance of wide-cut fuels correlates well with
smoke point when a fuel volatility factor is included,
because carbon formation tends to increase with boiling
point. However, the smoke point is not always a reliable
criterion of combustion performance and should be
used in conjunction with other properties. Various
alternative laboratory test methods have previously
been specified
such as the lamp burning test.
EQUIPMENT and COMPONENTS USED:
1. Smoke point apparatus
2. Kerosene

The fuel sample is burned in the Smoke Point Lamp,


and the maximum flame height obtainable without
smoking is measured.
Smoke point apparatus consists of

• Brass lamp body with chimney;

• 0 - 50mm scale markings;

• Brass plated door with glass window;

• Candle socket;

• Brass candle with wick tube and air vent.

• Iron base

The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as


standard. No other units of measurement are included
in this standard.
The procedure:
Soak a piece of extracted and dried wick, not less than 125 mm
long, in the sample and place it in the wick tube of the candle.
Introduce as near to 20 mL of the prepared sample as available,
but
not less than 10 mL, at room temperature, into the clean, dry
candle. Place the wick tube in the candle and screw home. Take
care that the candle air vent is free from fuel. If a wick-trimmer
assembly is not being used, cut the wick horizontally and trim it
free of frayed ends so that 6 mm projects from the end of the
candle. An alternative method of preparing a wick free of twists
and frayed ends utilizes a wick-trimmer assembly. The wick
trimmer holder is inserted over the top of the wick tube and
the long-nosed triceps are inserted through the tube and
holder. Light the candle and adjust the wick so that the flame is
approximately 10 mm high and allow the lamp to burn for 5
min. Raise the candle until a smoky tail appears, then
lower the candle slowly through the following stages of flame
appearance, To eliminate errors due to parallax, the eye of the
observer shall be slightly to one side of the centerline, so that a
reflected image of the flame is seen on the scale on one side of
the central vertical white line.
Calculation:

20 ml of kerosene inside the tube

5 minute waiting to wet the wick

The height of the flame for


kerosene=30mm
Discussion:
1-What is significant of the test?

This test method provides an indication of the relative


smoke producing properties of kerosene.

2-what is the length of the wick?

125 mm.

3-How many observations are required?

About three to four observations are required to get


the precise reading of the scale.
Reference:
1: http://www.answers.com/topic/smoke-
point#ixzz2l1IpZIKl

2: http://www.astm.org/Standards/D1322.htm

3: Handbook of Petroleum Product Analysis, 2002,

JAMES G. SPEIGHT. 172