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Duhok polytechnic

university
Faculty of Petrochemical Engineering
School Mass Transfer

Laboratory of Mass Transfer


EXPERIMENT NUMBER
Decantation

Instructor: Mr. Shwan


Author Name: Muhammad Akram
Experiment Contacted on: 11/Dec/2017
Report Submitted on: 18/Dec /2013
Group: A
INTRODUCTION:

A process for the separation of mixtures,


carefully pouring a solution from a
container in order to leave the
precipitate (sediments) in the bottom of
the original container. Usually a small
amount of solution must be left in the
container, and care must be taken
to prevent a small amount of
precipitate from flowing with the
solution out of the container. In other
words, Decantation is a process by
which a liquid layer can be separated
from the sediments.
IFFERENCE BETWEEN FILTRATION AND
DECANTATION:

Filtration is the direct Decantation is pouring the


separation of the entire liquid away from a
solution through a filter, precipitated solid, keeping the
where the solid is trapped on solid in the original container.
the filter and the liquid
passes through.
WHEN IS IT USED?

Decantation is used when one is separating parts of a mixture


from another and when the particles or sediments
are too fine to be filtered from a liquid.

PRINCIPLES:

1) Decantation is the "pouring off" of a liquid from


a solid/liquid mixture. The mixture is allowed to settle, and the liquid
is removed while preventing the solid from escaping.

2) Decanting is an effective method because it is simply pouring off


the excess liquid from a product.
Apparatus balance:
 Bunsen burner and hose
 tongs
 evaporating dishes (2)
 watch glass

Procedure:

1. Mixture in the container is allowed to stand


for sometime.
2. The solid particles will settle down in time.
3. The upper layer of the liquid gets cleaner.
4. Separate the coarse particles of a solid from a liquid by pouring
the liquid to a new container by the process of decantation.
Advantages Disadvantages

a) It cannot be used to
a) Decantation is a quick separate a mixture of a liquid
method. and a light sold, such as chalk
in water. The particles of
chalk are suspended in the
b) It allows sediment to settle water. They are so light that
to the bottom of a container they do not sink down to the
over a period of time. It bottom for a long time.
cleans portions of a liquid
from above the sediment in a b) You won’t recover all of
container. the solution.
Discussion:
Most of the matter we encounter in everyday life consists of
mixtures of different substances. Mixtures are combinations of
two or more substances in which each substance retains its own
chemical identity and therefore its own properties. Whereas pure
substances have fixed compositions, the composition of mixtures
can vary. For example, a glass of sweetened tea may contain either
a little or a lot of sweetener. The substances making up a mixture
are called components. Mixtures such as cement, wood, rocks,
and soil do not have the same composition, properties, and
appearance throughout the mixture. Such mixtures are called
heterogeneous. Mixtures that are uniform in composition,
properties, and appearance throughout are called homogeneous.
Such mixtures include sugar water and air. Homogeneous
mixtures are also called solutions. Mixtures are characterized by
two fundamental properties:

• Each of the substances in the mixture retains its chemical


identity.
• Mixtures are separable into these components by physical
means.

If one of the substances in a mixture is preponderant-that is, if its


amount far exceeds the amounts of the other substances in the
mixture-then we usually call this mixture an impure substance
and speak of the other sub• stances in the mixture as impurities.