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The Harvard Author-Date Referencing System

Referencing, or citing, means acknowledging the sources of information and ideas you have used in an
assignment (e.g. essay or report). This is a standard practice at university and whenever you write an
assignment that requires you to find and use information, you are expected to reference the source of
the information in your writing. Sources could include books, journal or newspaper articles, pictures,
diagrams or items from the internet. The two most common types of referencing systems used are:
 author-date systems—such as the Harvard system, APA and MLA
 numeric systems—such as Chicago or Turabian, Vancouver and Footnote.

There are a number of variations of the Harvard system and this Guide presents one consistent version
which is based on Snooks & Co (eds.) 2002, Style manual for authors, editors and printers, 6th edn,
Wiley & Sons, Australia. The first part of the Guide outlines the main rules for referencing; the second
part contains frequently asked questions and the final part contains examples of a range of reference
types.

Why do we reference?
Academic assignments require wide reading so that the current thinking about a particular topic can be
identified. Ideas expressed by other people reinforce the arguments you present in your assignment.
The referencing in your assignment:
 shows the range of ideas and approaches that you have found and thought about
 gives your acknowledgement of where these ideas came from
 shows where your reader can locate the sources you have used
 avoids plagiarism. Plagiarism is presenting someone else’s ideas and/or the way they express
their ideas, as if they are your own. Plagiarism can be unintentional and appropriate
referencing helps writers to avoid this.

Citation management software


Citation management software such as RefWorks and EndNote enables you to establish your own
database of references, store and transfer them from the database to your own documents (e.g. an
assignment). There is further information about this software in the ‘Managing References’ link on the
Library’s homepage.

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How do you reference?
In-text reference
Every time you use someone else’s ideas or information an intext reference must be included (this is
sometimes called a citation). For example when you:
 paraphrase (express someone else’s idea in your own words)
 summarise (express someone else’s idea concisely in your own words)
 quote (express someone else’s idea in their exact words)
 copy (reproduce a diagram, table or any other graphic).

The in-text reference is shown each time you refer to an idea or information and should include:
 the author’s or editor’s family name (or organisation responsible). Do not include given
names or initials
 the year of publication
 page numbers if appropriate and where available.

There are two main ways to present an in-text reference.

1. In brackets, outside your sentence structure:

Many factors are known to affect the successful outcomes for students at university (Johnston
2003).
2. using the author’s name as part of your sentence structure, with the date in brackets:

Johnston (2003) claims that there are many factors that are known to affect the success of
students at university.

Page numbers are included when you:


 use a direct quote from an original source
 summarise an idea from a particular page
 copy tables or figures, or provide particular details like a date.

McLaine (2002, p. 16) stated that productivity was found to be affected by work related stress
in 69% of workers.

The reference list

Each citation must have a matching entry in the reference list. It must have the full bibliographic details
so that readers can find the source.

The reference list is not a bibliography. A bibliography lists everything you may have read, while a
reference list is limited to the in-text references in your assignment. A bibliography is not needed
unless specifically asked for by your lecturer.

The reference list is:


 titled ‘References’
 arranged alphabetically by author’s family name, or title if a source has no author
 a single list—books, journal articles and electronic sources are listed together and not arranged
in separate lists.

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Setting out items in a reference list

The main elements required for all references are the author, the date, the title and the publication
information.

The basic formats are shown in the examples below. These should be followed exactly, paying special
attention to details of capitalisation, punctuation, italics and wording.

Example of a book

The basic format required for books is:

Author’s family name, Initial(s) year, Title of book, Publisher, Place of publication.
Daly, J 2004, Nursing leadership, Elsevier, Sydney.

Component Explanation

Daly, J The author’s name, family name first, followed by a comma and an initial.

2004, Year of publication followed by a comma, no parentheses/brackets.

Nursing leadership, Title in italics, followed by a comma. Upper case used for first letter; lower case for
the rest.

Elsevier, Publisher followed by a comma.

Sydney. Place of publication. If more than one place is listed give only the first listed. If there
is another place of the same name or if the place is little known add the state or
country. Full stop at the end.

Example of an academic journal article

The basic format required for journal articles is:

Author’s family name, Initial(s) year, ‘Title of article’, Title of Journal, volume number, issue number,
page range.
Davis, L, Mohay, H & Edwards, H 2003, ‘Mothers' involvement in caring for their premature infants:
an historical overview’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 578–86.

Component Explanation

Davis, L, Mohay, H & Edwards, H Author’s family name followed by a comma, then initial(s) with no
punctuation after the initials. Ampersand (&) joins second or last
author— no comma after last author's initials.

2003, Year of publication followed by a comma, no brackets.

‘Mothers' involvement in caring for their Title of the article in single inverted commas, (capital for first word
premature infants: an historical only), followed by a comma.
overview’,

Journal of Advanced Nursing, Title of the journal capitalised and in italics, followed by a comma.

vol. 42, Volume number of the journal followed by a comma.

no. 6, Number of the issue followed by a comma.

pp. 578–86. Page numbers of the article, with an En dash between.

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Example of an electronic publication

The basic format required for electronic sources is:

Author’s family name, Initial(s) year date, Title of document or website, date viewed, <URL>.
Thomas, S 1997, Guide to personal efficiency, Adelaide University, viewed 6 January 2004,
<http://library.adelaide.edu.au/~sthomas/papers/perseff.html>.

Component Explanation

Thomas, S Author’s family name followed by a comma, then initial(s) with no


punctuation after the initials.

1997, Year of publication followed by a comma, no brackets.

Guide to personal efficiency, Title of the source in italics, followed by a comma.

Adelaide University, The document’s publisher, if known.

viewed 6 January 2004, Date the document was viewed with a comma after year.

<http://library.adelaide.edu.au/~sthomas The internet address (URL or Uniform Resource Locator) is enclosed in <
/papers/perseff.html>. and >, with the full address and followed by a full stop if at the end.

Frequently asked questions


1. How do I reference an idea or information by one author (Author 1) which occurs in a book or
journal article by another author (Author 2)?

The rule is that you should mention both authors (Author 1 and Author 2) in your in-text
reference; but in your reference list you only list the item you read, that is, by Author 2. For
example, if you read about an idea by Lim (Author 1) in a book by Strauss (Author 2) you need to
mention both in your in-text reference. So the in-text reference would be written as:

Lim (Strauss 2004, p. 71) stated that … or


Lim’s study (cited in Strauss 2004, p. 71) indicates that … or
Lim’s 1972 study (Strauss 2004, p. 71) shows that … or
Strauss (2004, p. 71) in reporting Lim’s study, emphasized the aspect …

In the reference list you list only Strauss (Author 2 - the source you read) and not Lim (whose idea
you only read about in Strauss).

2. How do I present exact quotations?

Short quotations of fewer than thirty words should be enclosed in single quotation marks (‘….’) as
part of your own sentence accompanied by an in-text reference including a page number. For
example:

A recent report showed that ‘…universities are forced to expect a significant level of independence
from students in their learning’ (Pokorny & Pokorny 2005, p. 449).

Long quotations of more than thirty words should be written without any quotation marks,
indented (using Tab key) at the left, and introduced in your own words. A font one size smaller
should be used followed by an in-text reference including a page number. For example:

Australians have developed:

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an emerging interest in values, vision, meaning and purpose which is the common characteristic of
societies facing the end of a chronological era … each new decade is approached as if it holds some
new promise (Mackay 2005, p. 231).

The three dots after the word ‘era’ show that a word or words have been left out.

3. How do I reference two or three authors?

When there are two or three authors for a reference, all their family names are included in the in-
text reference. For example:

According to Cooper, Krever and Vann (2007) the use of this process leads to greater accuracy.

or

The use of this process leads to greater accuracy (Cooper, Krever & Vann 2007).

4. How do I reference more than three authors?

If there are four or more authors for a reference you use ‘et al.’ (which is Latin for ‘et alia’
meaning ‘and the others’) in the in-text reference, after the first family name listed on the source.
For example:

This has been suggested by Sandler et al. (2002) in their first Australian study.

Use ‘et al.’ for the first and every time you give an in-text reference for more than three authors.
However, all the authors are listed in your reference list in the same order that they are listed in the
original reference.

5 How do I reference the work of an author who has published more than one work in the same
year
If an author has published more than one work in the same year you place a lower case letter of
the alphabet next to the year date and keep these letters in your reference list as well. For
example:

In a recent publication Pedder (2001b) argued that this process was only applicable in a few
circumstances and that for small business alternative processes were more suitable (Pedder
2001a).

The order in which you attach the letters is determined by the alphabetical order of the title of the
works by the author.

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Using citation management software
Citation management software such as RefWorks and EndNote allow you to set up your own
database of stored references and to insert and format these references (both in-text references and
reference lists) into your Word documents. For further information about citation management
software explore the ‘Managing References’ link on the Library’s homepage.

Both RefWorks and EndNote have a Harvard author-date style. However the versions of the
Harvard system used in both software packages are not the same as the version presented in this
guide. The Refworks Harvard style is closest to the version in this guide. It is acceptable to use
either software package for the references in your assignment and if you do, add a note such as the
following under your ‘References’ heading:

This reference list has been compiled using the RefWorks (or EndNote, as applicable) version of
the Harvard author-date system.

Can’t find an example to match your resource?


If none of the examples (pages 8 to 14) match the resource you want to reference. Identify:

 the type of resource you want to reference (book, journal article, web page, blog, wiki, video
etc). A book in electronic form is still categorised as a book
 the author or authors. An author can be an individual, a number of individuals, an editor
(abbreviated to ed.) or a number of editors (eds), or an organisation (such as a business, a
government department). If there is no author, use the title (in italics)
 the year the resource was produced. If there is no date the use the abbreviation n.d. which
stands for ‘no date’
 the title of the resource.

Go to the example pages of this Guide and find a similar type of reference to use as a model. Then,
construct your reference using the main elements you have identified, including the:

 author
 year of publication
 title
 publication information.

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Examples of referencing using Harvard
Books

Basic format for books: Author’s family name, Initial(s) year, Title of book, Publisher, Place of publication

Example An example of an in-text reference The entry in the reference list

Book with single author Escritt (2006) argues that… Escritt, S 2006, Art nouveau, Phaidon, London.

Book with two or three According to Cooper, Krever and Vann (2002) … Cooper, GS, Krever, E & Vann, RJ 2002, Income taxation: commentary and materials,
authors 4th edn, Australian Tax Practice, Sydney, NSW.
OR
It has been argued (Cooper, Krever & Vann 2002) that

Book with more than As suggested by Sandler et al. (1999, p. 14)… Sandler, MP, Patton, JA, Coleman, RE, Gottschalk, A, Wackers, FJ & Hoffere, PB
three authors 1999, Diagnostic nuclear medicine, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.

Book with no author As shown in Networking essentials plus (2009) … Networking essentials plus 2009, Microsoft Press, Redmond, Washington.

Book with no date This has been emphasised by Seah (n.d.) when … Seah, R n.d., Micro-computer applications, Microsoft Press, Redmond, Washington.

Electronic book Trochim (2004) maintains that… Trochim, WM 2004, The research methods knowledge base, 2nd edn, viewed 14
November 2009, <http://www.socialresearchmethods.met/kb/index.htm>.

Second or later edition Several characteristics support this (Derham 2001, p. 46) Derham, F 2001, Art for the child under seven, 7th edn, Australian Early Childhood
of a book and … Association, Watson, ACT.

Translated book Popularity of the novel Les enfants terribles (Cocteau Cocteau, J 1961, Les enfants terribles, trans. R Lehmann, Penguin, London.
1961) increased after it was translated …

Edited (ed.), revised Walpole (ed. 2001) questions whether … Walpole, M (ed.) 2001, Tax administration in the 21st century, Prospect Media, St
(rev.) or compiled Leonards, NSW.
(comp.) book

Edited book with more … key diagnostic tools (eds. Sandler et al. 1999) Sandler, MP, Patton, JA, Coleman, RE, Gottschalk, A, Wackers, FJ & Hoffer, PB (eds)
than three authors 1999, Diagnostic nuclear medicine, 3rd edn, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore.

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One volume of a multi- It has been implied (Einax 1995) that … Einax, J 1995, Chemometrics in environmental chemistry: applications, vol. 2,
volume set of books Handbook of environmental chemistry, Springer, Berlin.

Encyclopaedia or Chilvers (1998, p. 225) demonstrates that … Chilvers, I 1998, 'Funk art’, in The Oxford dictionary of twentieth century art, Oxford
Dictionary – with University Press, Oxford, p. 225.
author

Encyclopaedia or The Hutchinson encyclopaedia (2007) defines ethics as No entry is required in the reference list because you have the name and date of the
Dictionary - no author … encyclopaedia or dictionary as an in-text reference.

Book sponsored by an Deni Green Consulting Services (2008) has compiled … Deni Green Consulting Services 2008, Capital idea: realising value from
institution, corporation environmental and social performance, Deni Green Consulting Services, North
or other organisation Carlton, Victoria.

Chapter in an edited In conclusion, Cicourel (1999) emphasises … Cicourel, AV 1999, ‘The interaction of cognitive and cultural models in health care
book delivery’, in Talk, work and institutional order: discourse in medical, mediation and
management settings, eds S Sarangi & C Roberts, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, pp. 183–
224.

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Journal articles
Basic format for journal articles: Author’s family name, Initial(s) year, ‘Title of article,’ Title of Journal, vol and issue numbers, page range.

Example An example of an in-text reference The entry in the reference list

Journal article with This procedure has received support (O’Hara 2009, p. O'Hara, MJ 2009, ‘Flood basalts, basalt floods or topless bushvelds? Lunar
single author 1548) and … petrogenesis revisited’, Journal of Petrology, vol. 41, no. 11, pp. 1545–1651.

Journal article with two Williams, Sewell and Humphrey (2002, p. 18) Williams, RA, Sewell, D & Humphrey E 2002, ‘Perspectives in ambulatory care.
or three authors acknowledge … Implementing problem-based learning in ambulatory care’, Nursing Economics, vol.
20, no. 3, pp. 135–41.
OR
NOTE: If the article is accessed using a database (e.g Ebsco, Academic Science Direct)
It has been acknowledged (Williams, Sewell &
there is no need to refer to the database in the reference. Journals which have an
Humphrey 2002, p.18) that …
electronic form may be accessed using different databases and these can vary from
library to library.

Journal article with The fact that alpha-bungarotoxin isotoxins are not Chang, L, Lin, S, Huang, H & Hsiao, N 2008, ‘Genetic organisation of alpha-
more than three derived from edited mRNAs (Chang et al. 2008, p. bungarotoxins from Bungarus multicinctus (Taiwan banded krait): evidence showing
authors 3971) suggests that … that the production of alpha-bungarotoxin isotoxins is not derived from edited
mRNAs’, Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 27, no. 20, pp. 3970–5.
NOTE: The use of italics for Bungarus multicinctus is a scientific convention with
species and genera.

Journal article with no Such a strategy is already in use (‘Building human ‘Building human resources instead of landfills’ 2000, Biocycle, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 28–
author resources instead of landfills’ 2000) and … 9.

Journal article from an … and this has been established by Garcia (2004) who Garcia, P 2004, ‘Pragmatic comprehension of high and low level language learners’,
electronic journal … TESL–EJ, vol. 8, no. 2, viewed 2 December 2009, <http://berkeley.edu/TESL-
EJ/ej30/a!.html>.

Journal article accessed Carpenter and Feroz (2003) link this idea with … Carpenter, VL & Feroz, EH 2003, ‘Institutional theory and accounting rule choice: an
using an electronic analysis of four US state governments' decisions to adopt generally accepted
database accounting principles’, Accounting, Organizations and Society, vol. 26, nos. 7–8, pp.
565–96.

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Electronic publications
Basic format for electronic publications: Author’s family name, Initial(s) year date, Title of document or website, date viewed, <URL>.

Example An example of an in-text reference The entry in the reference list

Electronic book Trochim (2000) maintains that… Trochim, WM 2004, The research methods knowledge base, 2nd edn, viewed 14
November 2009, <http://socialresearchmethods.net/kb/index.htm>.

Journal article from an … and this has been established by Garcia (2004) who … Garcia, P 2004, ‘Pragmatic comprehension of high and low level language learners’,
electronic journal TESL–EJ, vol 8, no. 2, viewed 2 December, 2009, <http://berkeley.edu/TESL-
EJ/ej30/a!.html>.
NOTE: If the article is accessed using a database (e.g Ebsco, Academic Science
Direct) there is no need to refer to the database in the reference. E-Journals may be
accessed using different databases and these can vary from library to library.

A World Wide Web The Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs 2009, The
site Indigenous Affairs’ website (2009) has details of … Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs, Canberra,
viewed 7 March 2009, <http://www.immi.gov.au/>.

Document on World This is clarified by desJardins (2005) who identifies … desJardins, M 2005, How to succeed in postgraduate study, Applied Ecology
Wide Web Research Group, University of Canberra, viewed 26 April 2009,
<http://aerg.canberra.edu.au/jardins/t.htm>.

Document on World An overview of lung cancer was provided in Lung Cancer Lung Cancer 2004, msn Health, viewed 12 June 2009,
Wide Web with no (2004) and … <http://content.health.msn.com/condition_center/lung_cancer/default.htm>.
author

Document on World This is clarified by desJardins (n.d.) who identifies … desJardins, M n.d., How to succeed in postgraduate study, Applied Ecology
Wide Web with no date Research Group, University of Canberra, viewed 26 April 2009,
<http://aerg.canberra.edu.au/jardins/t.htm>.

Document on World In discussing the issues related to Mp3s (Mp3-mac.com Mp3-mac.com 2008, What is Mp3?, viewed 15 October 2009, <http://www.mp3-
Wide Web, without an 2008) the … mac.com/Pages/What_is_Mp3.html>.
author but with a
sponsoring body

Document on World If a resource from the web has no author and no date
Wide Web with no you may need to reconsider whether it is a suitable
author or no date source for academic work.

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Electronic thesis (ADT Price (2005) has argued that … Price, K 2005, ‘Exploring what the doing does: a poststructural analysis of nurses’
collection) subjectivity in relation to pain’, Department of Nursing and Midwifery, PhD thesis,
University of South Australia, viewed 10 May 2009, Australian Digital Theses
Project, <http://www.library.unisa.edu.au/adt-root/public/adt-SUSA-20030501-
145110/index.html>.

Media release on the The Minister confirmed this (Pirelli 2009) in a media Pirelli, A (Minister for Transport and Regional Services) 2009, CASA approves new
World Wide Web release issued in the same week that the questions were safety measures, media release, 1 April, Department of Transport and Regional
raised in Parliament. Services, Canberra, viewed 14 April 2009,
<http://www.dotrs.gov.au/media/pirelli/archive/2003/apr_03/al6_2003.htm>.

Discussion lists, Patterson (2009) acknowledged this in a posting on the … Patterson, S <patters@rockets.com.au> 2009, ‘Something’s got to give’, list server,
newsgroups 29 January, National Association of Sceptics, viewed 8 February 2009,
<http://www.nsa.net.au/listserv/>.

Email Davenport confirmed this by email on 1 August 2003. Emails are dealt with in the same way as personal communications. The document
is mentioned in the text but no entry is given in the reference list. It is important to
get permission of the person being referred to before mentioning them.

Computer program A program was developed (MathWorks 2001) to … MathWorks 2001, MATLAB, ver. 6, computer program, The MathWorks Inc.,
Natick, MA, USA.

Blog These comments were echoed in a post (Alford 2099) that Alford, D 2009, ‘Stormy Mondays: Zen Tricksters salute’, Hidden track, 26
… October, viewed 27 October 2009, <http://www.glidemagazine.com/hiddentrack/#>
The date after the title of the blog is the day and month of the individual post. If no
proper name is given for the author the user name may be presented instead.

Podcast In federal Parliament the issues was raised (House of House of Representatives Question Time 2009, podcast, 29 October, viewed 5
Representatives Question Time 2009) by the … November /2009,
<http://www.abc.net.au/newsradio/podcast/QUESTIONREPS.XML>.

Wiki This British group (‘Monty Python’ 2009) was influenced ‘Monty Python’ 2009, Wikipedia, viewed 27 September 2009,
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monty_Python>.

YouTube In order to have some control over the use of their Monty Python’s Channel 2008, YouTube, viewed 29 September 2009,
material the group set up a YouTube channel (Monty <http://www.youtube.com/user/MontyPython>.
Python’s Channel 2008) which contains a selection …

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Special publications and materials
Basic format for special publications and materials: Author’s family name, Initial(s) year, Title of item, description of item, publisher, place of publication

Example An example of an in-text reference The entry in the reference list

Conference paper It has been shown (Hills 2000) that … Hills, QG 2000, ‘Relative timing of deformation, metamorphism and mineralisation
within the Willyama Complex, New South Wales’, in Proceedings of the 14th
Victorian Universities Earth Sciences Conference, Geological Society of Australia,
Melbourne, pp. 38–42.

Newspaper article As Ionesco described (2001) in his article… Ionesco, J 2001, ‘Federal election: new Chipp in politics’, Advertiser 23 October,
p.10.
(with author)
Note: An initial ‘the’ in English language newspaper titles is omitted

Newspaper article (no … in the Advertiser (23 October 2001, p. 10). Advertiser 2001, ‘Federal election: new Chipp in politics’, 23 October, p. 10.
author)

Online newspaper Victorian universities (Perkins 2009) have been unable to Perkins, M 2009, ‘Unis fail to make gains on equity’, Age 10 November, viewed 11
article increase the number of equity undergraduate students … November 2009, <http://www.theage.com.au/national/education/unis-fail-to-make-
gains-on-equity-20091102-hth3.html>.
(with author)

Government report The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission, 1997, Bringing them home:
(1997) considered that … report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait
Islander Children from their Families, (R Wilson, Commissioner), Human Rights
and Equal Opportunity Commission, Sydney.

Legislation: Acts, The Commonwealth Constitution Act 1900 was passed to Constitution Act 1900 (Cwlth)
Ordinances and establish the commonwealth of Australia.
Regulations
OR
Inconsistent States and Territory legislation was overridden
Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cwlth)
(Racial Discrimination Act 1975) and …

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Bills before parliament The Human Rights (Mandatory Sentencing of Juvenile Human Rights (Mandatory Sentencing of Juvenile Offenders) Bill 1999 (Cwlth).
Offenders) Bill 1999 was proposed in response to a
perceived shift in …

Legal case Three representatives of the Meriam people brought the Mabo and Others v Queensland (no.2) 1992 175 CLR1.
action (Mabo and Others v Queensland 1992) before the
High Court …

Patent Ultimately Tadayuki, Kazuhisa and Atsushi (1999) took out Tadayuki, O, Kazuhisa, Y & Atsushi, N 1999, Hard butter composition and its
a patent in Japan in 1999. production, Japanese Patent 99–78710.

Video, DVD or The processes involved have been well documented (They They did it their way 1998, video recording, BBC for The Open University.
television recording did it their way, 1998).
OR if it is a broadcast television program it would be:
They did it their way 1998, television program, SBS television, Sydney, 5 May.

Radio program The recent broadcast of The War of the Worlds (2006) did The War of the Worlds 2006, radio program, ABC National, 17 March.
not cause the panic that resulted from the original in 1938.

Pamphlet or brochure Additional resources are identified in the pamphlet … Online resources, publications, training 2001, Australian Copyright Council,
(Online resources, publications, training 2001). Redfern, NSW.

Compact disk (CD) & The original broadcast (War of the worlds 1999) in 1938 is War of the worlds 1999, Mercury Theatre On The Air, audio CD, Radio Spirits,
Audio cassette said to have caused mass panic amongst listeners. ASIN: B00002R145.

Standard Ultimately the Standards Association published a standard Standards Association of Australia 1996, Colour Standards for general purposes:
covering colour in chocolate in 1996 (Standards Association Chocolate (AS 2700S-1996 (X64)), Standards Australia, North Sydney.
of Australia 1996).

Personal It has been confirmed by Seow (2003, pers. comm. 3 July) For personal communications such as conversations, letters, email s and faxes, the
communication that this practice is widespread. document is mentioned in the text but no entry is given in the reference list. It is
important to get permission from the person being referred to.

Thesis Pope (1996, p. 78) argued exactly this … Pope, JJ 1996, ‘The nature and origin of magnetite-rich zones in the Mount Fort
Constantine Volcanics, adjacent to the Ernest Henry Cu-Au-Co deposit, NW
Queensland’, MSc. thesis, University of Leicester.

Unpublished report Such habitats have been studied extensively by, for Sinclair, J, Knight, G & Merz, R 1999, ‘Video transect analysis of subtidal habitats
example, Sinclair, Knight and Merz (1999) in the Dampier Archipelago’, Museum of WA.

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Unpublished …and Wolff (2000) has argued this point at some length. Wolff, L 2000, ‘Corporate compliance and human rights in Japan’, paper presented
conference paper at the Australasian Law Teachers' Association Conference, University of Canberra,
2–5 July.

Document on Richard (2001) suggests that… Richard, P 2001, Towards the goal of full employment: trends, obstacles and
microfiche policies, microfiche, International Labour Office, Geneva, Educational Resources
Information Center, Washington, ED 477814.

Thesis on microfiche Dance is seen as having an important educational role Dominiak, KM 1998, The role of dance making for the older adult, microfiche,
(Dominiak 1998). MappSci. thesis, Texas Woman’s University, Microform Publications, University of
Oregon.

Image Seven Sisters, Milky Way Dreaming (Nungurrayi 2002) Nungurrayi, GP 2002, Seven Sisters, Milky Way Dreaming, painting, held at Art
depicts the … Gallery of South Australia.
Artwork: painting

Image in another source Dream People, an etching by Hanrahan, is one of the works Carrol A 1986, Barbara Hanrahan Printmaker, Wakefield Press, Netley, South
that Carrol (1986, p. 64) describes as part of her second Australia.
Artwork in a book
printmaking phase...

Graph or diagram An example of referencing a graph: Wachmeister, J 2009, ‘The support for learning by celestial bodies’, Future
Modes of Support
Learning, vol 1, no.2, pp.1–24.
12

11
Unrated

10
Not Effective
9
Number of Institutions

8
Quite Effective
7

6 Very Effective
5

Generic websites
Tailored online materials
Email service
In-country programs
CD-Roms
Online language
Video,
courses
book + LAS
WebCT
in-country staff

Modes of support, (Wachmeister 2009, p.11)

Lectures It is generally not acceptable to cite university lecture notes;


the original source of the lecturer’s information should be
located and cited.

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