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PET500_1

PVT i Petroleum reservoarer og Fluider

Exercise 1

Volumetric analysis
Determination of:
• Bubble point pressure at Tres; Pb
• Gas-oil-ratio; GOR
• Oil formation volume factor at Pb; Bob
• Constant mass expansion; Vo and Vg versus pressure at Tres.

1. Purpose
The intention of this exercise is to study volumetric behavior of live oil at reservoir conditions
by measuring Vt, Vo, and Vg as a function of pressure at Tres.
A single flash of bubble point oil to standard conditions determines GOR and Bob.

2. Theory
• PVT-cell is set to a given reservoir temperature (Tres). Pb is determined by plotting the
volume of reservoir fluid in the PVT-cell versus the pressure. The bubble point
pressure is determined as the “break” of the curve.
• The constant mass expansion (CME) data should be reported as relative volumes V/Vb
versus pressure, both above and below Pb.
• Detection of phase volumes (Vt, Vo, and Vg) gives data points on iso-volume curves
along the Tres-isotherm. The values are reported as pressure versus volume percentage
of liquid.
• A single flash of oil at Tres and Pb to standard conditions determines GOR and Bob.
3. Equipment

• Window PVT-cell with piston. The cell


is equipped with a mixing mechanism,
and placed inside a heating cabinet.
• Cathetometer for measuring liquid levels.
It consists of an accurately graduated
scale and a horizontal telescope capable
of moving up and down a rigid vertical
column.
• Piston pump with white silicone oil as
pump fluid.
• Pressure and temperature detectors.
• Flash equipment consisting of a small
sample cup for collecting oil and a gas
meter at standard conditions.

4. Experiment

High-pressure equipment must be handled with


care and under guidance of laboratory personnel.
The PVT-cell is observed from outside the
heating cabinet. When looking into a mirror
outside the window of this cabinet, the liquid
levels can be observed.
Liquid levels are measured by using a cathetometer. Pressure and corresponding liquid levels
are recorded and liquid volumes are calculated.
The total volume of the cell is plotted against pressure to determine the bubble point pressure
and volume of the fluid at the given temperature.
At last a flash experiment is performed. This is a single flash of bubble point oil to standard
conditions. Oil is collected in a small sample cup and gas is measured by a gas meter. Both
values are recorded together with the new bubble point volume.

5. Report

• Short description of the principles of the experiment.


• Schematic illustration of the equipment.
• Data table for bubble point curve.
• Diagram for determination of Pb at Tres.
• Determination of GOR (Scm3/Scm3) and Bob (cm3/Scm3)
Bubble point curve
Determination of bubble point at Tres _____°C

Dead volume Dv 0.27 [ml] Total volume Vt=(Tp+(Dv/Qc)-Tpl)Qc

Top of piston at Oil volume Vo=Vt-Vg


lowest position Tpl 29.851 [cm] Gas volume Vg=(Tp-Goc-Hp)Qc

Height of piston Hp 2.886 [cm] Oil volume in % Vo%=(Vo/Vt)100

Cell capacity Qc 7.882 [ml/cm] Gas volume in % Vg%=(Vg/Vt)100


Top of piston Tp Measured
Gas/oil contact Goc Measured
Bubble point pressure Pb Diagram reading
Bubble point volume Vb Diagram reading

Gas/oil
Pressure Top of piston contact Vt Vt/Vb Vo Vg Vo Vg
[psi] Tp [cm] Goc[cm] [ml] [ml] [ml] [vol%] [vol%]

Total volume is plotted as a function of the pressure (P on x-axis).


Bubble point is determined as the breaking point of this curve. Pb = Vb =
Flash experiment
Standard temperature 15.00 [0C] 288,15 [0K]
Standard pressure 1atm 1013.25 [mbar]
Density of oil at 15 0C 0.853 [kg/l]
Ambient temperature [0C] [0K] Recalculate the temperature in Kelvin and apply in the equation
Atmospheric pressure [mbar]

Step 1 Record weight of measuring cup. Notice start volume of gas meter.

Step 2 Increase pressure in the cell to 500 psi above Pb to avoid boiling of oil in the tubing while flashing.

Step 3 Perform the single flash.

Readjust the cell pressure to Pb and notice Vb after the flash.


Step 4 Record new weight of measuring cup containing the oil sample. Notice new volume of gas meter.
Notice atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature.

Flash Weight of Volume of PVT cell


measuring gas meter
cup

[g] Vgass [cm3] Pb [psi] Bp [cm] Vt =Vb


before
after
Weight of oil mo
mo = Measuring cup (after) - Measuring cup (before)

Volume of gas at ambient temperature Vg(amb) = Vg(after) -Vg(before)

Volume of oil at boiling point Vob = Vt(before)-Vt(after)

T ( sc ) * P(atm)
Vg ( sc ) = Vg (amb) *
T (amb) * P( sc )

mo Vg ( sc ) Vo b
V0 ( sc ) = GOR = Bo b =
ρ ( sc ) Vo ( sc ) Vo (sc)