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1.

Design of Pile Cap:

Longitudinal Direction / Traffic Direction

Y
A B

Transverse Direction
3.2 3.5
7 7.9
5.3 X X
3.2 2.75

1.2
0.75 3.6 A B 3.6 0.75 1.7
Y
8.7
Figure -1
The Pile Cap shall be designed under siesmic condition as it is critical for design.
Non siesmic Case
Calculation of Sectional modulus of Pile:

ZL = 6 x 3.6^2 /3.6
= 21.6
ZT = 6 x 3.2^2 / 3.2
= 19.2

Calculation of Maximum Pile Reaction in ULS case


Case - II (Normal Load Case, Maximum vertical load)
Pmax = P/n + ML / ZL + MT/ZT
= 1531.9545 / 9 + 815.73975 / 21.6 + 48.2342 / 19.2
= 210.495 T
Calculation of Minimum Pile Reaction in ULS case
Pmin = P/n - ML / ZL1 - MT/ZT
= 1531.9545 / 9 - 815.73975 / 21.6 - 48.2342 / 19.2
= 129.939

Overall depth of Pile Cap = 1.8 m


Grade of Concrete = M 35
Grade of Steel = Fe 500
Clear cover = 75 mm
Calculation of Moment at section A-A (Along Longitudinal Direction)

Downward vertical load due to self weight of Pile Cap in ULS Condition
= 7.9 x 3.5 x 1.8 x (2.5-1) x 1.25
= 93.32 T
Bending Moment (BM A-A) = 3 x 129.939 x 2.75 - 93.32 x 1.75
= 908.687 T-m

Now Bending moment per meter length of pile cap= MA-A


MA-A = 908.687 / 7.9
= 115 T-m / m
Effective depth of pile cap (d)= 1800 - 75 - 16
= 1709 mm
Lever Arm (z) = 0.95 x d
= 1623.55
For Sections without Compression Reinforcement the Ultimate Moment of Resistance Can be
checked according to IRS-CBC (Cl.-15.4.2.2.1).
Moment of resistance Mr = 0.15 x fck x b x d2
= 0.15 x 35 x 1000 x 1709^2 / 10^7
= 1533 T-m

Check for Reinforcement :

Mu = 0.87 fy As z
Therefore Ast Required = 115 x 10^7 / (0.87 x 500 x 1623.55 )
2
= 1628 mm

As per Cl: 15.9.4.1 of IRS Concrete Bridge Code;


Minimum reinforcement required = 0.20% of bd
2
= 3418 mm
Hence Allow minimum reinforcement

Dia of Reinforcement provided = 32 mm


Spacing of reinforcement provided = 180 mm
2
Ast Provided = 4468 mm
Ast Provided > Ast Required Hence Ok
Hence provide 32 mm tor bar @ 180 mm c/c in Longitudinal direction over pile cap width

Distribution Steel:
Minimum area of secondary reinforcement :-
As per Cl: 15.9.4.2 of IRS Concrete Bridge Code; = 0.12% of bd
2
= 2050.8 mm
Dia of Reinforcement provided = 25 mm
Spacing of reinforcement provided = 130 mm
2
Ast Provided = 3775 mm
Hence provide 25 mm tor bar @ 130 mm c/c in both direction over pile cap
Calculation of Moment at section C-C (Along Transverse Direction)

Longitudinal Direction / Traffic Direction

Transverse Direction
1.3
C C

7.9 5.3
X X

8.7
Y
Figure -2
Distance between center of pile to section C-C = 1.3 - 0.75
= 0.55 m
Maximum pile reaction Pmax = 210.495 T

Downward vertical load due to self weight of Pile Cap in ULS Condition
= 8.7 x 1.3 x 1.8 x (2.5-1) x 1.25
= 38.17 T
Bending Moment (BM C-C) = 3 x 210.495 x 0.55 - 38.17 x 0.65
= 323 T-m
Now Bending moment per meter length of pile cap= MC-C
MC-C = 323 / 8.7
= 37 T-m / m
Effective depth of pile cap (d)= 1800 - 75 - 32 -12.5
= 1680.5 mm
Lever Arm (z) = 0.95 x d
= 1596.475
For Sections without Compression Reinforcement the Ultimate Moment of Resistance Can be
checked according to IRS-CBC (Cl.-15.4.2.2.1).
Moment of resistance Mr = 0.15 x fck x b x d2
= 0.15 x 35 x 1000 x 1680.5^2 / 10^7
= 1483 T-m
Check for Reinforcement :

Mu = 0.87 fy As z
Therefore Ast Required = 37 x 10^7 / (0.87 x 500 x 1596.475 )
2
= 533 mm

As per Cl: 15.9.4.1 of IRS Concrete Bridge Code;


Minimum reinforcement required = 0.20% of bd
2
= 3361 mm
Hence Allow minimum reinforcement

Dia of Reinforcement provided = 25 mm


Spacing of reinforcement provided = 140 mm
2
Ast Provided = 3506 mm
Ast Provided > Ast Required Hence Ok
Hence provide 25 mm tor bar @ 140 mm c/c in Longitudinal direction over pile cap width

Check for Downward Reaction of Pile :

Calculation of Minimum Pile Reaction in ULS case


Case - IV (Normal Load + Transverse Seismic + Vertical Seismic DOWN)

Pmin = P/n - ML / ZL1 - MT/ZT


= 605.7326 / 9 - 21.2444 / 21.6 - 1869.5389 / 19.2
= -31.052 T

Calculation of Moment at section B-B (Along Longitudinal Direction) of Fig-1

Downward vertical load due to self weight of Pile Cap in ULS Condition
= 3.5 x 7.9 x 1.8 x (2.5-1) x 1.25
= 93.32 T
Bending Moment (BM B-B) = 3 x -31.052 x 2.75 - 93.32 x 1.75
= -419.489 T-m

Now Bending moment per meter length of pile cap= MA-A


MA-A = -419.489 / 7.9
= -53 T-m / m
Effective depth of pile cap (d)= 1800 - 75 - 32 - 12.5
= 1680.5 mm
Lever Arm (z) = 0.95 x d
= 1596.475
For Sections without Compression Reinforcement the Ultimate Moment of Resistance Can be
checked according to IRS-CBC (Cl.-15.4.2.2.1).
Moment of resistance Mr = 0.15 x fck x b x d2
= 0.15 x 35 x 1000 x 1680.5^2 / 10^7
= 1483 T-m
Check for Reinforcement :

Mu = 0.87 fy As z
Therefore Ast Required = 53 x 10^7 / (0.87 x 500 x 1596.475 )
2
= 763 mm

As per Cl: 15.9.4.1 of IRS Concrete Bridge Code;


Minimum reinforcement required = 0.20% of bd
2
= 3361 mm
Hence Allow minimum reinforcement

Dia of Reinforcement provided = 25 mm


Spacing of reinforcement provided = 140 mm
2
Ast Provided = 3506 mm
Ast Provided > Ast Required Hence Ok
Hence provide 25 mm tor bar @ 140 mm c/c in Longitudinal direction over pile cap width

Check for Shear:

Checking of Shear force has been done at "d" distance from the face of the Abutment wall
So available length of pile cap beyond "d" distance = 3500 - 1709
= 1791 mm

So Shear Force Vu = 3 x 210.495 - (7.9 x 1.8 x 1.791 x 2.5 x 1.25 )


= 552 T
Now as per cl. No. 15.4.3.1 of IRS CBC
Shear Stress (τv) = Vu / bd
= 0.409 Mpa
Maximum Shear stress is lesser of the following values
τmax = 0.75x sqrt fck= 4.437
or 4.75
So τmax = 4.437 MPa

Now 100 As/ bd = 100 x 4468 / (1000 x 1709 )


= 0.26 %
Now As per table 15 of IRS CBC
τc = 0.44+ {(0.56-0.44)/(0.50-0.25)}*(0.36-0.25)
= 0.44 Mpa
Now As per table 16 of IRS CBC
s= Max ( (500 /1709)^0.25, 0.7)
= 0.735

Therefore Allowable shear stress (sτc) = 0.32


(As per Cl. No. 15.8.3.2 of IRS- CBC)
Now As per Cl. No. 15.8.3.2 & 15.8.3.3 of IRS CBC
av = (3.5 - 0.75-0.6 ) + (0.2 x 1.2)
= 2.99
So Enhanced factor= 2x d / av
= 2 x 1.709 /2.99 = 1.14

So enhanced shear stress = 1.14 x 0.32


= 0.365

Shear Capacity at the critical section =


= { ( 7900-O4 x 1200 )x0.32+ ( O4 x 1200 x 0.365 )} x 1709/ 10^4
= 459.721 < 552 T
Hence Shear reinforcement Required
Now in this case τv > s τc So as per table no 14 of IRS CBC