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William Floyd Union Free School District

A Parent’s Math
Resource Guide to
3rd Grade
Dear Parents,

The Parent’s Math Resource Guide is a resource to assist you in

becoming familiar with Common Core Mathematics Standards for
3rd Grade.

This resource guide includes:

1. An overview of Mathematical Practices for 3rd Grade

2. Parent’s Backpack Guide to Common Core Standards
3. How 3rd Grade fits in the Mathematical Progression
4. Partnering with your child’s teacher
5. 3rd Grade Math Glossary
6. 3rd Grade Math Strategies
7. Addition stages and strategies
8. Subtraction stages and strategies
9. Resources for 3rd Graders and their families.

If you have any questions regarding anything within this resource

guide, please contact our classroom teacher.

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An Overview of 3rd Grade Math Mathematical Practices
These eight practices are the goals
In Grade 3, instructional time should focus on four critical
of all math education, K-12
areas: (1) developing understanding of multiplication and 1. Make sense of problems and
division and strategies for multiplication and division persevere in solving them.
within 100; (2) developing understanding of fractions,
2. Reason abstractly and
especially unit fractions (fractions with numerator 1); (3) quantitatively.
developing understanding of the structure of rectangular
arrays and of area; and (4) describing and analyzing two- 3. Construct viable arguments and
critique the reasoning of others.
dimensional shapes.
4. Model with mathematics.
1. Students develop an understanding of the meanings of
multiplication and division of whole numbers through 5. Use appropriate tools strategically.
activities and problems involving equal-sized groups, 6. Attend to precision.
arrays, and area models; multiplication is finding an 7. Look for and make use of structure.
unknown product, and division is finding an unknown
8. Look for and express regularity in
factor in these situations. For equal-sized group
repeated reasoning.
situations, division can require finding the unknown
number of groups or the unknown group size. Students
use properties of operations to calculate products of whole numbers, using increasingly sophisticated
strategies based on these properties to solve multiplication and division problems involving single-
digit factors. By comparing a variety of solution strategies, students learn the relationship between
multiplication and division.

2. Students develop an understanding of fractions, beginning with unit fractions. Students view
fractions in general as being built out of unit fractions, and they use fractions along with visual
fraction models to represent parts of a whole. Students understand that the size of a fractional part
is relative to the size of the whole. For example, 1/2 of the paint in a small bucket could be less paint
than 1/3 of the paint in a larger bucket, but 1/3 of a ribbon is longer than 1/5 of the same ribbon
because when the ribbon is divided into 3 equal parts, the parts are longer than when the ribbon is
divided into 5 equal parts. Students are able to use fractions to represent numbers equal to, less than,
and greater than one. They solve problems that involve comparing fractions by using visual fraction
models and strategies based on noticing equal numerators or denominators.

3. Students recognize area as an attribute of two-dimensional regions. They measure the area of a shape
by finding the total number of same-size units of area required to cover the shape without gaps or
overlaps, a square with sides of unit length being the standard unit for measuring area. Students
understand that rectangular arrays can be decomposed into identical rows or into identical columns. By
decomposing rectangles into rectangular arrays of squares, students connect area to multiplication, and
justify using multiplication to determine the area of a rectangle.

4. Students describe, analyze, and compare properties of two-dimensional shapes. They compare and
classify shapes by their sides and angles, and connect these with definitions of shapes. Students also
relate their fraction work to geometry by expressing the area of part of a shape as a unit fraction of
the whole.
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Big Ideas in Grade 3
Operations and Algebraic Thinking Measurement and Data
• Represent and solve problems involving • Solve problems involving measurement and
addition and subtraction. estimation of intervals of time, liquid volumes,
• Understand properties of multiplication and and masses of objects.
the relationship between multiplication and • Represent and interpret data.
division. • Geometric measurement: understand
• Multiply and divide within 100. concepts of area and relate area to multipli-
• Solve problems involving the four operations, cation and to addition.
and identify and explain patterns in arithmetic. • Geometric measurement: recognize
Number and Operations in Base Ten perimeter as an attribute of plane figures
• Use place value understanding and properties and distinguish between linear and area
of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic. measures.
Number and Operations—Fractions Geometry
• Develop understanding of fractions as numbers. • Reason with shapes and their attributes.

Parent’s Backpack Guide to Common Core State Standards (from

The chart below shows what is shifting, what you might see in your child’s backpack and what you can do to
help your child. Again, if your child’s assignments do not reflect the shifts, then talk to our child’s teacher.

What’s Shifting? What to Look for in the Backpack? What Can You Do?
• Your child will work more • Look for assignments that require students • Know what concepts are important
deeply in fewer topics, which to show their work and explain how they for your child based on their grade
will ensure full understanding arrived at an answer. level and spend time working on
(less is more!). these concepts.
• Your child will keep building on • Look for assignments that build on one • Be aware of what concepts your child
learning year after year, another. For example, students will focus struggled with last year and support
starting with a strong on adding, subtracting, multiplying and your child in those challenge areas
foundation. dividing. Once these areas are mastered, they moving forward.
will focus on fractions. Building on that, they
will then focus on Algebra. You should be able
to see the progression in the topics they learn.
• Your child will spend time • Look for assignments that ask your child to • Help your child know and memorize
practicing and memorizing master math facts such as addition group- basic math facts. Ask your child to “do
math facts. ings up to 20 or multiplication tables. the math” that pops up in daily life.
• Your child will understand why • Your child might have assignments that ask • Talk to your child about their math
the math works and be asked her or him to show or explain their math- homework and ask them to teach you
to talk about and prove their ematical thinking — to SAY why they think new concepts. Help them figure out
understanding. their answer is the right one. ways to explain their thinking.
• Your child will not be asked to • Look for math assignments that are based on • Provide time every day for your child
use math in real-world situa- the real world. For instance, homework for to work on math at home.
tions. 5th graders might include adding fractions as
part of a dessert recipe or determining how
much pizza friends ate based on fractions.
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How 3rd Grade “Fits” in the Progression
(taken from Parent Roadmap: Supporting Your Child in Grade One Mathematics)
In grade three, students will continue to build their concept of numbers, developing an
understanding of fractions as numbers. They will learn the concepts behind multiplication and
division and apply problem-solving skills and strategies for multiplying and dividing numbers
up through 100 to solve word problems. Students will also make connections between the
concept of the area of a rectangle and multiplication and addition of whole numbers.

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Partnering with your Child’s Teacher
(taken from Parent Roadmap)
Don’t be afraid to reach out to your child’s teacher—you are an important part of your child’s
education. Ask to see a sample of your child’s work or bring a sample with you. Ask the teacher
questions like:
• Is my child at the level where he/she should be at this point of the school year?
• Where is my child excelling? How can I support this success?
• What do you think is giving my child the most trouble? How can I help my child improve in
this area?
• What can I do to help my child with upcoming work?

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Glossary for 3rd Grade Math

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Glossary for 3rd Grade Math, cont.

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Glossary for 3rd Grade Math, cont.

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Addition Stages and Strategies
It is important to encourage your students to use a variety of computation strategies. Guide your
students to notice what is the same and different about these methods. Begin with the concrete,
move on to pictorial representations, and end with the abstract. You can do this by teaching the
concept of addition in the following sequence: 1) Number bonds, 2) Decomposing numbers,
3) Left‐to‐right addition, 4) Place value disks and charts, 5) Vertical addition, and 6) Traditional

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Subtraction Stages and Strategies
It is important to help our students understand the concept of subtraction first, before bombarding them
with abstract rules. Students can build an understanding of subtraction by sharing stories in which they
have subtracted. They need to begin with the concrete, move on to pictorial representations, and then
move to the abstract.

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Addition and Subtraction Strategies
Addition Examples:

The next three and a half pages were taken from the East Irondequoit website. They include a variety of
addition and subtraction strategies that are first introduced to students in K-2 with smaller numbers, and are
then extended into the upper elementary grades with bigger numbers. The “traditional” algorithm for addition
and subtraction are introduced in 4th grade. We no longer use the terms borrowing and carrying, we actually
haven’t used them for years. The proper term is regrouping.

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More Addition Strategies

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More Subtraction Strategies

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Multiplication Strategies

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Multiplication and Division Strategies

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Websites for Parents
For more information on the Common Core State Standards for mathematics, go to or
For more information on the standards in mathematics related to place value (Number and
Operations in Base Ten) or fractions, go to
For more information on helping your child learn mathematics (with activities from pre-school
to grade five), go to
For the full text of the Common Core Learning Standards go to: common_core_standards/pdfdocs/nysp12cclsmath.pdf

Additional websites:

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Websites for 3rd Graders

Resources Used in this Publication

East Irondequoit, NY CSD,, Parent Center Link on Left


Hudsonville, MI CSD Parent Presentation,

Kansas Association of Teachers of Mathematics (KATM) Flip Books,

New York State Education Department, Common Core Learning Standards for Mathematics, K-12

Parent Roadmap: Supporting Your Child in Grade Two Mathematics, Council of the Great City

Schools, Washington, D.C.;

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