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“Veteran Naxal leader and one of the founders of the CPI(M-L) Kanu Sanyal was
found hanging in his house at Sephtulajote village in Naxalbari on Tuesday where he
worked among the peasants till his last”.That was on 23rd March,2010 Tuesday. The
news exactly did not scream, but it slumbered in front page corner of all major print
media abegging attention. What an inglorious end to a revolutionary? But to my petty
bourgeois reactionary mind, the beginning to this sad end of him started in 1966.
How and why?

A petty bourgeoisie’s wild thoughts –

I confess to be a petty bourgeoisie, who is neither a bourgeoisie nor a proletariat, and
plead guilty in thinking like one and; may be granted of your clemency for this

- Human being ,natural

I believe that human being is

a) gregarious by nature - Right from primitive age, he lived collectively. He, by and
large, observes on his own will, rules of live and let-live to the extent needed for
living collectively and to a minor extent for fear of law enforcement

b) free-willed and fiercely freedom loving – He loves to do as he wishes, to the extent

society and circumstances permit him.He may strongly dislike if he has to do anything
against his will,

c) centrally(core) selfish, - he works hard and harder by the main motivation of his
and his family’s well being and better being. This ambition is fulfilled only when he
can use the fruits of toil to his own advantage,

d) not alike one another, by design of the creator, in nature, skills, intellect and
efficiency- This simply means, equal opportunities and resources may effect
differently on different human beings. A phenomenon of natural inequalities resulting
into social inequalities

e) has intellect and emotions- He will weigh each option in his own way and
sometime, act by emotional forces flouting all rationales.

- Social Genetical Engg

Communism is revered with religious fervour and also hated to the extent of saying
“better dead than red”. Like it or not, it influenced a considerable part of the world to
design social and political interiors of many countries for almost three quarter of the
last century and it continues its influence till date in a few pockets, at least as a habit
hard to go. Today, we can view it from the end-point and pass comments. It is not just
a political philosophy, but an arrogant and obstinate logical deduction and a resolute
political statement as to what an ideal society should be.. It is too small a space and
the writer is too insignificant a human being to venture for a clinical dissection of
this dream project by the most profound wisdom of great many deep brains of the
world. The idea is to find how unnatural it was to last for a long
Communism is a great exercise in genetical-engineering of the human nature .Old
theories of Communism predates its existence to Marx and Engels , as ‘primitive
communism’ in 16th and 17th centuries. However the main architects of this political
theory to ‘genetically modify’ human being in some of the above listed basic
characteristics of him, are Karl Marx and Frederick Engels.In 1847 Marx and Engels
were commissioned by Communist League ( then platform for international
communist working men) to script a common working paper for the communists of
world over. Thus, in 1848 “Manifesto of the Communist Party” was born in German
language as an ‘antithesis’ to Capitalism, in London, incidentally the citadel of
Capitalist and Imperialist word Again incidentally Marx lived from 1849 till his end
in 1883 in London, being a free-er and calmer place for free thinking people than
Germany. His political thesis found its first real fructification posthumously in
Bolshevik Revolution in 1917.

The philosophical coinage ‘dialectical materialism’ which depicts reality of constant

changes brought out by the tension of conflicting ideas, capitalism –socialism or
classes, bourgeois – proletarian, is the rock base of communist thesis
The great intension of Marx, wittingly or unwittingly, turned out to make human race
genetically modified to be capable of resisting bourgeois ill-effects and grow into a
perfectly socialist society. This has been done after examining and discarding all other
forms and theories of Socialism existed during 1750-1850. All those defective
bourgeois socialisms were the effects caused by the great revolutions in France (1789-
99) , Amerca(1775-83) etc, which brought out changes in feudal property/capital to
bourgeois property/capital. Capitalism continued to change its form all along the
history, but basic tenets remained such as free market economy, free flow of goods
and services, distribution of goods effected by the forces of market etc. Marx coded
the ‘ does and don’ts’ for World Communist Party in the transitive period to march to
unequivocally stated that “ the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of
class struggles” The root-cause of all class miseries is private property and capital
which commands ‘wage labour’ and exploit the working class. He has even gone as
far as to say “ the theory of communists may be summed in the single sentence :
Abolition of private property”.

Marx espoused as means to achieve his Socialist ideals

- armed revolution to over throw bourgeois governments,
- dictatorship of proletariats en route to establish ‘a classless-stateless society’
- abolition of private property

To achieve the above goals, Marx, though allowed concessions to each country to the
circumstances prevailed there, has prescribed 10 point immediate corrective
treatments to recover from the ill effects of bourgeois society and remould it in to the
ultimate health of classless socialism. This prescription includes abolition of Land
property & right to inheritance, centralisation of banking, instruments of production
to the state, creation of industrial army, impose equal obligation to all, to work, no
distinction between town and country by forced equal distribution of populace etc.
The dictum is ‘each according to his ability and to each according to his need’.
Genetical Modifications

To achieve each of the above listed goals, genetically modified human beings
defused of all natural instincts have become necessary. Many a time using force
consistently on common people through limited number of indoctrinated core cadre
and armed force can be seen all through the communist history of USSR and China .
Consider the following

-to immunise the human nature of being incentivised by the ambition to own and
retain the surplus of his hard work.

This attempt was proved over a period of time and after great many experimentations,
negating all motivation to give one’s best in his field of engagement( This is not new
argument and Marx himself has tried to answer in his life time). This also blunted the
process of wealth creation. It had come necessary to re-modify many socialist tenets,
after the first great full production scale experimentation in Russia starting from
Bolshevik Revolution (October Revolution) 1917 and the second major socialist trial
in China after Peoples Revolution in 1925 enthused by Russian success. It had
become imperative to concede to limited freedom like market socialism, conversion
of state owned production facilities in to joint-stock companies of workers, workers
co-operatives etc. all along its tumultuous tenure.

- to visualise borderless society being the idyllic world. Marx estimated that borders
will thin away once human race is singularised in to one class i.e prolitariat with no
disputes, no class frictions. And hence the exhortation “ workers of all countries,

But human nature is to remain in ethnic cluster and retain cluster and cultural identity.
This identity made him proud and patriotic to the cluster. Communism has been
conceptualised as an international movement of working class. Many a times actions
under local compulsions in one country had been causing ramifications in another.
Example, when Sino-Indian war erupted in 1962, Communist party of India has
described it as a ‘Socialist- Capitalist struggle’ which displayed the worst kind of
ideological slavery defying all lines. It also put all Communists on dock as suspect of
their patriotism. Communist sympathisers were even considered a serious security
risk to be employed in institutions of national importance like Armed Forces, Atomic
Research Centres etc. When ideological confrontations between Soviet and Chinese
Communist parties started surfacing in 1960s, it resulted into a vertical split in CPI to
pro-Chinese as CPI(Marxist)and pro-Soviet as CPI in 1964. Again, when CPI (M) in
1964 discussed broad electoral alliance with other non-reactionary parties in West
Bengal, it had found opposition in Communist party of China. Later Central
Committee reviewed the decision and gave up in the light international opposition.
Communist parties in India had shown shameful servitude to its international masters
like China and Soviet Unions. It took decades and was too late for some of the senior
comrades to come to terms and say aloud that Indian Communism is no appendage to
Communist party of China. Despite great many good works in labour movements
during last 85 years of its existence in India , the cross-country outlooks and over
dependence on imported ideology have seriously damaged the credibility of Indian
- everybody’s obligation to work while state looks after his necessities.

Most certainly, everybody has to work under any type of political dispensation,
communistic or capitalistic. But, to get an individual to work on state’s direction,
most often against his natural will and pursuit needs a thorough modification on his
inborn instincts. This is a source of gross discontent for the curtailed individual
freedom, and can only be imposed under pressure. This is unnatural in all ways and
bound to yield less than optimum out put at any level of ideological conviction.

- to ready people, predominantly working class, to take up arms and struggle to over
throw the governments of Monarchs, Autocrats or Bourgeois capitalists.

Every armed struggle or civil war any time in the history, anywhere in the world
presupposed a ground-swell of discontent and anger against the incumbent ruling
establishment .All the great revolutions that took place in 2 centuries between 1750 to
1950, regardless of the actors, bourgeois or proletariats, wherever those had happened
like America, France, Russia or China were the inevitable and ultimate expression of
the gross discontent and anger of the people at large, either erupted riotously or
canalised and commanded by great leaders. In the Indian context, the idea of India
was a gift of 200 years of British domination and rule by default, to otherwise several
native kingdoms ( 360 or so) in the subcontinent. In spite the discontent and anger
against the flourishing feudalism and zamindari under foreign rule, Communism
which took root from 1920s, could not make its strong pan Indian presence for many
historical reasons, and the main reason being Mahatma Gandhi’s return to India in
1914 from South Africa after a substantially successful struggle there against the
apartheid regime. Mahatma Gandhi’s unique and native philosophy of passive
resistance through Satyagraha, Civil Disobedience found great acceptance among the
freedom fighters. Marx’s ideologies and the strategy of power through armed struggle
were foreign to Indian psyche and communists had no leadership of Gandhi’s

Capitalism is an unscripted system. The demands of historical circumstances have

thrown up constant changes. French and American revolutions have brought out
changes from feudal capitalism under various monarchies to bourgeois capitalism,
and parliamentary democracy by various enactment of laws. The improvements in
system reducing exploitational scope to bourgeois owners of means production, are
dictated by the popular pressure. Therefore it is more natural and peaceful wherein
individual enjoyed greater civil liberty. As opposed to this, Communism is scripted to
bring out pre-conceived out put i.e. classless society, over throwing of bourgeois
establishment is expected to be violet, distasteful to public at large in long run. The
pre-scripted system can only deteriorate from the Marxian original in bourgeois path.

Suicide of Sanyal and his ilk

Getting back to the initial statement in this wild thoughts account, I have to consider
the communism, as conceived by Marx is original, though engineered of many
modifications to basic human nature ( in all fairness, Marx had never forbidden
changes in strategies to achieve the end). In Indian context, communists had to soon
modify or remodify the original on several counts , mainly about over-throwing
bourgeois establishments through armed revolution . Indian Communists had to
officially accept the fact of no ground for armed struggle and declare the acceptance
of parliamentary democracy and popular election. They captured ‘power through
ballets’ and first ever non-congress Govt in India was formed in Kerala under the
leadership of EMS Namboodiripad in 1957 and again in 1967 in Kerala and WB. Any
way the modified original communists have already lost their carnivorous character
and many a stripes on their exterior, world over. Here exactly where the Sanyal and
his ilk in India had taken their suicidal path in 1960s and remained UNMODIFIED

In 1967, Kanu Sanyal and Charu Majundar, then CPI(M) hard line members, gave
leadership to famous ‘Naxalbari’( Darjiling Dist, WB) peasant uprising. Killing of
many land lords were organised violently . The synonym ‘Naxalites’ have become a
permanent name to communist revolutionaries. The dream was that this violence will
ignite an Indian armed revolution to over throw the bourgeois government. They were
applauded by Chinese. They had reportedly support from China by way of arms and
money. The uprising was put down by the WB Govt in which their fellow travellers
CPI(M) was also a part. The majority of Leftists in WB in right time listened to
reasons and adapted themselves to the circumstances, so that they are ruling the state s
since early 1970s till date . 1960s have found a few revolutionary dreamers in Kerala
who organised similar violent killings and decapitation of a few ill famed land lords
in Wayanad. This revolution mongers were neutralised by the State Govt of their own
erstwhile fellow travellers. In Kerala revolution and revolutionaries died young. Here
also Leftists who joined electoral democracy have strong presence till date. As against
above two states, in Andhra in 1968, under the leadership of T. Naggi Reddy 50 %
of CPI(M) chose to remain as revolutionaries, today leftists ( except armed Maoists)
are hardly a political force of any consequence. Revolutionaries remained in the
margins in many splinter groups by various names like CPI (Marxist-Leninist), CPI
(Maoist), Peoples War Group etc etc. The point is that post independent India had
never been a breeding ground, nor had any compelling reasons for armed struggle.
Nehruvian socialism was a half- way point between Capitalism and Communism,
with the adaptation to mixed- economy and state owned core industry where private
capital was anyway not available or was shy. Further the licence-raj state regulation
on private capital had already constrained free market. All these have already taken
away the leftist plank considerably. Leftist parties have strong presence in Kerala,
WB and Tripura for their enactment initiative of land reforms between 1967 and
1975. These reforms were a big leveller in land ownership. ‘Land to tillers’ policy has
totally eliminated feudalism and zamindari and greatly empowered marginal farmers
and farm labour. This is achieved by ‘power through ballets’ rather than through guns.
This labour class orientation of Lefts has kept them going in India as a political force.

Now, Kanu Sanyal suicides as failed, retired and dejected man, seeing armed
revolutionaries going astray. Sanyal had reportedly confided in his life time that his
revolution was not against state, but only against land lords. Later, he had repudiated
violence and endorsed parliamentary democracy as a form of revolution. His ilk had
either joined other leftist parties, or changed profession or died disheartened. What
elected Govt of their fellow travellers could do to the working class using legislative
power in 2 years could not be done by the armed hard liners in 50 years. Inevitable
end of a suicidal path. Today people of Naxalbari do not remember having lent their
name to a movement.
Maoist is where & why ?

The most remarkable aspect of the Maoist presence is that they are all huddled in
tribal villages, forests, and hills. You get that they are not and can not be present in
civil societies, rural or urban. This statement hold good whether it is in Dantewada
(Chattisgarh), Gadchiroli (Mah), Lalgarh (WB), Telangana region (AP), or any such
Maoist concentration in such other places in Jarkhand, Orissaand Bihar states. These
are all backward tribal areas. All these places and people remain the same way
backward economically, educationally, and infrastructurally despite continuous
armed struggle . They continue to follow by will or force their armed non-tribal
leaders all along the last 4.5 decades. This is the puzzle.

Let us see why the tribal breeding farms are convenient to Maoists. They are poor ,
illiterate and not intelligent enough to carry any ideological baggage. They fear losing
their traditional forest land in the name of mining or development and therefore easy
to be indoctrinated against the state. They remain or kept unambitious except for the
basic necessities. They innocently hope their leaders will bring them good. In short,
the rank and file of Maoist fighters are unlikely to have any aim of over-throwing the
establishment of Indian State by 2050.

The incumbent Home Minster Chidambaram says that Maoists consider our “halloed
parliament is pigsty”. Tribal welfare does not appear to be anywhere in their scheme.
In stead, they mine roads, destroy railways, power stations and effectively block any
development reaching tribals even by default. They think the govts elected under
bourgeois system, though by their own fellow countrymen, are worthy only to be over
thown, yes according to the script ‘by armed revolution’. You need it or want it or

Why do Maoists continue their business and flourish?. Govts, state or centre, have
failed to include tribal area in over all development achieved in rest of the country
in the last 62 years of independence . Reasons may be varied like, difficult terrain,
scant population to justify spending on road, rail, power, education etc for upliftment
of the subjects, ignorable vote bank for Politician to worry about, lack of interest to
the subject to join mainstream and so on.

Democratically elected Govts, state or centre, are not determined enough to fight and
neutralise armed revolutionaries, being own country men. Divergence in opinion of
the state govts of different parties. Maoists convenience to shift camps after violence
in one state to another , to avoid hot persuits by police. Maoist can use indiscriminate
bullets on any body as opposed to the discrete use of bullets by state force for fear of
accountability to state and arm chair human right activists, visual media. In Short,
Maoists are increasing their strength on the charity of the state.

Today, the right to wield gun has become the objective than the means. So that, the
hegemony has become a way of life, an industry of power, a survival even by
extortion. This held good in Sri Lankan LTTE movement which perpetuated over 2.5
decades, even against the Tamil subjects for whom they took up arms and started
fighting. It will become difficult for wielders of gun to know when to put it down. It
continued in flourish until the state asserted with its might.
On 11th April, I watched a recast of NDTV ‘Big Fight’ free for all debate on
‘naxalism’. One Naxal ideologue called Govindankutty ( probably a one man
following in Kerala) appeared for his masters. He made a concluding comment in
high emotion “ you can kill all Naxallites, but can never kill Naxalism”. He did not
appear mentally deranged, but appeared poor and not bothered of any material benefit.
I kept groping in the dark to find what is ticking him and I am still groping…