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SCS5619 MOBILE AND PERVASIVE COMPUTING

UNIT I

INTRODUCTION:

Definition 1:

 Mobile computing refers to the use of small and portable computing devices in wireless
enabled networks that provide wireless connections to a central main server.

 These devices include laptops, notebook PCs, tablet PCs, palmtops, personal digital
assistant (PDAs) and other hand held devices. A radio-signaling device is installed inside
these devices for receiving and transmitting electronic data.

Definition 2:

 Mobile computing encompasses a number of technologies and devices, such as wireless


LANs, notebook computers, cell and smart phones, tablet PCs and PDAs.

Basically, any electronic device that helps you organize your life, communicate with coworkers
or friends, or do your job more efficiently is part of mobile computing.
SCS5619 MOBILE AND PERVASIVE COMPUTING

Differences between Mobile Communication and Mobile Computing

Both mobile communication and mobile computing involve wireless data transfer. The
difference is in the kind of data being transferred, and the kind of service being provided.

The prevailing definition of mobile communication is any kind of communication that is done
over a mobile phone interface. People often use the terms "mobile communication" and "wireless
communication" somewhat interchangeably. The main idea, though, is that mobile
communication implies voice communication, and unless someone who is talking about mobile
communication specifies data, many readers or listeners assume they’re talking about voice
communications.
For a very evident example of the difference between mobile communications and mobile
computing, take a "pre-smartphone" cellphone and set it next to a modern iPhone, Android or
other smartphone. The difference in layout and interface is a physical example of the difference
between a phone that offers mobile communications, and one that offers mobile computing.
SCS5619 MOBILE AND PERVASIVE COMPUTING

Functions of Mobile Computing

User Mobility:

• User should be able to move from one physical location to another location and use the
same service. E.g. user moves from London to New Delhi and uses Internet to access the
corporate application the same way the user uses in home office.

Network Mobility:

• User should be able to move from one Network to another network and use the same
service. E.g. user moves from London to New Delhi and uses the same GSM phone to
access the corporate application through WAP. In home Network he uses this services
over GPRS whereas in Delhi he access it over the GSM Network.

Bearer Mobility:

• User should be able to move from one bearer to another and use the same service. E.g.
user was using a service though WAP bearer in his home N/W in Bangalore. He moves to
Coimbatore, where WAP is not supported, he switch over to voice or SMS bearer to
access the same application. (switching from BSNL to Vodafone on roaming)

Device mobility:

User should be able to move from one device to another and use the same service. E.g.
could be sales representatives using their desktop computer in home office. During the
day while they are on the street they would like to use their Palmtop to access the
application.

Session Mobility:

A user session should be able to move from one user-agent environment to another. E..g.
could be a user was using his service through a CDMA iX network. The user entered into the
basement to park the car and got disconnected from the CDMA n/w. User goes to home
office and starts using the desktop. The unfinished session in the CDMA moves from the
mobile device to the desktop computer.
SCS5619 MOBILE AND PERVASIVE COMPUTING

Service Mobility:

User should be able to move from one service to another. E.g. a user is writing a mail. To
complete the mail user needs to refer to some other information. In a desktop PC, user simply
opens another service (browser) and moves between them using the task bar. User should be
able to switch amongst services in small footprint wireless devices like in the desktop. (In a
browser we use HTTP to open yahoo. COM page and POP3 or SMTP to send & receive mail
)

Host Mobility:

The user device can be either a client or server. When it is a server or host, some of the
complexities change. In case of host mobility the mobility of IP needs to be taken care of.
SCS5619 MOBILE AND PERVASIVE COMPUTING

Applications and Services


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Making Legacy Applications Mobile Enabled

Standard Bodies

 3GPP — 3rd Generation Partnership Project


 IEEE — Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

IEEE-SA — IEEE Standards Association

 IETF — Internet Engineering Task Force


 ISO — International Organization for Standardization
 ITU — The International Telecommunication Union

ITU-R — ITU Radiocommunications Sector (formerly known as CCIR)

ITU-T — ITU Telecommunications Sector (formerly known as CCITT)

ITU-D — ITU Telecom Development (formerly known as BDT)

 OMA — Open Mobile Alliance


 W3C — World Wide Web Consortium

 ETSI — European Telecommunications Standards Institute


SCS5619 MOBILE AND PERVASIVE COMPUTING

Interation of Wireline and Wireless Networks

Design Consideration of Mobile Computing


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Context Aware Systems


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Pervasive Computing
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Pervasive Devices

A ubiquitous computing model in which information processing is integrated with common


objects

Embedded systems - the integration of computers and electronics into mechanical objects to
allow control and the transmission of information.

Human-computer interaction - the techniques used to maximize the possibilities and the ease
of human contact with computers.

Wearable computers - miniature electronic devices that are worn with or around an individual's
clothing.