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Physics

Grade 11

1. Isotopes of a given element all have the same


A charge/ mass ratio
B neutron number
C nucleon number
D proton number

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2. A nuclide of the nuclide 94Pu decays by emission of a ß-particle followed by the emision of an
α-particle.
Which of the nuclides shown is formed?

3. Which two nuclei contain the same number of neutrons?

4. A student conducts an experiment using an α-particle source.


When considering safetly precautions, what can be assumed to be the maximum range of α-
particles in air?

5. The following represents a squence of radioactive decay involving two α-particles and one ß-
particle.

6. What is a correct order of magnitude estimate for the diameter of a typical nucleus?

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7. The decay of a nucleus of neptunium is accompanied by the emission af a ß-particle and -
radiation.
What effect (if any) does this decay have on the proton number and the nucleon number of the
nucleus?

8. Radon-220 is radioactive and decays to Polonium-216 with the emission of an α-particle. The
equation for the radioactive decay is shown.

How many neutrons are in the radon and polonium nuclei?

9. A detector is exposed to a radioactive source. Fluctuation in the count-rate are observed.


What do these fluctuations indicate about radioactive decay?

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10. The symbol 32Ge represents a nucleus of germanium that decays to a nucleus of arsenic by
emitting a ß-particle.
What is the symbol of this arsenic nucleus?

11. Each of the nuclei below is accelarated from rest through the same potential difference.
Which one completes the accelaration with the lowest speed?

12. What is the approximate mass of a nucleus of uranium?

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13. Which two nuclei contain the same number of neutrons?

14. The calcium nuclide 42


20Ca is formed by beta decay.
What are the nucleon (mass) number and proton (atomic) number of the unstable nuclide that
underwent beta decay to form the calcium nuclide?

15. When boron-11 ( 115B) is bombared with α-particle, a new nucleus is formed and neutron is
released.
Which nuclear equation could represent this reaction?

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16. Uranium-238, 92U,decays by a α emission into a daughter product which in turn decays by ß-
emission into a grand-daughter product.
What is the grand-daughter product?

17. Which statement about nuclei is correct?

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18. The radio active decay of nuclei is both spontaneous and random.
Explain what is meant by
(a) radio active decay of nucleus
(b) spontaneous decay
(c) random decay

19. One of the isotopes of uranium is uranium-238 ( 238


92U).
(a) State what is meant by isotopes.

(b) For a nucleus of uranium-238, state


(i) the number of proton
(ii) the number of neutron

(c) A uranium-238 nucleus has a radius of 8.9 x 10-15 m.


Calculate, for a uranium-238 nucleus,
(i) its mass
(ii) its mean density

(d) The density of a lump of uranium is 1.9 x 104 kgm-3.


Using your answer to (c)(ii), suggest what can be inferred about the structure of the atom.

20. A radio active source emits α-radiation and -radiation.


Explain how it my be shown that the source does not emit ß-radiation using
(a) the absorption properties of the radiation,
(b) the effect of a magnetic field on the radiation.

21. (a) The radioactive decay of some nuclei given rise to the emission of α-particle.
State
(i) what is meant by an α-particle,
(ii) two properties of α-particle

(b) One posible nuclear reaction involves the bombardment of a stationary nitrogen-14 nucleus
by an α-particle to form oxygen-17 and another particle.
(i) Complete the nuclear equation for this reaction

(ii)The total mass-energy of the nitrogen-14 nucleus and the α-particle is less than that of the
particles resulting from the reaction. This mass-energy difference is 1.1 MeV.
1. Suggest how its possible for mass-energy to be conserved in this reaction.
2. Calculate the speed of α-particle having kinetic energy of 1.1 MeV.

22. Uranium-236 ( 236 237


92U) and Uranium-237 ( 92U) are both radioactive.
Uranium-236 is an α-emitter and uranium-237 is ß-emitter.
(a) Distinguish between an α-particle and a ß-particle.
(b) The grid on fig shows some proton numbers Z an rhe x-axis and the number N of neutrons in
the nucleus on the y-axis.

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The α-decay of uranium-236 ( 23692U) is represent on the grid. This decay produces a nucleus of
thorium (Th)
(i) Write down the nuclear equation for this α-decay
(ii) On fig, mark the position for a nucleus of
1. Uranium-273 (mark this position with the letter U),
2. Neptunium, the nucleus produced by the ß-decay of Uranium-273 (mark this
position with the letter Np).

23. The radioactive decay of strontium (Sr) nucleus is represented in fig.

(a) State whether fig represents α-decay, ß-decay or -decay.


(b) One type of radioactive decay cannot be represented on fig.
Identify this decay and explain why it cannot be represented.

24. (a) The spontanius decay of polonium is shown by the nuclear equation

(i) State the composition of the nucleus of X.


(ii) The nuclei X are emitted as radiation. State two properties of this radiation.
(b) The mass of the polonium (Po) nucleus is greather than the combined mass of the nuclei of
lead (Pb) and X. Use a conservation law to explain qualitatively how this decay is possible.

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25. Fig show the position of Neptunium-231 ( 231
93Np) on a diagram in which nucleon number (mass
number) A is ploted against proton number (atomic number) Z

(a) Neptunium-231 decays by the emission of an α-particle to form protactium.


On fig, mark with the symbol Pa the position of the isotope of protactinium produced in this
decay.
(b) Plutonium-243 (24394Pu) decays by the emission of a ß-particle (an electron).
On fig, show this decay by labelling the position of Plutonium-243 as Pu and the position of
the daughter product as D.

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