Sie sind auf Seite 1von 5

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION /

ARUHAN ELECTROMAGNET
 Electromagnetic induction is the production of an electric
current by a changing magnetic field.
 Aruhan electromagnet adalah penghasilan arus elektrik
oleh medan magnet yang berubah.
 The induced current is produced:
 Arus aruhan terhasil bila:
* there is a relative motion between conductor and magnetic
field lines.
*terdapat gerakan relatif antara konduktor dan garisan daya
medan magnet
*which causes the conductor to cut the magnetic fields lines
*yang menyebabkan konduktor memotong garisan medan
magnet
*which causes e.m.f / current is induce in conductor.
*yang menyebabkan d.g.e / arus teraruh pada konduktor

Direction of induce current in copper rod is determine using


Fleming’s Right Hand Rule.
Arah arus aruhan pada rod kuprum ditentukan menggunakan
Peraturan Tangan Kanan Fleming.

Fleming right hand rule

 The motion of the copper rod must be perpendicular to the


direction of the magnetic field lines to produce maximum
induced current.
 Rod kuprum mesti digerakkan serenjang dengan medan
magnet untuk menghasilkan aus aruhan yang maksimum
 If the copper rod is moved parallel to the magnetic field Show the direction of the induced current when the magnet is
lines there is no cutting of magnetic field, so no current moved in the direction shown.
induce. Tunjukkan arah arus aruhan bila magnet digerakkan pada
 Jika rod kuprum digerakkan selari dengan medan magent arah yang ditunjukkan
tiada pemotongan medan magnet berlaku, maka tiada arus
diaruhkan

Law used to determine direction of induce current


Hukum untuk menentukan arah arus aruhan
Lenz’s Law / Hukum Lenz:
The direction of the induced current in a solenoid is
such that it’s magnetic effect always oppose the change
producing it.
menyatakan bahawa arus aruhan mengalir dalam arah yang
menghasilkan tentangan pada perubahan fluks yang
menghasilkannya.

Law used to determine value of induce current


Hukum untuk menentukan nilai arus aruhan 4) The diagram shows a coil of wire placed next to a magnet.
Faraday’s Law / Hukum Faraday: The galvanometer pointer deflects when the magnet is
The magnitude of the induced e.m.f/current is directly pushed into the coil.
proportional to the rate of cutting magnetic field lines.
Nilai d.g.e./ arus aruhan berkadar langsung dengan kadar
pemotongan garisan medan magnet.
The size of the induced e.m.f. / current and be increased by:
Nilai d.g.e / arus aruhan bertambah dengan:
1. moving the magnet or the solenoid at a higher speed
menggerakkan magnet/solenoid dengan laju Which action will increase the deflection of the
2. increasing the number of turns on the solenoid galvanometer pointer?
meningkatkan bilangan lilitan solenoid A The magnetic pole is reversed
3. using stronger magnet to increase the strength of the B The number of coils is increased
magnetic field. C The coil is made from insulated wire
menggunakan magnet yang lebih kuat untuk meningkatkan D The magnet is pushed slowly into the coil
kekuatan medan magnet
5) The diagram shows a rigid wire XY can be moved about in
1) The diagram shows a sensitive centre-zero galvanometer is the space between the magnets.
connected to a solenoid.

What happens to pointer of the galvanometer when the


magnet is moved up and down into the solenoid? Which of the following movements would produce the
A Unaffected B Deflects to the left greatest reading on the galvanometer?
C Deflects to the right D Deflects to the left and then to A Downwards, quickly B Downwards, slowly
the right C Sideways, quickly D Sideways, quickly
2) The diagram shows a magnet is pushed into a coil caused 6) Which diagram shows the correct direction of the induced
the pointer of the galvanometer kicks to the right of zero. current when the magnet is moved in the direction shown?

What happens to the pointer of the meter when the


magnet is pulled back from the coil?
A The pointer gives a continuous reading to the left
B The pointer gives a continuous reading to the right
C The pointer kicks to the left
D The pointer kicks to the right
7) A straight conductor is moved perpendicularly to the
3) The diagram shows a small magnet being held at one end magnetic field. Which of the following diagrams shows the
of coil. correct direction of the induced current in the conductor?

Which of the following is not true when the south pole of


the magnet is being inserted into the solenoid?
A The magnetic flux is cut by the solenoid
B The induced current flows from X to Y
C The galvanometer pointer deflects to the right and
to the left.
D The kinetic energy is converted into electrical
energy.
8)Diagram 8.1 and 8.2 show a bar magnet is pushed into a (b) Based on the direction of the current in Diagram 6.1 and
solenoid at a speed of 2 ms-1. Diagram 6.2;
(i) Label the polarity at the end of each solenoid in box X and
box Y. [2 marks]
(ii) Label the direction of motion of the bar magnet in the
boxes provided in Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2.
[2 marks]
(c)(i)State whether the force that acts between the solenoid
and bar magnet in Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2 is
attractive or repulsive.
Diagram 8.1 Diagram 8.2 Force in Diagram 6.1 : ……………………………………….
(a) State the physical quantity that is represented by the
deflection of the galvanometer. Force in Diagram 6.2 ………….………………......[2 marks]

……..……………………………………………..……[1 mark] (ii)Name the law that applies to (c)(i).

(b) Based on Diagram 8.1 and Diagram 8.2: ......... .............................................…………………[1 mark]
(i) State two differences that can be observed from
Diagram 8.1 and Diagram 8.2. (d) Suggest one method to increase the magnitude of the
induced current
…………………………………………………………………
…….….............................................………………[1 mark]
……………………………………………….……….[2 marks]
10. Diagram 2.1 shows a bar magnet before and when is
(ii) Based on the answer in (b)(i), explain why these pushed into a solenoid.
differences occur?

............................................................................................

…..........................................................................[2 marks]

(c) Name the physics law involved in 6(b)(ii).


Diagram 2.1
...............................................................................[1 mark] (a) Name the physics concept involved in Diagram 2.1?

(d) Explain why the direction of current in the solenoid is ……………………………………………………..……[1 mark]
upward as shown in Diagram 8.1 and Diagram 8.2?
(b) State the polarity of the solenoid at ‘X’

……...................................................................................... ………………………………………………………..…[1 mark]

................................................................................[2 marks] (c) Diagram 2.2 shows a magnet bar is being pull away from
inside a solenoid.
9) Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2 show that a current is induced
in a solenoid when a bar magnet is moved in or out of the
solenoid.

Diagram 2.2
DIAGRAM 6.1 DIAGRAM 6.2 On Diagram 2.2
(i) mark the direction of the current flow in the circuit
(a) What is meant by induced current? (ii) by using an arrow mark the compass direction on the
compass above. [2 mark]
.…………………………………………………………[1 mark]
11. Diagram 4 shows a bar magnet is hung on a spring that
attached to a retort stand. The bar magnet is displaced
downwards and released so it can oscillate through a
solenoid which is connected to a centre-zero galvanometer. ……........................................................................[1 mark]

(d ) State one method to increase the induced current in the


solenoid.

……........................................................................[1 mark]

13. Diagram 6.1 shows a bar magnet is moved into a solenoid.


(a) What is meant by electromagnetic induction?

…………………………...................................................[1]

(b). When the bar magnet move towards the solenoid, the
galvanometer pointer deflect for a while.
(i) Explain why the galvanometer pointer deflects?
Diagram 6.1
……………………….......................................................... Diagram 6.2 shows two bar magnets are moved into a
solenoid. Galvanometer shows the reading of the induced
………………………………………………………………[2] current.

(ii). State the polarity of end A and end B of the solenoid.

A : ...................................................................................

B : ...............................................................................[2]

(c) If the spring is replaced by a stiffer spring, Diagram 6.2


(i)state the change to the angle of deflection of the (a) What is meant by induced current?
galvanometer pointer?
……........................................................................[1 mark]
……….............................................................................[1]
(b) Using Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2, compare
(ii) Give the reason for your answer. (i) the number of turns of the wire of the solenoid
.......................................................................[1 mark] ...........................................................................[1 mark]
12. Diagram 2 shows a bar magnet is being pushed towards a (ii) the strength of the magnetic field
solenoid.
.........................................................................[1 mark]

(iii) the magnitude of the induced current

........................................................................[1 mark]

Diagram 2 (c) (i) Based on the answer in 6(b), state the relationship
(a) State the magnetic pole at P when the magnet is moved between the strength of magnetic field and induced
towards the solenoid. current.

……........................................................................[1 mark] ........................................................................[1 mark]

(b) In Diagram 2, when the magnet is pushed towards the (ii) Name the physics law involved in 6(c)(i)
solenoid;
(i) mark the direction of induced current on the solenoid ........................................................................[1 mark]
(ii) show the direction of pointer on the zero centered
galvanometer. [2 marks] (d) Diagram 6.3 shows a bar magnet is moved towards a
(c )Name the physics law involved in determining the poles in solenoid.
(a) above
Diagram 6.3
Explain why the solenoid moves away from the magnet?

……......................................................................................
Diagram 10.1
…….......................................................................[2 marks]

14. Fig. 7.1 shows one way to demonstrate an electrical


effect.

Diagram 10.2
(a) What is the meaning of electromagnet? [1 mark]
Fig. 7.1 (b) Using Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2, compare the
As the wire is moved downwards between the magnetic poles, strength of magnetic field, current flow and the distance
the needle of the ammeter deflects to the left. moved by the copper rod. Relate the current flow with the
(a) Name the physics concept involved. distance moved by the copper rod to make a deduction on
. the relationship between current and force on a conductor.
......................................................................................... [1] [5 marks]
(c) Based on Diagram 10.1, explain why the copper rod move
(b) Fig. 7.2 illustrates the right hand rule, which helps to to the right. [4 marks]
determine the direction of current flowing in the conductor. (d) Diagram 10.3 shows a cross section of a moving coil
microphone. A microphone converts one form of energy
into another. When the diaphragm moves in response to
sound, the attached coil moves in the magnetic field and
generates a very small current in the wire of the coil. Using
an appropriate concept in physics, suggest and explain
Fig. 7.2 suitable modifications or ways to enable the microphone to
In each of the boxes, write the name of the quantity that
detect sound effectively and generate bigger current based
direction represents. [2]
on the following aspect:
(c) State what happens to the needle of the ammeter when the
wire is moved upwards between the magnetic poles.

......................................................................................... [1]

(c) State and explain what happens when the wire is held
stationary between the magnetic poles.
…….......................................................................................
.
……................................................................................. [2]
Diagram 10.3
(i) thickness of diaphragm
15. Diagram 10.1 and Diagram 10.2 show identical copper (ii) strength of the material for diaphragm
(iii) number of turns of coil
rods placed on bare copper wires in the magnetic field.
(iv) diameter of the wire of coil
When the switch is on, the pointer of the ammeter deflects (v) shape of magnet [10 marks]
and the copper rod is moved to the final position as shown
in the diagrams.