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Law Enforcement Tactics


Randy Gonzalez
Chapter 1 - Introduction and Overview Page 1

Chapter 2 – Threat Analysis & Intelligence Gathering Factors Page 9

Chapter 3 – Efforts to Combat Terrorism _Page 17

Chapter 4 – Identifying Terrorist Groups _Page 25

Chapter 5 – Terrorist Weapons, Targets and Tactics _Page 33

Chapter 6 - Tactical Capabilities of Terrorist Intentions Page 41

Chapter 7 – WMD – Bio Weapons Page 49

Chapter 8 – WMD – Bio Weapons Continued Page 57

Chapter 9 – WMD – Nuclear Weapons______ Page 65

Chapter 10 – WMD – Incendiary Devices & Chemicals Page 73

Chapter 11: Other Types - Chemical Weapons & Explosives Page 81

Chapter 12: Preventive Countermeasures Page 100

Chapter 13: Tactical Implications - Field Operations Strategy Page 117

Chapter 14: Further Considerations – Threats and Response Measures

Page 135

Copyright--2003 Randolph A. Gonzalez – All Rights Reserved


Chapter1: Introduction and Overview:

Throughout the country and around the globe, both the media and the
government have various notions and definitions as to what defines the term
“terrorism”. Some have said that terrorism is a form of “warfare” used by
those who cannot afford an army or traditional military action of a
nationalistic nature. Or, that it is the “poor man’s” method of fighting an
oppressive government. Others have said that “terrorism” is more
economical for those opposing an existing government, and trying to bring
about some kind of political change. These are fanciful notions fostered by
naïve and sympathetic representatives of the media. Terrorism is criminal
political violence that intends to destabilize a government, in order to
promote a cause. It uses violence through various criminal acts to raise the
level of fear among those who may affect governmental decision-making.

FBI – The unlawful use of force against persons or property to
intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any
segment thereof, in the furtherance of political or social objectives.
Domestic Terrorism - involving groups or individuals whose terroristic
activities are directed at elements of our government or population
without foreign direction.
International Terrorism - involves groups or individuals whose terrorist
activities are foreign-based and/or directed by countries or groups
outside the United States or whose activities transcend national

Department of Justice – The use of force or violence, or threatened

use of force, against persons or places for the purpose of intimidating,
or coercing a government, its citizens, or any segment thereof, for
political or social goals.

Department of State – Premeditated, politically motivated violence

perpetrated against non-combatant targets by sub-national or
clandestine agents usually intended to influence an audience.

By whatever definition is chosen, it should be remembered that terrorism is a

premeditated act of criminal violence against other people. Such actions
endeavor to make the citizens more fearful about their environment and their
personal freedom. From grenades to rockets, and poisons to chemicals,
terrorists seek to kill and scare people with their power.

Terrorist strategy is based upon the capacity to strike future

blows, no matter what. The terrorist goal is not negotiation
but capitulation by the government. One often used tactic to
obtain this goal is the taking of hostages. In counter-
terrorism parlance, the government or authority structure is
the primary victim. The secondary victim is the hostage.
Terrorists take hostages to draw attention to their cause and
to confound the authorities. (2)

Proper planning prevents poor


The very nature of “terrorism” is what makes it a potential potent powerful

political weapon. Public conceptions of the mere threat of terrorism raise
fear levels beyond the normal range of reason. Today, terrorists are well
trained and capable of carrying extreme measures against populations groups
through out the world. They are capable of achieving the element of
surprise, using innovative tactics, techniques and technology. Terrorism is a
form of violence that capitalizes on fear, as well as the magnification of such
acts through intense media portrayal. In recent times, significant acts of
terrorism have led public officials to seek various ways to confront such
threats. Yet, public defense, or “homeland security” countermeasures, is
difficult to construct, given the nature and capabilities of terrorist groups.
Snipings, bombings, kidnappings, hijackings, assassinations, hostage taking,
extortion, drugs and weapon smuggling present challenges to law
enforcement on a global scale. Terrorists are well armed, trained and
capable of carrying out destructive acts against a range of targets.

From operational planning, to tactical implementation, terrorists possess the

command, control, communications and intelligence capabilities to attack
with ruthless effectiveness. They can carry out and execute a sustained
climate of fear through an ongoing campaign of violence and destruction.
Their mission is not complicated and they will associate with drug dealers,
organized crime groups, and other sinister organizations to achieve their

Terrorism is premeditated, politically motivated violence

oriented effort to advance a philosophical-social-political
agenda for profit and power. It is related to organized
crime, in that it seeks power, control and profit continuity
outside the normal channels of political interaction.
Terrorism is organized criminal behavior that employs
“guerilla warfare” tactics, either in it state or nation of
residence, or outside such territory with state or nation
sponsorship. They are capable of employing a range of
weaponry, often more sophisticated than those possessed
by local police forces. Acts of terrorism include the use of
biological, chemical, radiological, explosive and other
weapons to achieve their goals and objectives. In addition,
they utilize technology to their advantage, which involves
the Internet, computer systems, banking structures and so

The criminals of terrorist organizations train, educate and focus themselves

on the desire to advance the power and influence over others. They are a
collective threat to human freedom and democracy. They are not, contrary
to popular notion, “freedom fighters”. They are simply criminals with a
political agenda. Their tactics involve the unlawful use, as well as the
threatened use, of violence and destruction against men, women and
children. To the terrorist, everyone is a combatant, as they operate on both
foreign and domestic fronts. They may operate within the United States and
territories, with or without foreign direction. Many definitions have evolved
as to how we should define “terrorism”. And, since the use of weaponry
encompasses a wide range of possibilities, the present day use of terms such
as “weapons of mass destruction” has become more commonplace.

To say, “one man’s terrorist is another man’s freedom fighter” distorts the
real and sinister picture of terrorism. In the real world, perfect distinctions
and definitions often blur in the realty of human cruelty and degradation.
The many “experts” in the field of terrorism have contrived many definitions
of terrorism. In many cases, these efforts have led to the difficulty not only
in understanding it, but also in combating it as well. Terrorism is criminal
behavior and should not be associated with some fanciful notion connected
to liberating a country from oppression. It is a brutal form of expression that
includes non-combatants as easy target of prey. In the harsh reality of
human actions, terrorism remains a deliberate act of aggression and hostility
toward others which includes harming the “civilian” population in general.
It is murder and aggravated battery, along with other criminal acts, designed
to intimidate and otherwise frighten various population groups for mainly
political purposes. Acts of terrorism must be separated from other types of
politically motivated activities, such as guerrilla warfare and insurrection.
Guerrilla warfare is generally concerned with attacking military targets and
political officials in order to bring about a governmental change within a
particular country.

In their book, Political Terrorism, Schmidt and Youngman cited

109 definitions of terrorism, which they obtained in a survey of
leading academics in the field. From these definitions, the authors
isolated the following recurring elements, in order of their
statistical appearance in the definitions: violence, force (appeared
in 83.5% of the definitions); political (65%); fear, emphasis on
terror (51%); threats (47%); psychological effects and anticipated
reactions (41.5%); discrepancy between the targets and the victims
(37.5%); intentional, planned systematic, organized action (32%);
methods of combat, strategy, tactics (30.5%).

The arsenal of terrorists has adapted to the innovations in technology. The

current era of “weapons of mass destruction” (aka WMD) include an array
of weaponized instruments of widespread death and injury potential. From
poison gas to radioactivity, the lethal nature of terrorism has dramatically
escalated in an increasingly smaller global community.

From a purely generic and narrow definition, “weapons of mass destruction”

tend encompass any explosive device or other materials that potentially
cause widespread death, injury and damage. But, the inclusion of such
implements also refers to incendiary and poison gas devices, as well as
variety of bio-hazardous agents. Things such as bombs, grenades, missiles,
land mines, and so forth fall within this broad category of destructive
devices. To this mix of weapons, we can also include various configurations
of nuclear weapons, biological and chemical devices that have the potential
for significant levels of damage to people and property. For most people in
the United States, it is difficult to imagine the possibilities and the potential
danger that stems from the use of some type of “weapon of mass
destruction”. The use of destructive devices by terrorists is perplexing and
hard to comprehend for many people.

Terrorism Includes

1. Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

2. Unlawful and violent tactics
3. Selected targets of opportunity
4. Maximum use of the media
5. Political motivation
6. Civilian targets
7. Planning and organization

First responders to acts of terrorism are generally local law enforcement

officers. The seemingly unpredictable nature of terrorism requires constant
vigilance on the part of all law enforcement personnel. The collection and
analysis of frontline intelligence is important to the mission of providing
public safety and security. Surveillance, intelligence gathering, patrol
strategies and associated tactics and techniques must be effectively
employed in order to confront terrorist activities. None of this, of course, is
easy. But, ongoing training, education and proactive efforts are necessary to
the public safety mission.

The terrorist threat around the world represents

a serious challenge to law enforcement officials
– one that many are unprepared to handle. The
use of criminal activity to create fear and thus
further political goals is a strategy that has been
employed for centuries. As early as 400 B.C.,
Sun Tzu observed, that before launching an all
out attack, “the master conqueror frustrated his
enemy’s plans and broke up his alliances. He
created cleavages between sovereign and
minister, superiors and inferiors, commanders
and subordinates. His spies and agents were
active everywhere, gathering information,
sowing dissention and nurturing subversion.
The enemy was isolated and demoralized; his
will to resist broken. Thus, without battle his
army was conquered, his cities taken and his
state overthrown.”

Terrorism are violent efforts to further the political aims of a particular

group. Activities involve unlawful acts that target civilian population areas
in the furtherance of such aims. Terrorist tactics, techniques and technology
should foster a response by law enforcement that is both proactive and
innovative. Since terrorism is criminal activity, countermeasures should
include the use of enhanced training methodologies, advanced education,
covert operations, tactical and strategic planning, aggressive surveillance,
electronic countermeasures, innovative problem solving tactics, multi-
agency initiatives in planning, training and practical application, as well as
other related aspects. Terrorism tends to be adaptive, and the law
enforcement response must be well prepared to deal with their tactics.

Emanating from a distorted worldview, terrorism employs whatever

criminal activity suits its needs. From blackmail, to intimidation and
suicidal bombings, terrorists promote a political agenda of death and
destruction. Violence is used as a mechanism of persuasion in the
sociopathic world of the terrorist. Targets of opportunity are selected
on the basis of propaganda value by use of unprovoked attacks. In
most cases, criminal acts or perpetrated with minimum risk to the
key terrorist players, and maximum exposure and publicity in the
media. The media are often more than willingly to sensationalize to
every extend possible the “scope and nature” of the terrorist incident.
Publicity is an important ingredient to the terrorist. And, terrorist
incidents will be portrayed in graphic detail with great obsession by
various media outlets. Terrorist generally prefer to strike with
surprise that is preceded by careful planning and training. The
primary weapon is the “fear factor”. If people are scarred and
intimidated, then the terrorist act has been a success. Fear is an
essential component of terrorist actions. There is a desire to make
the public feel vulnerable and unsafe. Such anxiety on the part of the
public puts pressure on law enforcement services to act. Terrorism is
an attack on noncombatants in that civilians are targeted. The
political and economic goals of terrorism are accomplished through
the degree of propaganda that is obtained. Terrorist groups tend to be
cohesive, loyal, trained, educated, financed and armed.

Terrorism encompasses a range of

cowardly acts that involve violations of
established law. But, controversial or
bizarre beliefs and opinions do not
necessarily represent a terrorist
orientation or inclination. Belief systems
vary among people and span the
philosophical spectrum in many
directions. In the U.S., the Constitution
protects freedom of speech. Opinions
are one thing actions are another thing.
However, we should keep in mind that
vigilance is virtue.

Attitudes and forms expression do not normally reflect the potential for
terrorist incidents. People can have opinions no matter how strange they are.
They can deviate from “mainstream” belief systems and carry on with a
variety of viewpoints. Yet, extreme belief systems should not be ignored
and should be part of the information gathering process of effective law
enforcement action. When the attitudes and opinions transcend the bridge
between thought and action, then attention should be given to that which
violates the law.

Terrorist Incident – characterizes a situation in which an incident is

dangerous, violent and threatens human life in violation of criminal
statutes. It suggests that law enforcement has an idea as to who did the
act and what the motive was.

Suspected Terrorist Incident – less certain than the “Terrorist Incident”,

and the identity and motive is not determined at the time of the incident.

Terrorism Prevention – represents positive law enforcement interdiction

when terrorist are identified, known to have committed a violation and
arrested before carrying out a Terrorist Incident. This is the result of a
comprehensive criminal investigation.

Chapter 2: Threat Analysis & Intelligence Gathering Factors:

An effective threat analysis system, which includes efficient intelligence

gathering, could be a potentially potent weapon against terrorism. That is, if
used properly, information analysis is an aspect of the crime and criminal
behavior analysis process, which could support preventive measures to
interdict terrorist activities. As such, the most important part of
intelligence gathering begins at the patrol level. Patrol, which represents the
striking power of the law enforcement agency, is in the appropriate position
to initiate the information development process. The information gathering
process is an integral part of overall threat analysis. With respect to the line
operations, officers on patrol have occasions to receive information relative
to signs of tension, unrest, conspiracies, suspicious activities, and so forth, in
their respective areas of assignment. The acquisition of intelligence
information should be processed and analyzed to the extent necessary to
keep command level staff well advised as to situations within the
community. Information and threat analysis processes should be established
within in every law enforcement organization. Police executives must be
informed on a regular basis through an effective intelligence briefing

Threats of violence arise from feelings or ideas that range from the mean-
spirited to the messianic. Sometimes a threat is backed by the will and
capacity to do harm; at other times, a voiced threat may amount to nothing
but emotional “venting”. However, violent acts can be committed when
no prior threat has been uttered. For law enforcement and security
officers, recognize the differences between “making” and “posing” a threat
is crucially important.
Perpetrators of violence often have a traceable history of problems,
conflicts, disputes, and failures. Violent behavior may be triggered by
these individuals’ perception that it provides a means to rectify or avenge
an injustice or wrongdoing. Targeted violence can be premeditated or
opportunistic when a situation arises that facilitates or permits the violence
or does not prevent it from occurring.

Good information from many sources can be effectively used in

an effort to plan proactive strategies. This should be balanced
with proper education and training of public service forces.

1. Proper planning prevents poor performance – tactical and technical

capabilities are brought to bear in order to have a good risk analysis.
2. Time, talk and tactics – time is utilized to gather intelligence data,
talk is held to assess informatics, and proactive tactics are developed
to interdict into problem areas.
3. Target hardening contemplates a proactive posture – the prospects of
future violence are considered in view of potential local
vulnerabilities. This is involves implementation of a set of
investigative and operational techniques that serve to identify,
analyze and manage the probability of targeted violence and the
potential criminals involved.
4. Making a threat must be balanced against posing a threat –
evaluation of threats must be considered in terms of probable
capabilities to carry out violent acts. Problem solving talents are
5. The fundamental basis of threat assessments involves the analysis of
relevant data – this must be devoid of political agenda or personal
bias. Basic questions to be answered include: who, what, where,
when, how, why and action to be taken.
6. Threat analysis cannot be constrained by complex bureaucratic
behavior – a proactive plan of action must be utilized that
implements a strategy of prevention, interdiction and rapid response

Local Area Demographics

A threat assessment should include a
comprehensive inventory of local area
characteristics. This would include such
things as information about the population,
geographic configuration, layout and design,
medical services and facilities, commercial
operations, government facilities, crime
hazards, community habits, transportation,

Interdiction against terrorism takes place on a frequent basis

throughout the world. Many times, such actions do not make front-
page headlines. But, often, based on good intelligence and
comprehensive investigative efforts, terrorism is prevented and
terrorists arrested. Naturally, interdiction and prevention are preferred
to post-incident encounters, which may later result in an arrest. Most
common tactics of terrorism includes the use of bombings. These
have occurred through mailings, car bombs and other uses of
explosives. Bombings have typically occurred on a small scale, such
cars and offices. Larger targets, of course, should not be ignored.
Targets have included all levels of government, as well as a variety of
public officials. From sniper incidents to hostage taking, terrorists
have used a variety of weapons to perpetrate their actions against
others. Research in the development of information from local
community characteristics can assist in the acquisition of critical
knowledge. This will support the intelligence gathering and planning
processes for local law enforcement actions. Such endeavors are part
of an ongoing process of proactive law enforcement. Global, national
and local issues could serve as the basis for terrorist type actions at the
local level. Keen foresight in the analysis of day-to-day issues could
lead to the development of significant information resources. The
Internet, for example, should not be overlooked as a research tool in
the development of investigative processes. Every possibility should
be considered. Analysis of information will be important to the
implementation of planning strategies.

Violence is a process, as well as an act. Violent behavior does

not occur in a vacuum. Careful analysis of violent incidents
shows that violent acts often are the culmination of long-
developing, identifiable trails of problems, conflicts, disputes and

A key to investigation and resolution of threat assessment cases

is identification of the subject’s “attack-related” behaviors.
Perpetrators of targeted acts of violence engage in discrete
behavior that precede and are linked to their attacks; they
consider, plan, and prepare before engaging in violent actions.

The intelligence gathering process, in support of investigative

threat analysis, concerns critical assessment of relevant
information. It is a timely process that involves the initial
collection of information and data that is followed by careful
systematic interpretation. From the collection point,
information and data are carefully scrutinized through effective
evaluation. Collation and analytic actions move the evaluation
process along a continuum of thoughtful refinement. After the
information and associated materials are analyzed, then it is
important that relevant factors be shared through proper

Frontline first responders play a crucial role in the intelligence gathering

process. Their function in the investigative aspects of proactive law
enforcement is essential to the evaluation of potential threats within the
community. It is important to realize the often simplicity by which
information is obtained. A significant portion of information coming into a
police agency arrives by way of overt or public means of transmission.
Through his or her contacts in the field, the patrol officer comes into receipt
of information from various sources on a daily basis. This may result in
contact with a citizen, a business owner, the store clerk, informants,
suspicious encounters, traffic stoops, criminal activity, crime scenes,
investigative efforts, and so on. In addition, perceptions and observations
about people, places and things support such data collection. These overt
methods of intelligence gathering become the primary stage of investigative
development and intelligence activities. Other aspects include, news stories,
magazine articles, research and reference sources, government records and
archives, public documents, various business transactions, the Internet, etc.

Patrol represents the bulk of information collected by both overt and

covert means. Such development of information can take the form of a
“field interview”, or a “traffic stop”. Patrol officers write reports about
various incidents, which contain pieces of information that may be
related to other activities. Officers working in a surveillance or
undercover capacity continue the process of intelligence gathering and
information development. This is done through various means such as
mobile and fixed stakeouts, informants, infiltration, electronic
countermeasures, and other forms of surveillance activity. Movement,
activities, associations and so forth are monitored as targets of an
investigation. Often, when physical surveillance cannot suffice the
target objectives, then electronic measures may be necessary to secure
the needed information. This action may address those issues of
motive, means, target selection, and plans of the criminal element in

Through cover means, the patrol officer can gather additional data in his or
her research of actual and potential criminal threats within the community.
Finding clues to criminal activity or conspiracies may come in bits and
pieces, before the whole picture falls into place. In actuality, it may be akin
to the pieces of a puzzle that may be large or small. Developing information
sources and networks of contacts is an important part of the goals and
objectives of the patrol officer. Overt methods of information gathering
begin the process of data collection. When it becomes necessary to fit the
pieces together, then covert methods may be called for in a given situation.
The two interrelated aspects may be ongoing functions that compliment each
other in an intelligently shared analytical process. The sharing process
includes a continuum of activity that bridges interaction between squads and
patrol shifts, beat assignments, organizational divisions and units, patrol,
court and corrections operations, and interagency cooperation. Correctional
operations, for example, is one element that should not be overlooked in
particular. Corrections officers are in a particularly good position to develop
information sources that could assist patrol operations. Each day, they come
into contact with a variety of people. These people are incarcerated for one
reason or another. The potential for gathering important intelligence
information is always present. Such activities should be an essential part of
the law enforcement information and threat assessment process.

The first type of information is acquired from regular sources such as

conscientious and public-spirited citizens, company records, and files of
other agencies. The second type, which is of particular interest to the
criminal investigator and which will receive special attention here, is
the knowledge gathered by the experienced investigator from cultivated
sources such a paid informants, bartenders, cab drivers, licensed owners
and employees in general, former criminals, or acquaintances. The
extent to which informants are employed varies widely with law
enforcement agencies. The French police, for example, rely heavily on
an elaborate network of paid informants. In the English system,
however, there is little provision for paid informants.

Electronic surveillance is important to the mission of gathering

relevant intelligence data. It supports physical and active surveillance
tactics. Such operations have the potential of developing the actual
and direct context by which criminals plan to carry out or otherwise
execute criminal actions.
Informants also provide opportunities to develop critical data relative
to the mission at hand. Human intelligence can range from the
concerned citizen to the mercenary, and just about everything in
between. He or she may be motivated by a sense of public service or
personal gain of some other sort. Depending on the level of contact to
the activity in question, informants tend to have varying levels of
values in terms of information and capabilities.
Covert operations should be utilized when it is becomes necessary to
the investigation. It serves to support the overt methods of information
development. An effective intelligence gathering system that uses
both overt and covert means can avoid miscommunication, misdirected
use of information, and misguided efforts.

The evaluation of information concerns making decisions, using

discretion, and determining value. An assessment must be made as to
the value, reliability and source of the information received. Facts
must be weighed carefully, and non-factual aspects filtered out. The
source must be evaluated in terms of truthfulness and reliability. And,
the information must be balanced in terms of its credibility to the
investigation. The use of logic would be appropriate in order to
validate the nature of the information itself. Facts must be separated
from emotions, feelings, motives, irrelevant information and so forth.

A threat assessment is built upon the assemblage of relevant information that

follows an effective timeline of development and dissemination.
Information must be collected, evaluated, collated, analyzed and distributed
appropriately. Assessments should be weighed with logic and skillful
insight. Pieces of the puzzle must be put together with meticulous care and
balanced with careful analysis. Estimates of crime potential should be
considered in terms to both tactical and strategic operations. Patrol officers
are in the best position to assist in the threat assessment process. The can
contribute to community-wide protection by virtue of their everyday
working knowledge of the local environment. Intelligence gathering is
initially a patrol function. Very simply, patrol operations represent a
potentially vast network of intelligence gathering. And, as the information
moves up the organization, the process of information sharing must be a
two-way street. Documentation as to incidents involving people, places and
things on a regular basis is relevant to the threat assessment planning

Tactical Intelligence: this is information that can assist the operational

aspects, particularly patrol, with a view toward specific events or
potential incidents. It is the kind of information that supports the
implementation of immediate actions by line operations. The value of
such information has a direct impact on patrol operations, deployment
and interdiction. Typically, tactical intelligence focuses on making
arrests in a sure and certain manner to deal with a specific crime
problem. Such actions may necessitate the use of “tactical patrol units
or forces” to cope with actual or potential crisis situations.
Strategic Intelligence: this kind of information generally relates to
patterns, trends, and ongoing activities of a criminal nature. It is more
general in scope that tactical intelligence. Strategic intelligence is
developed over a longer period of time, and may relate to crime
analysis as well as behavioral analysis processes. Information is
updated and reviewed on a regular basis, as new insights or additional
data come to light. Patterns and methods of operations are assessed
and reported as activities become more definable. This kind of
information supports the tactical aspects of patrol operations.

Chapter 3: Efforts to Combat Terrorism:

Efforts to combat terrorism should be an important process that is essentially

developed and conducted by the respective states and their local
governments. It is an issue with unique consequences that directly impacts
local populations, communities and the first responders at the state and local
level. It also involves organizations that are typically not thought of outside
police and fire services. These include health care services, private security,
businesses, public works, and other assorted community services. Terrorist
incidents are of concern to both the public and private sectors, involving
public services that span range of functions provided by local governments.
The very infrastructure of state and local government include involvement of
a multitude of interests. Such interests include the special nature of
“politics”, personal agendas and “politically correct” thinking processes.
Yet, aside from such self-centered kinds of human behavior, the serious
planning, prevention strategies and interdiction efforts concern multi-agency
and multi-disciplinary cooperative efforts. In addition to state and local
agency/organization cooperation, sound government policy, procedures and
guidelines, supported by aggressive law enforcement action, are necessary to
deal with serious reality of public safety and security. Proper planning,
tactics, technology and action will greatly assist efforts to combat terrorism.
Feelings, emotions and other personal expressions must be carefully
balanced with facts, action plans, the nature of reality and serious hardcore
action. It will not be possible to plan with 100% foolproof accuracy for
every possible event scenario. However, proper planning is important to
preventing poor performance in anticipation of an actual incident.

Essential Elements
Command, control and communications
Planning, analysis, simulation and operational procedures
Resources, logistics, and supply
Research, development and equipment
Threat assessment, intelligence and security
Allied services, support components
Healthcare, hazardous materials and related resources
Medical, quarantine and health services

Threat Analysis Planning


Intelligence and Patrol Proactive Prevention

Operations and Action Planning

The threat assessment, which combines active intelligence

operations, supports the efforts to develop a combat plan for
potential terrorist criminal incidents. Terrorism is criminal activity
that has political overtones connected to the motive of its actions.
Gathering information is essential to interdicting and striking back
against terrorist infrastructures. Such planning contemplates social,
economic and political characteristics of the particular environment
that is considered a potential target area. This includes
consideration of minimum aspects such as:

Threat potential
Physical security – target vulnerability
Target hardening
Preventive patrol operations
Personal security and public safety
Operational security
Tactics, tools and techniques
Command authority and jurisdiction
Critical incident management

In developing a flexible, innovative response and preparedness plan of

action, it should be kept in mind that potential dangers come from a variety
of sources. Networks may exist within a community, and authorities may be
completely unaware due to “cover and concealment” techniques employed.
Active vigilance, through effective law enforcement is important. Acts of
terrorism occur more and more frequently throughout the world. They may
happen as a result of domestic or foreign instigation. From both a
homegrown and global perspective, terrorist will work with and otherwise
use any person, entity or group to further their political and personal
agendas. Although they may appear or asset they are “agents of social
change”, they are actually criminals who use force, fear and violence to
perpetrate group and personal gain of one sort or another. There tends to
always be a method and strategy to their extraordinary behavior that
sometimes seems “crazy”. No matter how suicidal their actions are, they
usually have a well-formed agenda, and operate in an organized manner.
Their actions are planned and calculated with the intentional use of violence
against others. So-called experts in the field of terrorism, sometimes
disagree in reference to defining terrorism in terms of types, definition and
motives. Yet, from the position of combating terrorism, most practitioners
generally agree that terrorism remains a premeditated act of violence. It is
not a sudden impulsive crazed action carried out by “freedom fighters”.
Instead, it is planned, organized, funded, armed and trained activities to
advance power and control on the part of particular groups and associations.
Sometimes, with mutual interests at stake, terrorist groups may form
alliances with organized crime groups. In a sense, it is a kind of “political
organized crime” with both domestic and foreign implications. The
organizational structure tends to be tightly controlled through a defined
hierarchy. Discipline and loyalty are enforced ruthlessly, operational
security is essential, and insulation of authority is ensured through subunits,
“cells”, and layers of personnel designed to protect high-ranking members.
Like organized crime, terrorism strives to perpetuate its money and power
continuity by whatever means works in the real world of human activity.
Money and material assets are critical to the acquisition of weapons,
information, and support resources. And, as opposed to attacking military
targets directly, civilians become targets of opportunity for terrorist actions.
In defining terrorism, as part of a combat preparedness plan, evaluating the
types of terrorism is necessary to gain understanding about the nature of the

Proper planning of enforcement

contingencies must consider the
delicate balance that may exist
between competing political
interests and the nature of the real
world. Beware of crouching
politicians with hidden agendas.
Sometimes we forget that the
road to failure is paved with good
intentions. And, sometimes
those in government think it is
better to look, as opposed to
being good. Symbolism may
outweigh substance.

An action plan should contain at

least the basic elements that
define both administrative and
operational aspects, to include:
the Goals and objectives, the
Situation(s), the Mission(s), etc.

The action plan of the organization defines the goals and objectives, the
mission statement, the situation, execution of actions, command and control
mechanisms, and supporting resources and services. This is the continuum
of short and long range public safety planning and implementation. The
continuum in formulating a combat strategy is an ongoing process. It is a
plan that emphasizes mutual aid among local agencies, information sharing,
proactive vigilance as well as combined command, communications and
control systems. The mix is delicate, and many interests are connected to
the process. Too often, this kind of planning is affected by emotionally
influenced interests that include personal fear factors for some, and political
or career enhancement potential for others. This typically occurs after a
major incident has taken place. Emotions and feelings run high and may
tend to cloud rational thinking when planning a response. Such influences
must be controlled and balanced with calm directed rationality. Reason must
prevail in the overall effort to implement “combat” efforts or
countermeasures. This is where effective and efficient patrol operations are
essential. Patrol is the backbone of law enforcement, and thereby
contributes to the ongoing analysis of community safety and security needs.
And, this includes the gathering of intelligence information in order to make
well-calculated threat assessments.

The way people in general perceive risk takes on significance for

emergency management officials who need to assess possible threats to
their communities and try to allocate scarce resources to contend with
those threats. That task isn’t easy. Deciding where a terror attack
might occur is far different from predicting where a hurricane might
strike. Unlike natural disasters, terrorist attacks are man-made, and as
such, they are filled with a myriad of unknowns.
On problem lies in simply identifying who within the community could
pose a threat. Recent national focus has been on international terror
groups and cells connected with al-Qaida. But local emergency
managers know that a variety of domestic terrorist or extremist groups
have been working in their communities for years.

The urban focus of terrorism places a significant burden upon local public
safety and security resources. Strong effective working relationships among
local agencies are essential in order to formulate strategies for combating
terrorism. The police and fire services, in particular, in any given local area,
should have a plan for unifying the communications system. To this,
consideration must be given to an interrelated command structure, whereby
command, control and communications can be maximized in an emergency
situation. The cooperative structure should also support the prevention and
planning process of public safety and security services. Every effort should
be made to ensure that the action plan does not become cumbersome,
confusing and inflexible. Instead, standard operating procedures for dealing
with terrorism should be uncomplicated, innovative and adaptive to local
needs and issues.

If we examine terrorism as a series of criminal

acts to garner intense media attention, we
demystify the “power” of the terrorist and place
acts in a commonly understood light. Police
agencies understand how to deal with criminal
acts. We rarely have advanced knowledge that a
criminal will strike. Although there is a desire to
rapidly bring the criminal to justice, it is
understood that aspects of the investigation must
proceed in a thorough manner to avoid mistakes.
A terrorist act is a bombing, a kidnapping, an
incendiary device, a hazardous materials incident,
etc. With the mystique of terrorism eroded a bit,
we can begin to develop our method of countering

Effective well-coordinated local services planning and interaction are

important to the overall process of public safety and security
countermeasures or crime prevention. Anticipation, recognition and
initiation of actions, are the primary ingredients incorporated within a plan
of both suppression and apprehension of criminal activity.

In the study and analysis of terrorism, two general categories emerge.

These include domestic terrorism and international terrorism as basic
points of reference. For the sake of discussion, planning and
assessment, the two groups potentially encompass the range of
terrorism threats that may adversely impact the local community.
Basically, the domestic terrorism issue relates to those persons, as well
as organized associations, who are primary homegrown. They
represent individuals, or groups, who direct their activities and actions
toward the federal government generally. Their actions may involve
any segment of the U.S. population as a consequence of carrying out
such acts. Sometimes, these groups carry out activities directed toward
local government, depending on the political message or issue.
Extreme worldviews, not unlike their international counterparts, seem
to define the thinking processes of domestic terrorists. These views
may encompass a range of conspiracies, cult activities, anti-
government attitudes, totalitarian global government, and end of the
world viewpoints. Their thinking spans the political spectrum of both
left and right wing views.

The public needs to understand that these are dangerous times and the
world is not an entirely safe place to live. An ongoing public
information and education program accomplishes this. Law
enforcement has a responsibility for the short and long range planning,
education and development of proactive public safety
countermeasures. Efforts must be designed to deal with the serious
realities of extreme criminal behavior. Measures to combat terrorism
cannot be accomplished by public safety personnel alone. The public
must play an important role in supporting and helping their local
public safety agencies. Primarily, this support comes in the form of
sufficient funding to get the tasks done effectively. In addition,
support also means active involvement by concerned citizens in the
protection of their community. Among other things, vigilance and
awareness are essential. From the home to the office, to the
playground, citizens should be alert to signs of unusual or suspicious
behavior and actions.

Combating terrorism and other acts of extreme criminal behavior

require a community-wide cooperative effort. A community
partnership is fundamental to the development of proactive
countermeasures. Combating terrorism is essentially combating
criminal behavior. Strategies require effective tactics, tools,
training and techniques. It is a matter of bringing together
cooperative interests to develop plans and implement actions.
Efforts to combat serious criminal threats require the necessity of
a well-organized infrastructure in state and local government. The
infrastructure must also have the necessary resources and
materials to support the public safety and security actions. From
the health department to the line officer, the response system must
be mutually interactive and supportive. Basic ingredients in the
planning and implementation of actions include at least the
following aspects.

The Situation – Local Community Needs – Threat Analysis

Aggressive Patrol -
Mission – Operational Environment – Terrain & Infrastructure
Action Plan – Implementation Strategies – Execution of Plans
Support Services – Community Partnerships
Command – Control – Communications

Chapter 4: Identifying Terrorist Groups

In viewing the global neighborhood, terrorist groups span the political

spectrum in terms of both domestic and international organizations. The so-
called right-wing groups tend to assert an assortment of “end-times”
prophetic ideas, which suggest global conflict. Their leanings also suggest
various conspiracies, which are usually perpetrated by the government.
Often, this means the federal government. They espouse anti-government
sentiments along with their opposition to taxation. As potential domestic
terrorists, they cannot be discounted as a possible threat to public safety and
security. Sometimes, these groups may be seen as exclusive in terms of
“racial heritage”, asserting a “white supremacist” view of the world. And,
others within this spectrum would re-organize the country into various
settlements for different ethnic and racial groups that do not fit into their
world-view. Often, we refer to these groups with phrases such as “the
patriot movement”, or “the militias”. Such organizations may be involved in
survivalist preparations as well as paramilitary training.

Right Wing Groups

1. Focus on prophetic views of the world in terms of world
government and final conflict;
2. Assert a variety of governmental acts of oppression and
abuse of power;
3. Articulate anti-government positions and oppose taxation
by the various governments;
4. Groups may practice survival oriented training, along with
paramilitary tactics;
5. Violence tends to be the use of explosives, with bombings
directed toward governmental entities;
6. Assert extreme views concerning the Constitution;

Membership in a militia organization is not an illegal

activity in the United States. Law enforcement
interest in the militia movement is based upon the rise
of violence or potential for violence or criminal
activity stemming from the militia movement.
Militias are typically loose knit in nature. Adherents
often are members of multiple groups, and because
leaders of these groups tend to greatly inflate
membership levels, actual group size is difficult to
determine. (11)

Over the past several decades, the scope and intensity of terrorist activity
throughout the world has transitioned from small-scale operations to full-
scale actions. Groups most likely to inflict mass destruction tend to be
extreme in their views, educated and well funded. Their actions include the
escalation of tactics and techniques, which employ weapons of mass
destruction. Both cult groups, as well as religious extremist groups, appear
to have the inclination to deploy extreme measures in pursuit of their ‘end-
times’ apocalyptic thinking. The tendency exists that the ‘fundamentalist
cultic mindset’ perceives the use of mass destruction weapons as necessary
to defeat an evil empire’. The intent is to inflict mass casualties on the
population, strike fear in the minds of the citizenry and make the
government look impotent. Thinking that runs along these lines may see the
world in very simplistic terms. Everything and everyone are reduced to a
basic formula. That is, the group may believe the end of the world is
coming, and it is up to them to fight back – “us against them”. The group is
right and everyone outside the group is wrong, regardless of the truth or
reality. Sometimes, the thinking focuses on the mysterious always-active
entity known as “they” or “them”. Many times, “they” is the government.
Or, “they” could be a particular race, ethnicity or other belief system.
Extreme political or religious belief systems have fostered some of the most
dangerous terrorist in the world. Such continues to be a significant trend for
some groups. God, unfortunately and contrary to the truth, can be used to
justify some of the most heinous acts of criminal behavior in history. To
deploy such weapons as biological, chemical, nuclear, etc, requires
organization, funding, training and so forth.

From cult ideologies to religious extremism, post-cold war era terrorist

groups pose a significant threat to the peace and stability of the global
community. These groups tend to be more likely to use weapons of mass
destruction. They have been known to use modern technology as well as
weaponry to their advantage. Groups are capable of bringing together the
necessary resources, such as scientists and technicians, to achieve their
collective goals and objectives. Their operations utilize the Internet, the
financial markets, organized crime associations, telecommunications
networks, business fronts, fund-raising sources and so on to advance their
mission. Some groups believe that ultimately there must be a showdown
with the national government. In the U.S., for example, some groups openly
express their hostility to the federal government by suggesting armed
conflict may be necessary. First responders, particularly law enforcement
officers, need to keep in mind that such groups see the police as
“representatives of the system” the groups oppose. As such, police officers
are potential targets of attack by these organizations. In preparation for
armed conflict, the groups stockpile weapons, conduct training exercises and
carry out activities designed to promote their cause. The Internet has
become a significant resource in the promotion of such ideologies and
activities. And, while it is an important tool for terrorist organizations, it is
likewise an important tool for law enforcement.

Contemporary terrorist organizations

appear to be organized through various
associations and well funded.
Recruitment today tends to focus on
skilled technical personnel. These
include engineers, medical technicians,
chemists, computer programmers,
communication specialists, and other
trained people.

To the right of the political spectrum, people tend to be in opposition to any

social or political change that occurs and is inconsistent with their
worldview. Generally speaking, their viewpoint may be firmly founded on
the necessity of a well-established order of things, and that attitudes and
practices should be the same for everyone. Inclinations favor the forced
establishment a more authoritarian political system that is consistent with
their views. The philosophy favors a militaristic and autocratic style of
leadership, while sometimes placing heritage and race above the individual.
By contrast, the left-wing organizations tend to espouse a socialistic doctrine
of both politics and economics. These groups follow an ideology expressive
of a “revolutionary” style of rhetoric. Their assertions of revolution speak
out against capitalism and imperialism. Change, in their view, can only be
accomplished through revolutionary acts against the government. These
activities are typically criminal in nature, with bombings and kidnappings
being among the usual tactics. Again, like the right-wing groups, the left-
wing terrorists target federal, state and local governments. In addition, they
may attack symbols of the U.S. government, and examples of democracy,
such as the flag, monuments, buildings and so forth.

While there may be different types of terrorism, as defined by various

academic and government sources, traditional and contemporary notions
still recognize the two the two broad categories of right and left-wing
terrorist groups. No single category by itself can capture the true nature
and extent the variety of groups that exist throughout the world. On the
one hand, the left-wing terrorist groups portray democracy and
capitalism as imperialistic entities that threaten the freedom and identity
of the individual. To them, a “communistic” state should replace any
form of democratic capitalism. Their rhetoric suggests the evils of a
“free market economy”, which, in their view, causes much suffering and
depravity throughout the world. On the other hand, the right-wing
groups advocate a “fascist” state, with some being advocates of a “neo-
Nazi” viewpoint.

Left-Wing Groups Right-Wing Groups

The various types of terrorism include left and

right wing groups. Frustrated with society or the
world in general, because does not conform to
their worldview, terrorist groups resort to violent
political activity primarily for personal gain. It is
an expression of self-centered adherence to on
form of ideology or another that manifests in
sociopathic tendencies. The core leadership of
such groups will use any form of deception or
seduction to recruit and enlist followers for the
alleged cause.

Combating terrorism is a matter of good basic police work built

upon principles of hard work, determination and commitment. In
identifying and dealing with terrorist individuals, groups and
organizations, it is essential that:
a. Threat assessments and risk analyses be conducted
b. Information is gathered effectively
c. Data be analyzed and interpreted proficiently
d. Appropriate dissemination occur frequently
e. Information shared in mutual cooperation exchange
f. Action plan be implement proactively
g. Rule of law be upheld

Issue Focused Groups

Of the several categories sometimes cited as to the various types of

terrorist organizations, another possible inclusion could be called
“Issue Focused” terrorism. These groups differ somewhat from
either right or left wing orientations. They tend to be focused on
particular issues such as the environment, animals, abortion and so
on. Their actions may not be directly applied to the governmental
setting. Instead, their targets may be more focused on private
industry, such as health care centers, medical research facilities,
associated laboratories, business and financial centers, as well as
land and water resource conservation. These targets may also
include schools, colleges and universities, both public and private,
that carry out scientific research efforts. Again, their deliberate
actions against a perceived “enemy” include criminal activity. They
may set fire or bomb buildings. Sometimes acts of violence include
the sabotage of business and educational processes. Files, inventory
and offices may be attacked. Theft of property may occur. And,
animals may be set free or stolen from labs. These groups may
attempt to interfere with personnel and clients in an attempt to slow
down operations or interrupt business. Attacks may be launched
against computer systems or financial transactions.

Issue focused terrorism is just as dangerous as any other terrorist

organization. Demonstrations, marches and protest about the environment,
have sometimes led to widespread rioting, property destruction and violent
breaches of the peace in cities around the world.

Among both right and left wing groups, as well as the issue focused
organizations, there may be a variety of belief systems and political
ideologies. Belief systems range from extreme worldviews that are left and
right of political and religious interests, to ethnic and nationalistic
conceptions of societal reform. Regardless of the professed ideologies,
terrorist acts by any such group represent criminal behavior. Law
enforcement efforts must be vigilant, aggressive and well defined. Obvious
targets at the local community level should be given special considerations.
Communications systems, airports and transportation services, public service
agencies and infrastructure, health care providers, financial and business
interests, research complexes, utilities, energy and power source supplies,
land and conservation management areas, etc, should receive scrutiny in
terms of security countermeasures. Education, training and information
sharing are important. It is therefore critical that all agencies and the local
level work closely together with regard to this issue.

Within the major categories of terrorist groups, the distribution can be

distinguished in terms of national (domestic) and international (foreign)
organizations. They could be left, right, or issue focused in their nature and
actions. Among the various groups, individuals and organizations involved
in such terrorist activity, international terrorist groups may be sponsored by
host nations. These host nations typically are hostile to the United States.
However, this may not be true in all cases. Some nations may appear, at
least on a superficial level, to be “allies” of the U.S. They may receive huge
amounts of financial aid from the U.S. In fact, they may publicly condemn
terrorist attacks and use the media to good advantage. Yet, internally they
may support the terrorist groups, as well as associated organized crime
activities. International groups may also be somewhat detached or
independent of a supportive nation. But, they may receive support, resources
and aid from that nation. There are many possibilities of such associations
in the global arena. In general terms, international terrorist organizations
present a threat to U.S. interests both at home and abroad. Actions are
directed toward any perceived symbol of American society. They may
target embassies, military bases, personnel and resources, private citizens,
business interests and so on. Groups who are sponsored by various foreign
powers may carry out criminal terrorist activities. Or, attacks may be the
result of rogue individuals or indirectly associated with such organizations
or nations.

International terrorism against the United States is foreign based and/or

directed by countries or groups outside the United States. The activities of
these countries or groups transcend national boundaries. The current
international terrorist threat to U.S. persons and interests continues from
years past and can be divided into three categories: state sponsors of
international terrorism, formalized terrorist groups, and loosely affiliated
radical extremists. The first threat to Americans comes from the activities
of state sponsors of international terrorism. State sponsors include Iran,
Iraq, Syria, Sudan, Libya, Cuba and North Korea. In recent years, terrorist
activities of Cuba and North Korea have declined due primarily to the
deteriorating economic situations in both countries. However, the
activities of Iran, Iraq, Syria, Sudan and Libya have continued. (12)

Along this spectrum of various groupings, nation sponsored terrorism

appears to be a significant threat to the U.S. Not only are these groups
dangerous, the threat extends from symbolic U.S. targets to individual
citizens and representatives of the U.S. government. As such, the following
categories illustrate the possible subdivisions and variations in the global
scheme (13):

Foreign Nation Sponsors of Terrorism: This area is sometimes referred to

as the “state sponsors” of terrorism. Efforts are directed toward the
sponsorship of specific groups that carry out terrorist acts. They represent a
significant threat, particularly in their focus on the U.S. as a target. Again,
countries like Iraq, Syria and others are typically state sponsors of terrorism.
Detached or Independent Terrorist Groups: Somewhat independent in
nature, these groups tend to function outside the sponsorship of a host
nation. Their organization, training and financial operations are such that
they appear more self-sufficient in the activities they carry out. This area
includes such groups as Hizballah (Lebanon) and HAMAS (Palestinian), as
well as others.
Rogue Individual and Associated Terrorist Groups: These tend to be
extremist who may or may not affiliate or become involved in the more
formal organizations. Sometimes there is a loose knit affiliation with more
formalized organizations. They may operate on an individual basis, with the
ability to assemble resources and capabilities from sources throughout the

Chapter 5: Terrorist Weapons, Targets and Tactics:

From handguns to hand grenades, terrorist have used a variety of weapons to

execute their tactics against their targets. The list of weaponry could be
extensive. It all depends on their objective and the obstacles in the way.
Usually striking in small units to avoid early detection, terrorist groups
employ weapons based on how well such equipment can be concealed.
Using emigrant populations to conceal their presence, terrorist groups may
be involved in the smuggling of drugs and weapons in order to ensure their
cash flow operations. The money will be used to build the organization as
well as acquire the necessary weaponry. Terrorist organizations have the
capability to adapt and transform to changing environments.

U.S. Counterterrorism Policy

First, make no concessions to terrorists and strike no deals;
Second, bring terrorists to justice for their crimes;
Third, isolate and apply pressure on states that sponsor
terrorism to force them to change their behavior; and
Fourth, bolster the counterterrorism capabilities of those
countries that work with the U.S. and require assistance. (14)

Overview of Weapons of Terrorism

The following is a generalized listing of various types of

weapons used by terrorist groups around the world. Often,
weapons are selected for concealment purposes, as well as
ease by which they can be placed into action.
Small Arms: includes small sized weapons such as
handguns (revolvers and auto pistols), rifles of various
types, and submachine guns;
Medium Sized Weapons: in this category emphasis is
placed on equipment such as machine guns, rocket
propelled grenades, mortars, mines, small missile
weapons; (15)

Weapons Continued

Improvised Explosive Devices: this category includes both

commercial and military type explosives devices, as well as
those of the homemade variety; also remote controlled and
incendiary type bombs, primary and secondary explosive
devices; such weaponry may be stolen from military supplies,
bought on the black market, or obtained through commercial
suppliers; some types may be surplus equipment from the Cold
War era, stolen from construction supplies, or assembled from
various components;
Martyr Bombs: this type is unique; this involves the use of a
human, strapped with explosives, who is willing to sacrifice
himself or herself for the organization and the cause; sometimes
vehicles are loaded with explosives and the driver maneuvers
the vehicle into the target and explodes the device; the so called
“suicide bombers” are not a new weapon; the use of such
attacks date back through the centuries, as the ultimate form of
self-sacrifice for the cause of justice;
Internet Hacking: sometimes attacks are carried out using
computers; this form of assault includes hacking into computer
system and planting viruses and so forth; targets include –
defense facilities, telecommunications, transportation systems,
water supplies, fuel production and distribution systems,
financial interests, utilities, emergency health and medical
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD): in the last few
decades, it appears that terrorist groups have intensified their
destructive activities; this area includes the use of those types of
devices that intend to inflict large scale casualties on civilian
population groups; biological, nuclear, incendiary, chemical and
explosive devices are included in this category;
Funding for such equipment comes from a variety of sources. It
may come from legitimate businesses, community support, state
sponsorship, criminal activities, organized crime, smuggling
operations, front groups, contributions from benefactors and so

The range of weaponry available to terrorists includes quite a variety of

guns, explosives, incendiaries, chemicals and so forth. Generally, however,
terrorists tend to use those weapons that are of a more conventional nature.
This does not mean, however, that given the opportunity, means and ability,
terrorists would not choose something more unique and deadly. Targets of
opportunity, as well as the desire to increase the mass fear factor, are
essential to the use of various types of weapons. The probable arsenal of
terrorist groups is extensive. A whole array of exotic and extraordinary
devices, substances and weapons systems exist within the global community.
Simply stated, anything is possible and everything is imaginable. But,
terrorists typically employ standard types of weapons and devices. From
small arms to heavy infantry weapons, terrorist have the capability to use a
significant amount of firepower. Car and truck laden explosives, for
example, have been effectively deployed for a number of years. And,
homemade devices such as letter and package bombs have been used with
great effectiveness. Even though conventional types of weapons are often
used, the destructive capability of some weapons systems can be massive.
This has led to public and governmental concern about so called “weapons
of mass destruction” (WMD). The WMD types typically refer to weapons
that involve the use of biological, nuclear, incendiary, chemical and
explosive materials. Large-scale destruction and mass casualties are the
primary intent of using such weapons. Sometimes it may be confusing to
distinguish between a conventional weapon and one of mass destruction.

Weapons use relates to:

1. target selection – opportunity, ability, motivation
2. potential for raising the public fear factor
3. probability of successful attack and deployment
4. potential for success
5. Target symbolism, visibility of target, profile
6. Availability and response of local resources
7. Accessibility of weapons types – biological, chemical,
nuclear, incendiary, explosives
8. Type of product, packaging, environmental application
9. Population and structures
10. barriers, borders and avenues of escape and evasion

Bombings are typical of the types of weapons that terrorists use to attack
their targets. Bombs and explosives come in all shapes, size and destructive
capability. The variety of devices employed, the targets selected and the
means of activation include a wide range of possibilities. In addition,
environmental conditions, security, building design and population
characteristics are important to the actions being carried out. Targets may be
specific or they may be general in nature. Some may be highly symbolic,
while others provide intense news coverage. The use of any particular
device is usually preceded by careful study and analysis of the intended
target. Security of the target is also a consideration. In most cases, terrorists
would prefer to escape in the aftermath of the attack. Sometimes escape is
not part of the overall plan of attack. If terrorists target and attack a
shopping center or a popular nightclub, their intention may be raising the
fear factor of the local population. Media attention on such an act brings
about an even greater impact on the community.


Generally unlimited types of Targets

Governmental Symbols
Civilian Population
Community Agencies
Health Related Organizations
Communication Systems
Corporate Business Facilities
Mass Transit Operations
Aircraft - Shipping
Public Facilities and Assembly Areas
Utilities – Water – Power Sources
Research Laboratories
Military and Police
Elected Officials
Entertainment and Amusement Operations

In recent years, there appears to be a transition toward the use of

chemical, biological and radiological weaponry against certain
targets. Target selection has previously been directed toward
governmental facilities, as well as U.S. business interests. In
those attacks, bombings have typically been utilized in the attack
scenario. Yet, in recent years, fear has risen over many
possibilities in the potential use of toxic materials. And, while
law enforcement concern focuses on homeland security
precautions, there is no 100% foolproof method of predicting
every possible attack situation. Planning and prevention are
important. But, target selection and the weapons used are
perhaps only limited by the imagination of the terrorist.

Depending on the target, and the

availability of the weapons, terrorists
are capable of striking just about
anywhere. Attacking a particular
target and injuring the people at that
location depends on the target’s
nature, what it stand for, the media
coverage that may result, and the
possibility of avoiding detection.
The more secure a target is, and the
more vigilant the personnel are, the
less likely the location will be
attacked. Countermeasures can be
greatly affected by high-density areas
in which it is difficult to destroy the
attack once it begins (e.g. shooting
down a explosives filled plane over a

Contemporary trends in the tactics of terrorist activity tend to point to those

who are detached or independent of a host country. Independent terrorist
groups appear to be more active than ever before. They appear to operate on
their own, employing a range of methods of operation. Tactics lately
involve the use of “human murder bombers”, or the “martyr bomber”
method of attack. The media sometimes refers to this tactic as the so-called
“suicide bomber”. Somehow, the mere suggestion that a person is a “suicide
bomber” seems to lend some sort of twisted legitimacy to their terrorist
cause. These tactics, as well as others, cause death and destruction
worldwide. More and more, terrorist groups, responding to global economic
and political changes, are acting in manner that is more detached from a
national or regional affiliation. Car bombings, martyr bombers, and
bombings of symbolic buildings, such as government and business facilities,
continue to be dominant tactics. These generally non-state sponsored groups
have become innovative in their funding raising operations. Resource
networks have been established around the world. Funding sources include
an assortment of criminal activities.

Terrorist funding sources

may come from donations
given by wealthy persons.
Funding may result from
drug trafficking, business
fronts, charitable groups
and other criminal
activities. The groups
may form alliances with
organized crime groups
so that the association
helps produce additional
sources of money and

Some countries seriously pursue the development of the so-called weapons

of mass destruction. To this end, they seek the purchase not only of
materials with weapons potential, but also support mechanisms and assets
that go with them. This would include material resources, training and
instruction, technical personnel, components and the ability to implement
usage. These countries have been previously mentioned and include other
nations as well. At the same time, with the capabilities, such countries also
support the independent terrorist groups in their ongoing tactics and
selection of targets. The development of nuclear, chemical and biological
weapons by these nations assumes the acquisition of various delivery
systems. Weapons systems, as well as tactical training, are sought from
other countries that are sometimes considered allies or trading partners of the
United States. In one example, Iran has sought procurement relationships
with Russia, China, North Korea and Europe. (16)

While terrorist groups are tending to operate more and more on a rogue or
independent basis, their tactics to date appear to focus on vehicle bombings,
murder-martyr bombers, and attacking significant business and government
facilities. Fund raising is conducted through a variety of “business” oriented
operations. These include organized crime associations, drug and arms
trafficking, business fronts, donations, community fund raising and a series
of financial connections. Planning, organization and profit continuity
continue to be important to their “networking” operations. Terrorist groups
exploit opportunities wherever they can find them. Exploitation and
corruption of human, corporate and governmental resources continue to be
essential operational capabilities. In some cases, their activities have been
cloaked in such things are religious convictions, class struggle, and cultural
survival. This remains an important aspect of a creative public relations
campaign. In particular, exploitation focuses on the young idealistic,
disadvantaged, and disgruntled members of various cultural environments.
The pseudo-portrayal of their “freedom fighting” efforts covers the reality of
their more sinister hidden agendas. Such media efforts are often effective.
And, with the help of the international news services, terrorist groups are
able to gain public support. Terrorist tactics of disinformation and public
deception seek to conceal their real motives as much as possible. Gaining
public sympathy has worked well, particularly when the target is the U.S.
Some groups, in the meantime, actively seek the procurement of weapons of
mass destruction in order to maximize their targeting capabilities.

In general, these emerging non-state actors exhibit less constraint than

state actors and other groups did in past decades. Some actively are
seeking to gain weapons of mass destruction (WMD) to increase the
lethality as well as the psychological impact of their attacks. Timothy
McVeigh, the Oklahoma City bomber, was quoted as saying he
wanted a “body count” in his bombing – as it was necessary to get the
level of attention he wanted for his twisted mind of conspiracy
theories and hate. Ramsi Yousef, the leader of the 1993 World Trade
Center Bombing in New York City, wanted to knock down the one
tower into the other and kill every one in both high-rise office

Like organized crime, terrorism today is a violence prone collective

operation intent on the use of tactics conducive to widespread fear and
intimidation. Terrorist group partnerships include any global entities that
will enhance their “competitive edge” in the terrorism promotion
“marketplace”. Their activities include the necessity of profit continuity to
the extent necessary to advance their agendas. Moneymaking ventures seek
to promote and foster their political and religious ideologies to the exclusion
of those with opposing ideologies. Targets and tactics include primary and
secondary victimization. Primary targets include the victimization of the
public by direct actions such as bombing a restaurant, military base or a
business center. Secondary targets include the aftermath of the primary
attack, which may possess symbolic value in order to send a message to the
government. Fear and intimidation seek to influence and otherwise affect
the civilian population. When people become afraid, they tend react
emotional rather than logically. As a result, terrorism can be a potent
weapon that stifles political processes and strains productive economic
efforts. This affect on the people has at least a short-term detrimental affect
on a country’s internal politics. There is also an impact on society in
general. Business functions suffer, politicians scamper to do “feel good”
things and find a quick fix, and list of reactions is almost endless. These
terrorist activities include an array of tactical capability such as biohazards,
bombings, murders, hostage situations, sabotage, Internet attacks, financial
crimes, aircraft hijackings, and other acts designed to disrupt societal
interactions on a large scale.

Chapter 6: Tactical Capabilities and Terrorist Intentions

Present day tactical capabilities of terrorist organizations present special

challenges to the law enforcement community. Terrorist incidents that may
involve the deployment of chemicals, toxins or nuclear materials create
unique problems of interdiction and investigation. Hidden dangers for the
public, police and fire service personnel are cloaked in an invisible world.
Different response techniques and tactics are necessary in order to deal with
these kinds of threats. Extremely potent and deadly substances can create
horrible results, inflicting death and destruction on people and first
responders. Training, tactics, tools and techniques must be brought to bear
in an effective strategy to deal with such possibilities. Priorities must be
established so that officers responding to these kinds of incidents can
effectively perform their mission. The protection of people supersedes all
other issues, when confronted by the hazards and dangers of chemicals,
biological substances and nuclear materials.

More traditional terrorist tactics –

involving explosive or firearms – can
involve devastating damage and difficult,
time consuming actions on the part of law
enforcement. Consider for a moment the
bombing in Oklahoma City. However,
such incidents are similar to those law
enforcement officers face on a day-to-day
Add chemicals, biological agents and
radiological materials to a WMD scenario
and a new, insidious dimension develops
for responding law enforcement officers.
The dangers are often invisible. The
consequences may not show for hours,
days or even weeks after exposure to the
material. The traditional law enforcement
response model – get in, get the job done
and get it over – may not apply.

Protecting officers who respond to terrorist incidents absolutely essential. It

is a paramount issue today as never before. Proper equipment, education,
training, tactics, tools and techniques must be developed and implemented to
every extent possible. These components must be put to effective and
coordinated use throughout each level of society. Efforts must ensure that
police officers and fire fighters have optimum capabilities and resources to
carry out their respective missions. Communities cannot afford to have their
first responders neutralized before they can put a response plan into action.
Personnel considerations include personnel protection, as well as training
and education regarding proactive tactical responses to critical incidents.
Responding to acts of terrorism requires a kind of flexibility that allows for
effective intelligence gathering, interdiction and countermeasures. A rigid
reactive response plan can be disastrous and counterproductive. Terrorist
threats today may come from a variety of groups and individuals who are
capable of the most extreme acts of human behavior. Today, terrorists have
the capacity to carry out actions that include the use of weapons of mass
destruction. The lethal potential of such organizations is much different than
20 to 30 years ago. The potential threat of weapons of mass destruction is
presently well within the capabilities of terrorist organizations worldwide.
The possibilities are of such events are extremely deadly and disastrous. The
probability for a major incident involving chemical weapons, for example, is
much greater today than in years passed.

Along with the increase in terrorism there has been an significant

increase in anti-terrorism activity and capabilities. As police and
government authorities world wide become better prepared to handle
terrorist activities, and more anti-terrorist technology is developed, the
traditional methods terrorists are accustomed to using become less likely
to succeed. With most of the anti-terrorist developments focusing on
preventing hi-jackings and bombings, the difficulty encountered by
terrorists attempting to use these techniques has increased. With the
increase in complications the chances of success are reduced enough to
force some terrorists to consider alternate methods. Among the
alternates are chemical weapons with all of the advantages they offer.

As terrorist groups adapt to counter-terrorist actions, their capabilities, as

well as the scope of their intentions, become increasingly more challenging.
As law enforcement efforts have become more effective, the capabilities of
terrorists have become more diverse and more deadly. The use of so called
weapons of mass destruction raise concerns among the global law
enforcement and intelligence communities. Activities in recent years
suggest that terrorist groups have focused their attention on the procurement
of such mass destruction oriented weaponry. This interest on the part of
terrorists also includes a growing capability of using the Internet, as well as
associated technology, to execute various cyberspace crimes.

Weapons of mass destruction. The trend

toward high-profile, high-impact attacks
comes at a time when interest is growing
among both international and domestic
terrorist groups in acquiring weapons of mass
destruction (WMD). Currently, there is no
credible information that a terrorist group has
acquired, developed, or is planning to use
chemical, biological, or radiological agents in
the United States. However, there has been an
increase in the number of cases or incidents
involving use or threatened use of such agents
in the United States. Between 1997 and 2000,
the FBI investigated 779 WMD-related
reports, generally involving false or fabricated
reports. The biological toxin ricin and the
bacterial agent anthrax are emerging as the
most prevalent agents involved in
investigations. (20)

Terrorist organizations have found uses for new technology such as the
Internet. It has become a source of instant communication to recruit, plan,
organize, raise funds, and so on. As the use of such technology continues,
so does the capability to attack critical infrastructures using cyber-weapons
along the “information highway”. Utilities, communications, transportation
systems and financial networks could be targets.

From BBC News

Wednesday, 8 January, 2003, 18:28 GMT
A seventh man has been arrested by anti-terrorist officers
investigating the ricin find in London. Police are looking for at
least two more people in connection with the discovery of the
deadly poison in a north London flat.
Six men – understood to be north Africans – were arrested on
Sunday and security experts are trying to establish if they have
links to al-Qaeda.
Only small traces of ricin were found in the operation – launched
after a tip-off – but there are concerns an amount of poison could
have been made at the flat and has been moved.
Scotland Yard said the seventh man, aged 33, was arrested by
anti-terrorist branch officers in north London on Tuesday.
Castor oil beans – from which ricin is made – and equipment and
containers for crushing the beans were found at the flat.
To take effect, the toxin must enter the body by direct ingestion,
inhalation or injection, meaning it is more associated with
The most notable ricin case was the 1978 murder of the
Bulgarian dissident Georgi Markov. The KGB were suspected to
be behind the killing, initiated on London’s Waterloo Bridge
using a poison tipped umbrella.

Global interaction between terrorist groups and organized crime groups

appear to be a growing trend. Mutually beneficial relationships foster a
growing exchange of tactics, materials and overall capabilities. The
interconnectedness of terrorism and organized crime is extremely sinister in
nature to say the least. When two power oriented criminal groups cooperate
it cannot be beneficial for the rest of the world. Many possibilities exist for
enhancing the capabilities of both groups. For one thing, the profit
continuity, or flow of money and resources, among terrorist organizations
has expanded exceptionally in the direction of increased monies, equipment
and resources. For another thing, terrorists have provided a range of
services to organized crime groups in return for cash payments. This
naturally increases their ability to train and develop increased capabilities. In
addition, such “fund-raising” allows such groups to amass larger amounts of
money than through traditional income producing operations. Protecting
smuggling routes for crime syndicates usually involves providing security
for drug trafficking, weapons and people movements. Organizational
interaction also allows terrorist groups to evolve and adapt to changing
situations and conditions throughout the globe. Infiltration, targeting
strategies, community invisibility, communications, increased lethal nature
of actions, the spread of weapons of mass destruction and a host of other
aspects represent real possibilities through such cooperative interactions.

Taken to its logical end, there might be a natural partnership between

some terrorist groups and transnational organized crime syndicates.
Organized crime syndicates frequently have access to and influence
with political leaders, making such syndicates beneficial to terrorist
groups that would seek to influence and intimidate, rather than destroy,
a government. In return, organized crime syndicates can exploit
terrorist campaigns, for the power vacuum present in regional
instability, as a paramilitary wing of the syndicate, or further coerce a
weak government to “look the other way”. As offshore banks and
inner city laundromats were once notorious fronts, so may terrorist
campaigns become operational fronts for organized crime. Such a
trend would find a welcome home in many former Soviet republics
whose governments are fertile grounds for corruption and organized
crime – regimes which once depended upon the backing of the military
for “legitimacy” and political survival will find themselves relying on
warlords or crime lords for the same. (22)

Terrorism serves the political purposes of the terrorists, whose goals are self-
centered, materialistic and criminal in nature. Some groups have attempted
to cloak their tactics in a religious disguise or socio-political context. This
of course gathers widespread media attention and sympathy from some
segments of society, including politicians advancing their own agendas.
Propaganda and public disinformation serves the ends of the terrorists and
helps discredit legitimate opposition. Such efforts mask the reality of their
malevolent intentions. Its capabilities to inflict psychological disruption
have been proved by the events occurring around the globe. Actions by
terrorist groups foster fear and unrest throughout the population groups that
are affected. But, ripple effects from one location span outward to the world
community. Individually and collectively terrorist acts impede political
processes, stifle debate and negotiation, and otherwise provoke
disintegration of civilized efforts. Terrorism also interferes with economic
and social processes, not to mention health care and related efforts to assist
disadvantaged areas of the world. Use of mass casualty weapons has
emerged as a serious threat to the world community. The weapons of mass
destruction arena has been defined in certain governmental sectors to
generally include five areas: biological, nuclear, incendiary, chemical and

There are several biological agents that can be employed as

terrorist weapons. The four common types of biological
agents are bacteria, viruses, rickettsia and toxins. Nuclear
terrorism can occur under two different scenarios. One
involves the detonation or threatened detonation of a nuclear
bomb. The other involves the dispersion of radiological
materials using a conventional explosive or other dispersal
device. An incendiary device is any mechanical, electrical, or
chemical device used to intentionally initiate combustion and
start a fire. Chemical agents can be classified in five
categories – never agents, blister agents, blood agents,
choking agents, and irritating agents. Explosive devices are
the most commonly used WMD. Approximately 70 percent
of all terrorist attacks worldwide involve explosives. (23)

Terrorist groups violence is viewed today as a serious threat involving

the use or threatened use of weapons of mass destruction. This threat
relates to the aforementioned areas of such weapon capabilities, from
biological agents to explosive devices. Given the availability in the
worldwide community of such materials, the probability is significant.

“The universal availability of weapons, explosives, and technologically

sophisticated timing and triggering devices, along with the global
communication revolution, adds to the terrorists’ capabilities. Increased
capabilities include coordinated, nearly simultaneous attacks in several
countries, fax death threats, and comparison of target lists by computer.
Concurrently, intrastate conflicts, political uncertainty, and growth of
ethnic challenges to the administrative state are weakening the states’
security capabilities. Coupled with the increasing porosity of state
borders, these trends are making it easier for the terrorist and his
supporters to move anywhere in the world with little chance of being
apprehended or even identified.” (24)

In the years to follow, acts of terrorism are more likely to include

increased levels of intensity. The Oklahoma City bombing, as well as the
attacks on the World Trade Center, may be indicative of the trend toward
larger scale terrorist actions, which produce significant levels of death
and destruction. Although typical acts of terrorism, such as kidnappings,
car bombings, assassinations and hijackings will likely continue, the
need for greater public impact and publicity may be demonstrated in
more extensive activities. Cyberspace may become another
battleground, as terrorists may use of technological innovations. By
using their “hackers”, terrorists can operate in the realm of the Internet
by assaulting various public and private entities. From the environment
to the stock market, terrorist organizations can inflict widespread
damage to the social and economic infrastructure of many countries
throughout the world.

The overall tactical capabilities of terrorist groups span the spectrum of real-
world possibilities. From biological to nuclear materials, the possibilities
run the full extent of the human imagination. Given the determination of a
particular individual or group, anything is possible. Terrorism represents a
target specific kind of criminal violence. Tactics are planned and executed
with specific outcomes in mind. Terrorist organizations employ goals and
objectives that are designed to meet the requirements of their particular
agenda. Everyone and everything are potential targets for political or
religious reasons. A particular public impact is sought in terms of politics,
economics, psychology, environment and ideology. Terrorism is kind of
militant psychodrama intended to affect a particular mindset. This applies
both in terms of the terrorist in particular, as well as the public in general.
The mass media serves as an excellent conduit to transport impact of an
event to the imagination of the public, and capitalize on fear and
intimidation. This works to the advantage of the terrorists. And, every
citizen should bear in mind, in the real world, everyone is a potential target
of terrorist acts. The greater the fear factor the better the impact of terrorist
actions. Governments cannot protect all of their citizens every single day, in
every situation against every possibility. There are no 100% foolproof
techniques to make us all safe in all aspects of our lives.
The capabilities and intentions of terrorist organizations have become more
pronounced and more extensive in the past few decades. Many groups assert
for one reason or another their animosity for the U.S. government and its
citizens. Whether cultural, psychological or philosophical, terrorists are
dedicated and determined. Like any organizational structure, terrorist
organizations plan, staff and manage calculated tactics to advance their goals
and objectives. They assess and evaluate the gains and losses of their
intended activities. Their antisocial tendencies manifest into a self-centered
preoccupation with having the world conform to them. They will use their
cultural aspects to shape values and beliefs to fit their particular inclinations
and achieve their goals and objectives. In modern times, their capabilities
have expanded significantly. Given their desire to accomplish their goals,
they exploit opportunities that exist in urban society and carry out their
ability to execute operations. Make no mistake terrorists pose a serious
threat to the world community. Along with the desire to make an impact,
target selection and weaponry have become an important part of the terrorist
mission. Each time an attack is carried out, a message is sent to the local
setting, the surrounding neighborhoods and to the world community.

Chapter 7: Weapons of Mass Destruction – Bio Weapons

World citizens cannot expect their law enforcement and military services to
protect them in every possible aspect of their lives. Governmental protective
services do what they can in terms of planning, preparation and prevention
of terrorist incidents. Each person must take responsibility for his or her own
safety and security. Citizens, as with any other aspect of crime prevention,
must be vigilant, practice good security tactics, train and otherwise become
educated in personal safety strategies.

Potential Targets Citizens Should Think About

Terrorist incidents span the spectrum from the traditional tactics to the
more exotic tactics. Traditional tactics refer to what has been used
historically, such kidnappings, car bombs, hostage taking and so forth.
Exotic tactics are more extreme and involve the use of high-tech
weaponry such as chemicals, biological agents, cybercrimes and
nuclear materials. Points of attack could include:

Food supplies – packaged, processed or fast food services

Bars and Restaurants
Water supplies – containers, recycling, urban storage supplies
Waster disposal system
Parks and recreation areas – campgrounds
Nuclear reactors
Highway systems – bridges, railroads, interstate
Oil depots – Utilities – Power supplies – shipping
Sports arenas – public entertainment facilities
Business and commerce centers
Public transportation systems
Computer systems – the Internet
Public and private health care providers and facilities
Communications systems – public safety centers

Biological, nuclear, incendiary, chemical and explosive materials represent

the commonly accepted categories of weapons of mass destruction (WMD).
Within each grouping, the materials are further defined in terms of
destructive power and capacity for causing large numbers of casualties.
Composition, packaging and setting further explain the parameters under
which such materials function. For example, local weather conditions,
terrain, layout, design and so on, determine the effectiveness of such
materials once they are deployed. These factors affect intensity of impact,
or constraints on the particular materials that are used.

Consider for a moment how these factors affect the destructive power of
biological agents. Some agents cause symptoms in humans that are not
life threatening; others cause death in virtually every case. Obviously, the
type of agent (or product) has a significant impact on its destructive
capabilities. An agent contained in a compacted explosive device will
disperse in a manner different from that of an agent contained in an aerosol
dispersal device. In many cases the effects of a detonation – particularly
the heat generated by the explosive device – will destroy a biological
agent. Destruction is less likely to occur from the effects of an aerosol
dispersal device. The environment can also have a significant impact on
the effectiveness of biological agents. For example, many agents are
sensitive to light, oxygen or other components of the environment. An
agent sensitive to ultraviolet light may be destroyed when introduced in
daylight in an outdoor area.

WMD materials can be obtained throughout the world. Their destructive

potential varies, depending on the substances used, design configuration and
the setting in which they are deployed. Independent of organized terrorist
groups, it is probable that rogue terrorists could execute plans to wreak
havoc on U.S. urban environments in the near future. Their attacks could
involve the use of WMD materials. These individuals may break away from
a particular group, or, being unaffiliated, seek to carry actions sympathetic to
a particular organization. And, while the basics of terrorist attacks remain
well founded in things like bombings, they have learned to adapt to changing
world conditions. Terrorist will examine their best course of action, given
the target objective and the materials available. Today, the availability of
more exotic types of weaponry assists the terrorist in developing tactics and
techniques of terror. The kind of terror they are capable of is limited by the
inhumane nature of the human imagination. With regard to the disaster
probability of WMD, there are serious levels of concern throughout the
global community. A nuclear incident, for example, has the potential for
delivering a large-scale amount of destructive capacity to any given area.
Greatly feared, a nuclear terrorist incident presents a worst-case scenario that
is not only humanly devastating, but also delivers a long-term destructive
aftermath. The affects of radiation from such a hazardous device go well
beyond the immediate impact of death and destruction.
Nuclear Terrorism
Some people feel that the use of a nuclear device
is the least likely type of terrorist attack. It is
suggested that the logistics of such an attack,
acquisition problems and costs, would not make
this WMD that attractive as a tactic. Yet,
radioactive materials could be obtained and
attached to a conventional explosive. Once
detonated, the nuclear particles would
contaminate the site of detonation. Sometimes
this is called a Radiological Dispersal Device
(RDD). Nuclear terrorism presents both short
and long term dangers. These include injuries,
destruction, death, radiation burns, poisoning
and serious health problems. (26)

Selected Definitions

Biological Agent – microorganisms, or the toxins derived from such

that cause disease in animals and humans, as well as cause deterioration
in materials.
Blister Agent or vesicant – an agent that burns and blisters the skin,
eyes, respiratory tract and lungs.
Blood agent – an agent that prevents the normal transfer of oxygen
from the blood to body tissues.
Choking agent – an agent that attacks the eyes and respiratory tract
from the nose to the lungs, primarily causing pulmonary edema.
Cryptography & Cryptanalysis – analysis of a cryptographic system
or its inputs and outputs to derive confidential data; the discipline which
embodies principles, means and methods for the transformation of data
in order to hide its information content, prevent its undetected
modification, or prevent its unauthorized use.
Detonation (high explosive) – a violent chemical reaction with a
chemical compound or mechanical mixture involving heat and pressure.
Detonation (nuclear) – a nuclear explosion resulting from fission or
fusion reactions in nuclear materials, such as that from a nuclear
Integrated C3I system – a system utilizing personnel, technology,
weapons, resources, and associated subsystems in order to plan
appropriate levels of response. It refers to command, control,
communications and intelligence gathering, including surveillance, early
warning, and identification so that steps can be taken to plan, direct, and
control actions taken.
Multilevel security – a class of systems containing information with
different sensitivities that simultaneously permit access by users with
different security clearances and needs-to-know, but prevents users from
obtaining access to information for which they lack authorization.
Toxic Chemical – any chemical, which through its chemical action on
life processes can cause death, temporary incapacitation, or permanent
harm to humans or animals in military feasible quantities.
Vesicant – Toxic chemicals that have a blistery effect on the skin, as
described in blister agent above.

In a very general sense, bombings, through the use of conventional

explosives or related devices, remain the most frequently used weapon of the
five categories. Explosives and incendiary weapons are easier for the
terrorist to put within striking range of the selected target. Incendiaries, for
example, are less difficult to construct or obtain than nuclear devices. Such
materials can be constructed from readily available components. Ease of
acquisition would also be important to this process. These weapons typically
do not present a danger of contamination to the terrorist, as do chemical,
nuclear and biological weapons. For the terrorist, the weapon used must
meet the basic requirements as previously mentioned. That is, packaging,
environment, material, delivery and little danger of contamination must
generally favor the terrorist and fit the selected target. In addition, the
weapon must have significant impact when detonated. To have an
immediate affect on the public, which is sensationalized by the media, would
want to use a weapon that is dramatic. Explosives and incendiaries have this
capability. However, should a terrorist group not want widespread
destruction, immediate dramatic affect, and desire to cover their tracks,
something more exotic may be selected. This could mean the deployment of
a biological weapon, so that the onset of public danger would be delayed.
Human and animal victimization could take many days before the complete
onset of symptoms. In this case, exposure is critical to deployment and
activation of the materials used. Routes of exposure can occur through
injection, ingestion, inhalation and absorption. Basically, these refer to
puncturing the skin with some device, intake through the mouth, breathing
materials into the body, and contact being made with the skin.

Skin injection
Absorption – Skin contact
Chemical and biological materials can find
routes into the body via inhalation and
ingestion. Never agents can follow a route
through the skin by being absorbed. Blister
agents, on the other hand, can be inhaled,
ingested and destroy the skin. Radioactive
materials act in a similar manner.

Biological agents used as weapons produce

delayed affects in the exposed population.
The primary route of entry into the body is
through inhalation. Initial response to the area
of attack may require a position that is uphill
and upwind in relation to the target. Facilities
and building exhaust systems should be
avoided. Naturally, the target area should be
secured, isolated and a perimeter established
that is conducive to effective distance, cover
and other protective aspects. Small quantities
of bio-agents, like chemical weapons, can
cause large casualty numbers.

The dangers of terrorist groups deploying biological weapons increase each

year. Capabilities of such groups have changed in the last several decades.
Acquisition can occur by way of different means. This includes: theft from
research facilities, internal/external espionage, commercial purchase, theft from
military supplies, ‘black market’ distribution, development by hostile nations,
and so on. Bio-agents fall into three groups: Bacteria and Rickettsia, viruses,
and toxins.

Bacteria – anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, plague and other diseases are

typically thought of in the mention of bacteria (single-cell organisms that cause
such diseases). These bacteria have the capacity to produce serious toxins
within the human body. They are quite potent and toxic to humans and animals,
even in small quantities. Rickettsia are ‘intracellular parasites’ that appear to
resemble bacteria, as well as viruses, in form and structure. They can replicate
within the cell structure and include such things as: typhus, Rocky Mountain
spotted fever and Q-fever.
Viruses – ‘intracellular parasites’ that are smaller than bacteria, which cause
very infectious disease. They are capable of mutation, and use the host in order
to replicate and produce more viruses.
Toxins – substances that are poisonous and produced by living organisms which
includes bacteria, marine life, fungi, plants, insects and other animal life. They
represent some of the most toxic substances known. For example, in today’s
world, Ricin sometimes comes to mind. It is extremely potent.

Within this broad spectrum of bio-toxins, potential weapons include agents

such as anthrax, plague, tularemia and others. All of these biological agents
tend to produce flu-like symptoms in humans at the onset of exposure. Such
an occurrence may initially be confusing to diagnose. For many countries, as
well as terrorist organizations, bio-agents represent cost-effective weapons
systems. Since these nations cannot afford more expensive weaponry,
biological agents become an alternative. They tend to view such weapons,
along with chemicals, as a way to increase the power of their arsenals. In
terms of equipment necessary to make weapons grade materials, drug-
manufacturing companies, hospitals and veterinary facilities generally have
the necessary lab resources for such purposes. Technology for the
production of biological weapons can be easily camouflaged within the
realm of medical and pharmaceutical laboratories. These types of facilities
can conceal the production of “biological warfare” materials.

Anthrax – is a bacteria that tends to have a very light color and finds a
route through open wounds, cuts on the skin, ingestion and inhalation.
It is an acute disease, which causes fever, chest discomfort, fatigue and
coughing. With an incubation period of about 7 days, it is considered of
high lethality, especially when inhaled. Dissemination is generally
considered by way of spores in aerosol spray. And, contamination
through transmission generally is possible by direct skin contact. Black
lesions may occur after a period of intense itching when exposure
occurs by direct skin contact.
Plague – is a bacterium that is sometimes called the “black plague”.
Symptoms may be coughing with bloody sputum, fever, swollen lymph
glands, and later, dead tissue in the lymph nodes. This is highly
contagious and kills people very quickly. Fleas often carry the disease
and transmit it to humans when biting the skin. Routes of infection
occur from the respiratory system and injection. Transmission is
considered extremely high in terms of passing the disease onto other
humans. The incubation period runs from 1 to 6 days, and considered
to be lethal, unless immediately treated.

Tularemia – bacteria with about a 10-day

incubation period. It is not considered
contagious, and is usually accompanied by
fever, coughing, chills, headaches and
muscle pain. Exposure routes are by
inhalation and skin absorption.
Aerosolized Tularemia is considered fatal.
An airborne attack of Tularemia could
cause serious health problems within 3 to 5
days, resulting in respiratory problems,
shock and death to those infected. It has
been considered as a bio-weapon in
various parts of the world community. (29)

Brucellosis – is a bacterium with an incubation period of about 1 to 3

weeks, and not considered contagious. Symptoms of infection are similar
to that of Tularemia, which include the fever, headaches, sweating chills,
muscle and joint pain. Routes of exposure include inhalation and
ingestion. This bacterium is not considered highly fatal. It is considered
to be commonly transmitted through skin abrasions, when such abrasions
are exposed to infected animals. In the U.S., for example, the disease is
sometimes acquired by the ingestion of contaminated milk and other dairy
Q-Fever – (Rickettsia-type organism) is not considered to be highly
contagious or fatal. It has an incubation period of 10 –21 days and is
accompanied by flu-like symptoms. Exposure generally occurs through
the respiratory system (airborne particles) or by ingestion. Other
symptoms include inflammation of the brain and the heart, as well as
Hepatitis and Pneumonia. It is a species that is seen worldwide, affecting
cattle, sheep and goats in particular. The organism is found in the feces,
urine and milk of infected herd animals, and is resistant to heat, drying
and ordinary disinfectants. The organism is considered for potential use
as a bio-terrorism weapon due to the highly infectious nature and
resistance to heat and drying. (30)

Chapter 8: Weapons of Mass Destruction – Bio Weapons Continued

Biological weapons of mass destruction remain a worldwide concern due to

the subtleness by which they can terrorize large populations. The lethality
spans the spectrum of death and destruction that can disrupt entire healthcare
systems. They can kill in a silent and deadly manner days and weeks after
their deployment. Their development can be cloaked in the disguise of
pharmaceutical research and medical health care. Such causative agents
include Anthrax, Plague, Tularemia, Brucellosis, Q-Fever and many others
bio-agents that can be used as terrorist weapons. Bio-agents usually concern
the disease-producing organisms that include bacteria, Rickettsia, viruses,
toxins and some types of fungi.

Smallpox – is a potential viral type weapon that differs

from bacteria. As a virus, such things as Smallpox
force infected cells in the body to produce more viruses.
Incubation typically follows anywhere from one week
to three weeks in duration. It is considered a highly
contagious virus that causes muscle pain and stiffness,
shivering, throwing up, and sores. Inhalation is
generally the route of exposure and typically from an
aerosol source. The mortality rate is considered to be
very high. Some countries maintain large stockpiles of
Smallpox as a bio-weapon. It represents a serious threat
as a terrorist weapon due to the potential fatal nature
and rate of transmission. Smallpox has the ability to
spread in just about any climate, and remains one of the
most feared infectious diseases. Russia, for example,
has developed bombs and missiles capable of delivering
Smallpox to targeted sites. This country is capable of
producing tons of Smallpox with more virulent and
contagious characteristics. The disease spreads from
person to person via bed linens, clothing and aerosol
droplets. Unless controlled by immediate interdiction,
the disease can spread rapidly through large population


Viral Equine Encephalitis – (VEE) is a viral disease considered to

be mildly contagious. Incubation is between 1 and 4 days.
Symptoms generally include fever, headaches, vomiting, muscle
pain diarrhea, sore throat and drowsiness. Inhalation is the typical
exposure route. It is possible for VEE to be fatal. VEE is carried
by infected mosquitoes. And, once infected, the disease moves to
encephalitis. It is viewed as a potent bio-agent weapon that has the
capability of incapacitating large numbers of people within a target
population area. Laboratory manipulation of the virus makes it
possible for VEE to become an effective biological weapon. It can
be used in an aerosol form and become highly infectious. Once
access is gained to the blood stream, the virus replicates and infects
other cells. When it gains access to the central nervous system it
results in acute encephalitis.

Viral Hemmorrhagic Fevers (VHF) - is a virus that has a varied

incubation period. Symptoms are flu-like and exposure route is
generally by way of inhalation, which affects the respiratory system. It
includes such viruses as Ebola, Yellow Fever, Dengue Fever, the
Hanta viruses and so on. Capillary leaks and shock also accompany
the associated flu-like symptoms. It is considered to be moderately to
highly contagious and often fatal. Infection is likely via aerosolized
preparations, which include Ebola, Yellow Fever and other related
viruses. The former Soviet Union produced stockpiles of such viruses
in weapons form. North Korea is also considered to have developed
such capabilities. This group of viruses raises significant healthcare
concerns nationwide if an attack were made using weapons grade
viruses of these types. In addition to aerosol dispersion, contraction of
the viruses is also possible through contact with infected persons,
animals or materials. (34)

Major Geographic Locations

Patterns of Occurrences
VHF Viruses (35)

General Epidemiologic Features of Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses

Virus Major Geographic Location for General Pattern of Disease Occurrence
Human Disease
Ebola virus Sub-Saharan Africa —First identified in 1976—Outbreaks recognized
with increasing frequency since mid-1990s—
Relatively rare, despite recent increase in outbreak
Marburg virus Sub-Saharan Africa —First identified in 1967—Only a few small
outbreaks recognized until 1998, when large
outbreak (lasting months) occurred in DRC—Rare
Lassa virus West Africa —First identified in 1969—Endemic in many West
African countries—Relatively common
New World South America (except Whitewater —Five different viruses known to cause human
arenaviruses Arroyo virus, which has only been disease—Only Junin virus has endemic focus (in
associated with illnesses in rural areas of northeastern Argentina); others
California) occur infrequently
Rift Valley fever —Sub-Saharan Africa —Egypt — —First identified in animals in 1930 and in humans
virus Saudi Arabia, Yemen in 1975—Relatively common in sub-Saharan Africa
and Egypt (particularly in livestock)
Yellow fever —Sub-Saharan Africa—Tropical —Has been recognized for centuries—Urban,
virus regions of South America sylvatic, and intermediate forms occur—Endemic in
areas of Africa and South America—Relatively
Kyasanur Forest Karnataka State, India (west-central —First identified in 1957—Relatively uncommon
disease virus area of country)
Omsk Central Asia —First identified in 1940s—Several outbreaks
hemorrhagic reported in 1950s—Few cases in recent years
fever virus
Abbreviation: DRC, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Basically, bacteria are single-cell organisms that produce such things as

Anthrax, Brucellosis and Plague. The degree to which they are infectious
and lethal varies. Rickettsia is a microorganism that is similar to bacteria,
by way of form and structure. It is an intracellular parasite. The parasitic
organism reproduces inside the host cell and includes such diseases as
typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Q-fever. Viruses, in contrast,
are much smaller than bacteria and mutate to produce more viruses.
Fungi can cause severe diseases in humans, and may be used to destroy
crops and plants. Toxins are poisonous substances that are produced by a
living organism. They are manufactured by plants, insects, animals,
spiders, bacteria, fungi and marine life.

BW agents are relatively easy and inexpensive to

produce for any nation that has a modestly
sophisticated pharmaceutical or fermentation
industry. Mass-production methods for growing
cultures are widely used in the commercial
production of yogurt, yeast, beer, antibiotics, and
vaccines. Almost all equipment needed for the
production of pathogens and toxins is dual-use and
available on the international market, increasing
the potential for concealing illicit activities under
the cover of legitimate production. (36)

Biological Warfare (BW) is

viewed as the use of certain
organisms for military
purposes. The use of such
materials is intended to
cause severe harm to
people, animals, crops, food
sources and so forth.

BW agents can be deployed by

aerosol or dry powder delivery
systems. A sprayer can be
affixed to a vehicle, or a
ballistic missile can be used to
deliver the agents on target.

According to available research data, a number of countries around the globe

are suspected to be involved in bio weapons development. The following
either have developed such weapons, or are suspected to be in the process of
acquiring the technology for such weapons: Russia, North Korea, China,
Iran, Iraq, Egypt, Libya, Sudan, India, and Pakistan. A number of countries
are in the process of eliminating bio weapons. These include: the United
States, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Germany, Japan and South
Africa. It is believed by contemporary research that terrorist groups will
make every effort to exploit the use of such weapons in the future. State
sponsorship of such efforts is highly likely in terms of funding, materials and
other operational support aspects.

Botulinum Toxins – Toxic substances are

produced by many organisms. Plants, fungi
and bacteria produce some of the most
potent toxins. Botulinum toxin generally
reacts in about 1 to 12 hours upon exposure.
It causes weakness in the arms and legs and
affects the respiratory system. Botulinum is
usually introduced via injection or ingestion
(aerosol dissemination is a possibility). It
has the potential of causing life-threatening
paralysis of the human body.

Botulinum toxin is considered a serious threat as a potential terrorist

weapon. The possibility for mass casualties is high depending on the
method of dissemination. As a highly toxic substance, it is easily
configured for deployment and human exposure. Lethal and relatively
easy to manufacture, Botulinum toxin can be life threatening or fatal
even in very small quantities. It is used in the stockpiles of various
nations as part of weapons systems development. According to one
study, the conclusion was made that this substance is most often
contracted by eating contaminated food sources, or by skin absorbtion.
And, it is also highly conducive for use in aerial spraying over
populated areas. For example, one group in particular, the “Aum Shin
Rikyo cult” of Japan, has tried to deploy Botulinum in Tokyo on three
occasions. This took place in the early 1990’s and the attempts failed.
As indicated earlier, certain nations have developed weapons programs
involving Botulinum toxins. These countries include Russia and Iraq.
This toxin attacks the central nervous system causing the loss of
muscle contraction. When this happens, paralysis sets in, which results
in a loss of mobility and respiratory function. People who have
survived exposure to Botulism have had to undergo weeks of medical
attention, including mechanical ventilation in order to recover. One of
the dangers, the aforementioned study pointed out, was that since
Botulism is so rare, it is often misdiagnosed. This makes it crucial that
health care providers quickly identify the infection and respond rapidly
in terms of treatment. Generally, transmission from one person to
another does not occur. (37)

Staphylococcal Enterotoxins – This is a food poisoning oriented toxin

contracted by ingestion or inhalation. Such exposure can cause shock or
death. Symptoms are indicative of food poisoning in that the victim
suffers from fever, chills, headache, coughing nausea, vomiting and
diarrhea. Reaction to the toxin can occur anywhere from within 5
minutes of exposure to 1 hour. Person to person transmission does not

Ricin – This toxin is derived from castor beans. The runoff water from
the preparation process of developing castor oil has up to 5% ricin in its
contents. About 1 milligram (1/1000 of a gram) can cause the death of
one person, by way of inhalation, injection or ingestion. Its rate of
action is about 1 to 2 hours. Exposure results in coughing, chest
tightness, breathing problems nausea and muscle aches. Inhalation of
Ricin causes tissue death resulting in injury to the airway. Transmission
from person to person does not occur.

Mycotoxins (Trichothecene Mycotoxins) – This particular toxin has a

rate of action of about 5 minutes to 1 hour. It is usually not considered
transferable from one person to another. Vomiting, nasal pain, breathing
problems, bloody diarrhea, and skin inflammation are among the signs
and symptoms of exposure. Routes of introduction include ingestion
and injection. Within this group, there are about 40 toxins that are
produced by fungi.

Chapter 9: Weapons of Mass Destruction – Nuclear Weapons:

Categories of Weapons of Mass Destruction


Biological Warfare
Development of biological weapons involves selection criteria, along with
various stages of production and final completion of weaponized
components. Beginning with the process of selecting an organism, the
productive stages involve the development of larger quantities from small
cultures. Completion of the project requires stabilization of the developed
organism for use as a weapons system. Biotechnology in the past quarter of
a century has greatly increased the capabilities of bio weapons in the arsenal
of modern warfare. Both quality and quantity of materials have a significant
impact in terms of the threat against military forces and civilian populations.
Technology has enhanced delivery systems, targeting, productive capacity
as well as transition of non-pathogenic strains into more potent pathogenic
organisms. The later is the result of genetic manipulation. (39)


While U.S. government facilities take precautions to ensure against the loss
of nuclear materials and technology, several countries do not adequate
precautions. From South Africa to the former Soviet Union, there are
reports that nuclear materials have been stolen or otherwise unaccounted for
from storage areas. In addition to losses and theft of such materials, there
are several countries actively engaged in the acquisition of nuclear materials.
Along with the procurement of nuclear materials, certain countries desire to
develop a nuclear capability that could be hostile to the interests of the
United States. An attack using a nuclear device against U.S. military targets,
or within the U.S., is a serious concern within the intelligence community.

Years ago there were two impediments to would be

proliferators: the technical know-how for building a
bomb and the acquisition of the fissile material.
Fissile material is the highly enriched uranium or
plutonium atoms that split apart in a chain reaction
and create the energy of an atomic bomb. Today
the major impediment to a nation committed to
acquiring a nuclear capability is the acquisition of
fissile material. While it is by no means easy to
make a nuclear weapon, knowledge of weapons
design is sufficiently widespread that trying to
maintain a shroud of secrecy around this technical
knowledge no longer offers adequate protection.
At the same time, there is concern that terrorist
groups could obtain and use, or threaten to use,
nuclear materials. Nuclear materials are divided
into two categories: 1) fissile materials, such as
plutonium-239 or unranium-235, and 2) other
radioactive materials, such as uranium-238, cesium-
137, or cobalt-60. We, of course, track possible
diversions of plutonium and uranium. But we also
are concerned that non-fissile, radioactive materials
could be used in a terrorist device designed to create
psychological or economic trauma or to contaminate
buildings, water supplies or localized areas.

There are indications, as cited previously, that nuclear materials, located at

facilities within the former Soviet Union, are in need of increased security
and protection. Lack of security, criminal activity and inferior technological
safeguards within this arena suggest the strong possibility of serious
problems in the near future. The world’s stockpiles of nuclear materials,
technology and knowledge are not as safe and secure as they once were in
decades long past. Of serious concern, is the possibility of terrorist groups
obtaining such capability.

Radiological agents may produce delayed

reactions. Unlike exposure to chemical agents,
exposure to radiological agents does not require
immediate removal of victims’ clothing or gross
decontamination in the street. Inhalation is the
primary route of entry for particulate radiation.
In most cases, SCBA and structural firefighting
clothing provides adequate protection for first
responders. Alternately, gamma sources require
minimizing exposure time and maintaining
appropriate distance as the only protection.
Exposed/contaminated victims may not exhibit
obvious injuries. (42)

With the growing inability of certain regions to safeguard nuclear materials,

concern is being raised over the possibility of a serious domestic incident.
Some would assert that an incident could be possible at a nuclear facility,
such as a power plant or a university campus. A terrorist group or individual
plans and carries out an attack at a facility containing such materials. In this
case, the facility against itself as a “weapon”, or materials or stolen. The
weapon is made later for a different target. Others suggest that a so called
“dirty bomb”, or “radioactive dispersal device” could be activated in a
public place. The “public place” scenario has involved consideration of a
device being activated in a public transportation terminal. Following an
explosion, for example, radioactive materials could be scattered and carried
over a large metropolitan area. Subsequent news coverage would assist in
raising the level of fear on the part of the public. As the fear increases, the
real nature of device makes its impact on the community. That is, the device
becomes a “weapon of mass terror”, as opposed to a “weapon of mass
destruction”. Throughout the world, there have been numerous occasions in
which individuals have attempted to purchase nuclear materials. Aside from
purchases, a number of Soviet “suitcase” bombs are missing from Soviet
inventories. In addition to that, hundreds, perhaps thousands of items
containing nuclear materials are scattered all over the former Soviet Union.

Possible Targets
A Large City
Amusement Park – Entertainment Complex
Sports Arena or Stadium
Significant Transportation Terminal
Major University
Nuclear Reactor Production Facility

There are over 100 “suitcase bombs” missing from the Soviet nuclear
inventory. The former head of Soviet National Security, Alexander Lebed
testified to that fact before Congress. He stated that the devices measure
approximately 24” x 16” x 8” and can be set off by an individual in less than
30 minutes, producing a 1 kilo ton yield. Such a device, set off in New York
Harbor would produce a 15 to 20 foot wave that would destroy New York
City. Other sources have confirmed that the number of suitcase bombs
missing from the Soviet inventory is correct. (43)

Since only a small percentage of incoming foreign shipping is actually

inspected at U.S. ports, it is highly possible for weapons components to enter
the country. Unfortunately, due to the nature of U.S. entry points, with
limited inspectional personnel and detection equipment, terrorist penetration
can occur. In addition, the ongoing efforts to acquire nuclear materials, as
well as “suitcase” bombs, by terrorists continues at a high degree. The
intelligence community is well aware of terrorist organizations actively
engaged in the purchase of such components, particularly in collusion with
organized crime groups. The capability of producing a “weapon of mass
terror” has increased since the fall of the former Soviet Union. With nuclear
materials scattered all over the various territories, radiological materials can
be found at hundreds of locations. Detonation, aside from the immediate
death, injury and damage, would spread fear over a large metropolitan area.
Decontamination efforts would require a significant amount of resources, as
well as long-term contamination. The media attention alone would become
a huge process by itself that would add to public fears and disorientation.

Total preparation for nuclear or radiological incidents is difficult, if not

impossible. Consider the impact of a nuclear explosion – extensive
damage to infrastructure and hundreds or thousands of casualties.
Typical emergency response capabilities on the local and state level
would be taxed beyond attainable levels. Federal response
capabilities, particularly in the short term, would be challenged. Even
an attack involving dispersion of radiological material (without a
nuclear explosion) would be a devastating event, particularly if the
area of contamination was extensive. Nuclear terrorism represents a
significant escalation of terrorism. The detonation of a fission
(nuclear) device is probably the worst-case scenario among potential
terrorist events, at least in terms of immediate, substantial and dramatic

We must keep mind the impact of radiation on the human body. There are
short term and long-term affects that cause changes in the bodies cells. On
the lower level, we experience radiation every day in small amounts.
Generally, the body has defenses that repair changes that take place.
Radiation is all around us in many aspects of our daily lives.

Yet, in large doses as a result of massive exposure, radiation causes

mutations in the body that will eventually kill us. High-level exposure
results in cell damage. Radiation is energy that travels by wave length and
passes through materials such as human tissue. Ionizing radiation occurs by
way of electromagnetic or particle emissions. It is the result of the
disintegration of the nucleus of an atom. Sources of radiation exist all
around us in various forms, and basically concerns such particles as alpha,
beta and gamma rays. Cell death results from ionized radiation upon
penetration of human tissue. The biological effects are such that cell
reproduction or division is radically altered or destroyed. Cell mutation can
occur. Exposure and dose levels as measured in Roentgens. For example,
one Roentgen (R) equals an amount gamma radiation that results in
ionization, which in turn results in one electrostatic unit of charge. An
absorbed does is called a “rad”, or Roentgen Absorbed Dose. Biologically
equivalent doses are sometimes called “rems”, or Roentgen Equivalent Man.


Nuclear Materials – Natural Sources

Radon (soil) 200 mrem
Cosmic (sun – space) – 28 mrem
Terrestrial – 28 mrem
Internal (potassium 40) 40 mrem
Medical X-rays – 40 mrem
Nuclear medicine – 14 mrem
Consumer products – 10 mrem
Other – 3 mrem
Annual Dose – 360 mrem
One time rescue exposure – 25 mrem
Major exposure at one time – cell damage – 200 mrem
Emissions occur in three forms: alpha particles, beta particles and
gamma particles


Alpha particles do not go very far from their source. They are short range in
nature and travel only a couple of inches in air. With a large mass, they
deliver a sizeable amount of energy in a short distance. Alpha particles travel
only a few inches. Things like paper and a layer of skin can shield against
Alpha particles. Due to this configuration, they can cause internal injury if
inhaled or ingested. This kind of radiation generally comes from plutonium
and uranium. By contrast, Beta particles are smaller in terms of their mass.
Their range is somewhat limited up to several feet. Beta particles also
present an internal hazard, as well as an external threat to the eyes and skin
areas. Beta radiation is generally found in fission products and tritium.
Gamma radiation, on the other hand, is referred to as an electromagnetic
wave or photon. Gamma radiation is like x-rays and travels hundreds of
feet. Without mass or electrical charge, it is capable of penetrating other
solid objects. This would include the human body. Gamma radiation causes
both internal and external damage to the whole body of a person. Shielding
can only be afforded by use of concrete, steel or lead. This type of radiation
is found in fission products, cobalt, iridium and x-rays equipment. Terrorists
may have the capability to deliver “dirty bombs” containing hazardous
radioactive materials. At least three possibilities exist. These include:
activation of an atomic weapon; dispersal using nuclear materials and
conventional explosives; and exploding a large amount of conventional
explosives next to a facility containing nuclear materials. (48)

Chapter 10: Weapons of Mass Destruction – Incendiary Devices &

Incendiary Devices

In the use of incendiary devices, first responders train to be alert to

subsequent fires, booby traps, suspicious actions, sabotage of fire
suppression systems and secondary explosive devices. A multitude of
threats may be present following the delivery of an incendiary mechanism.
The placement of incendiaries is a centuries old practice by terrorist groups
and individuals. Such devices deliver high level dangers of involving rapid
fires, property damage, death, panic and fear. By spreading to other
materials within the target site, incendiaries expand destructive capabilities
and increase the lethality level. Incendiaries represent those types of devices
that are usually of the homemade variety. These explosive type weapons
may employ mechanical, electrical or chemical components to initiate
combustion and cause a fire. The odor of an accelerant, multiple fires and
high fire volume may be indicative of an incendiary device. Worldwide,
about 70% of all terrorist attacks involve the use of some type of explosive.

General Information

Fire may present intense conditions:

Rapid Spread
High Heat
Multiple Fires
Chemical Accelerant
Terrorists may sabotage fire protection devices.
Be alert to booby traps.
Be aware of the possibility of multiple devices.

Incendiaries may be triggered by chemical, electrical or mechanical

processes. The delivery of such devices may be from a fixed location,
thrown into the target site, or fired by self-propelled means. Delivery of the
device may depend upon the target that has been selected. Incendiaries are
generally classified according to the method by which it is activated and the
means of delivery.

Triggering Methodology
First Classification of Incendiaries

 Chemical reaction – including burning fuse

Burning Fuse
Swimming Pool Chlorine and sulfuric acid
Pool Chlorine and Brake fluid
Potassium Perchlorate, sugar and sulfuric acid
 Electronic ignition
Electrical Match
 Mechanical ignition
Radio Control Unit
Mouse Trap
Non-electrical Alarm Clock

Delivery Methodology
Second Classification of Incendiaries

 Fixed or Stationary – Planted Object

Planted Device
Poured into building with timer
 Thrown by Terrorist
Classic “Molotov Cocktail”
 Fire by Launching device – Self-Propelled
Self-propelled rocket
 Aircraft Delivery of Incendiary Device
Deliberate crashing of aircraft
Launched from aircraft to target

Generally, incendiary devices have been considered to consist of two types.

From an historical point of reference, these included: the “Molotov
Cocktail” and the incendiary device. Where the “Molotov Cocktail” is
designed to be thrown at the target, the incendiary device is designed to be
planted in the target. Later, by remote control, timer or chemical
composition activates the incendiary. According to one source, the
“Molotov cocktail” allegedly gets its name from the battlefields of World
War II. Most likely, the name comes Russian Army attacks on German
tanks. Low on ammunition, the Russians resorted to the development of a
homemade “anti-tank” weapon. As a result, they created “petrol bombs” by
filling glass bottles with fuel. Once filled, the bottles were sealed and a
makeshift fuse attached. Sometimes, rags of cloth would be stuffed into the
bottle for a fuse. When the fuse was lighted, the “petrol bomb” was thrown
at the target. On impact, the burning fuse would ignite the fuel from the
broken bottle. During this time of warfare, Molotov was the name of the
Soviet Minister for Foreign Affairs.


The so called “petrol bomb” has been used by self-styled anarchists,

revolutionaries, militants and an assortment of others for decades. It is a
cheap explosive device that is both frangible and incendiary. As a
combination hand grenade and fire bomb, it can be very effective against a
target. Although it may not kill a lot of people, it does cause casualties,
destroys property and raises fear levels. Components of the typical
“Molotov Cocktail” usually consists of an ignition source, combustible filler
(fuel) and a container (glass bottle). The incendiary reaction takes place
upon the ignition of the fuel source, or the combustible filler material. A
container is required in order to hold the filler in place until release and
ignition. The container selected is important. It must break or come apart
on impact in order to be effective. Thin glass bottles are preferred as
opposed a heavy glass bottle container. Plastic beverage bottles may
sometimes be used. In this case, the materials inside the container would
mix, causing combustion and expansion of the container. When the
container breaks, the contents expands further causing an explosion. There
are a multitude of ways in which an incendiary may be constructed. They
are relatively easy to construct, and materials are readily available in the
average household.

Types of Materials Used

Firecracker fuse
Fireworks materials
Highway flares
Gasoline and other fuel sources
Light bulbs
Glass containers
Old wine or liquor bottles
Various electrical components
Chemical products used around the home
Gas cylinders from cooking grills
Aircraft used as incendiary bomb
Fill materials such as nails and metal debris
Household chemicals

Chemical Weapons

In similar manner to incendiaries, chemical weapons are also easy to

produce in the “home laboratory”. The capabilities and technologies for
produce such materials are about 100 years old. Although large amounts of
chemicals must used, as compared to biological weapons, they are available
throughout the world. In addition, many chemicals are produced legally for
many reasons throughout the global community. This makes acquisition
more conducive to individual and group objectives. Large quantities of
materials are necessary for production. This increases the risk factor in
terms of early warning, detection and interdiction of probable criminal
activity. Manufacturing, handling and delivery also has risks for the
terrorists in terms of exposure. However, for the terrorist, the advantages of
using chemical weapons include the following:

Manufacture is easy
Materials are readily available
Development costs are low
Dispersal is aided by building design and environment
Victim injury is immediate
Expensive for first responders – decontamination – resources
Fear factor is significant
Capabilities have increased with technology

Chemical agents or weapons possess the capacity to kill or seriously injury

people. They are generally divided into five major categories for
consideration of their characteristics and health risk factors. These include
the following:

Never agents

Blister agents

Choking agents

Blood agents


In addition to the major categories indicated for chemical agents (e.g. nerve,
blister, choking, etc.), these substances can be assigned as a type that is
either “persistent” or “non-persistent”. If an agent is “persistent”, it is
considered to be one that remains in the target location for a long period of
time. Following delivery of the agent, it may stay in the target of r hours,
days and even weeks. Dangers stem from vapor and liquid presence of the
chemical. If an agent is characterized as being “non-persistent”, then it is
considered to be of short duration in the target area. Dangers persist from
chemical vapors that may linger from minutes to hours in the area of attack.

Chemical agents are extremely dangerous in both liquid and

vapor forms. In liquid form, however, the liquid must
actually come in contact with the victim to produce its
effects. Vapors, on the other hand, can spread over large
areas, even in lethal concentrations. Vapors pose a far more
insidious threat in most situations. Some agents produce
volumes of vapor at a given temperature than others do. The
amount of vapor produced is a consequence of an agent’s
vapor pressure (the higher the value, the greater the
production of vapor), air pressure and temperature.
Increasing the surface area (by aerosolizing) or temperature
(by heating, as in a fogger) will increase the volume of
vapors generated. Weaponized versions of chemical agents
produce greater volumes of vapor. The sarin used in the
Tokyo subway attack was not properly aerosolized or
weaponized; as a consequence, the number of casualties
produced was far less than the potential for a chemical of that

Chemicals such as Tabun, Sarin and Soman tend to be volatile and persistent
agents that have a rapid rate of action. Their route of entry to the human
body is typically by way of the respiratory system or the skin. These three,
for example, are typically considered to be semi-persistent in nature. The
VX chemical, by comparison, is considered to be a persistent agent with a
rapid rate of action. Symptoms of their affects include: headache, runny
nose, salivation, pinpointing of the pupils, problems with breathing, seizures
and convulsions.

Of the chemical weapons available, nerve agents are generally considered to

be the most toxic materials developed. They remain very dangerous
weapons of mass destruction. The rapid onset of death within minutes of
exposure, as well as their ability to be hazardous in either liquid or vapor
states, makes them extremely hazardous.

Nerve Agents
Nerve agents include such substances as Tabun (GA-1936), Soman
(GD-1944), Sarin (GB-1938) and V Agent (VX-1952). The liquid
vapors of these substance cause illnesses in humans. The letters in
parenthesis indicates military designated letters of abbreviation, along
with date of development. For example, the “G” makes reference to
German development, while the next letter refers to the scientist
mainly responsible for its creation. With regard to the “V”, it refers to
venom, while the “X” refers to a chemical series. This group of
chemicals represents some of the most dangerous and toxic chemicals
developed. Their route of entry into the human body is by skin
absorption, inhalation, ingestion and injection. Nerve agents are
related to substances called “organophosphorus pesticides”.
Organophosphorus pesticides are used in the agricultural industry.
Many kinds of pesticides are used in food production. During the 19th
century, such pesticides were produced to control insects, rodents and
other animals that affected farming and food production. The more
potent substances eventually were processed into nerve agents. These
substances affect the human nervous system and inhibit the ability of
“cholinesterase” (enzyme) to properly control the neurotransmitter
“acetylcholine”. With this malfunction, nerve impulses cannot be
properly transmitter to muscle or other nerve cells. As such, over
stimulation of the nerves and muscles occur and subsequently cause
weakness or paralysis of the muscles. Convulsions and uncontrolled
muscle reactions result from the affects of the never agent. In the
victim, it becomes very pronounced and significant that they display
pinpoint pupils, runny nose, problems in breathing, unconsciousness,
seizures and vomiting. Exposure to such chemical generally is the
result of airborne vapors. Other exposure possibilities include liquid
contact with the skin, resulting in absorption. And, while the “G”
chemicals may evaporate at about the same rate as water (1 to 2 days),
the “V” series may last longer. The “V” agents have been known to
linger for days and up to months within the target area.

It is extremely difficult from a protective posture, to know or predict how an

attack may occur. Likewise, knowing the type of chemical weapon that
might be used is also hard to define or otherwise plan against. Murder
bombers can attack without warning using explosives. Or, a secret delivery
system can be instituted against target locations. Threat assessments are
difficult tasks requiring ongoing intelligence, teamwork and aggressive
actions. It is known by the intelligence and law enforcement communities
that terrorist group interest in the acquisition of chemical and biological
weapons is growing. Due to the complexity of acquiring weaponized
substances, delivery problems and the unpredictable nature of the materials,
terrorist may tend to prefer conventional explosives in the immediate future.
But, as some point out, the impact the weapon has on the public may be as
significant as the type of weapon used. In other words, the psychological
affect is of great importance in the aftermath of the initial attack. While the
weapon of choice may not create mass destruction and casualties, the fear
factor can be greatly exploited. Regardless of the relative effectiveness of a
certain chemical weapon, the media coverage from such an attack could
prove far more valuable to the terrorist. The high profile nature of such an
incident is essential to the terrorist’s strategy.

Attackers will generally have a political or ideological motive.

The psychological and political aspects of using weapons of mass
destruction cannot be quantified in any form but can be exploited
in ways where the number of casualties, and the amount of
physical damage, may be far less important than the impact on
public opinion, crowd behavior, and the political perceptions of
foreign states. The very threat of such attacks can cause panic,
and the risk of contamination can deny the use of a facility even
if contamination is minimal or no longer exists. At the same
time, a successful biological or nuclear attack on US territory
might radically change world perceptions of American strength
and vulnerability, even if the target was poorly chosen and
casualties were limited.

Chapter 11: Other Types of Chemical Weapons

Blister Agents

In comparison to nerve agents, blister agents are sometimes called

“vesicants”. These substances are known for the burns and blisters they
cause to the skin of targeted victims. The affect on skin surfaces is similar
to that of very strong acid exposure. In addition, the toxic characteristics
also cause respiratory damage as well as internal injuries of a gastrointestinal
nature. Blister agents can cause serious contamination to surrounding land
areas, vessels and vehicles along with any associated equipment. Exposure
to vesicants may come through liquid or vapor form. If environmental
conditions are warm, more vapors may occur. The Mustard agents may last
as long as several months within a target area. Eyes, airways and skin are in
danger of injury upon exposure. They are a persistent hazards with a high
level of volatility. The odor coming from a blister agent is typically that of a
garlic-like smell. Symptoms include: burning, blistering sore throat,
coughing heart problems, coma and seizures. It is possible that symptoms
may be delayed anywhere from two to twenty-four hours. Generally,
vesicants include such substance as sulphur mustard, nitrogen mustard and
arsenic related agents like lewisite. Sulphur mustard, for example, was
deployed in World War I, and is a type of agent that penetrates the cell
membranes, causing significant damage. By contrast, Lewisite is without
color, and has an odor similar to that of geraniums. It is a powerful chemical
warfare agent with potent characteristics. It is able to penetrate regular
clothing and most normal materials worn by people. On contact with the
skin, Lewisite causes pain and discomfort. The burns and blisters can result
from either liquid or vapor exposure. Basic protective gear, such as surgical
gloves and similar rubberized materials, do not offer protection against
Lewisite. Effective protection must come in the form of specially designed
suits that include a self-contained breathing system. As an oily liquid, it has
also been around since the beginning of the 20th century. Breathing
Lewisite, or a Mustard-Lewisite mixture, causes airway difficulties. Tissue
damage takes place, along with burning pain and irritations to the eyes, nose,
sinus cavities, throat and lungs. Contact with the skin results in pain,
swelling, rashes and subsequent blisters. Severe reactions to the affects of
Lewisite, associated with a drop in body temperatures, pulse rate, etc, has
been described as “Lewisite Shock”. (55)

The use of chemical weapons by terrorists can be viewed as being extremely

unnerving to the public’s thinking process. Visions of skin burning and
pealing off the body leave a frightening impression in the minds of most
people. Chemicals, such as blister agents, are horrific inventions of warfare.
Again, the types of attacks that continue to be at forefront, typically relate to
conventional weapons and tactics. That is, explosives, supported by gunfire,
as well as the use of vessels, vehicles and aircraft, remain primary terrorist
potentials that exist. Terrorist can be creative, inventive and adaptive to
counter-terrorist efforts. Certain groups have shown an interest in acquiring
chemical weapons. However, it is likely, by the best guesstimates that
traditional tactics will not change dramatically. However, there is always
the possibility selected incidents could be different from conventional
operations. Chemicals and biological weapons have disadvantages as well
as technical problems.
….in 1993, Ramsi Yousef built the device that
was originally intended to bring down the World
Trade Centre. It failed, but it wasn’t for lack of
trying. Later investigators discovered that Yousef
had earlier considered adding cyanide to his
explosive charges. In the end Yousef gave up on
this idea. After having thought through the
financial costs, technical problems and the low
likelihood of success, Yousef concluded that it
wasn’t worth the time and effort. We can also
consider an even older historical example for
perspective. During the Second World War,
Germany possessed very large stocks of chemical
weapons, including the nerve agents tabun and
sarin in weapon form. When Nazi Germany
launched its V-1 buzz bomb and V-2 ballistic
missiles in vengeance against London, Wehrmacht
military scientists considered using chemical
agents in these munitions. In the end, however,
they made the cold calculation: They knew that to
cause as much destruction and, indeed, terror
among the civilian populace, high explosives
could do the job just as effectively, probably even
more so. (56)

Blood Agents

When talking about Blood Agents, cyanide comes to mind. Once they are
transformed into weapons grade chemicals, they are used in vapor form.
Yet, cyanides are also produced in other forms such as powders and liquids.
Human exposure can occur through either contact with liquid or vapor
substances. It is often suggested that their existence, even though colorless,
smells something on the order of burned almonds. Once human exposure
occurs, respiratory arrest can take place very rapidly. They are generally
non-persistent in nature. The chemical action works to block the transfer of
oxygen among the cells and organs via the blood system of the body.
Routes of entry are typically through the respiratory tract. Bodily functions
become greatly affected by the oxygen interruption that occurs. Common
blood agents include: Hydrogen Cyanide and Cyanogen Chloride. Again,
access to bodily tissue takes place through inhalation, absorption, ingestion
and injection. Symptoms of exposure include: increased respirations,
dizziness, cardiac difficulties and so forth.


Non-Persistent in nature
Rapid rate of action
Route of entry via inhalation, skin, eyes
Smell of burned almonds

Symptoms include: cherry red skin/lips, rapid breathing,

dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, dilated pupils,
excessive salivation, gastrointestinal hemorrhage,
pulmonary edema, convulsions, respiratory arrest;

Common Names:

Hydrogen Cyanide
Cyanogen Chloride

Cyanide is used in common chemicals present in commercial and industrial

applications. They may be encountered in various business locations. Blood
agents exist in both liquid and gas form and have a highly volatile nature.
Hydrogen cyanide, for example, is the type used in “gas chambers”. Once
exposed, they evaporate quickly. As mentioned earlier, cyanide reacts to the
presence of iron in the hemoglobin. This interference disrupts the process of
oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange within the circulatory system. As a
result, a person experiences asphyxiation, which is a sudden and rapid

Choking Agents

Chlorine, phosgene and diphosgene represent three types of choking agents.

They are generally considered to be non-persistent and affect the human
body by way of inhalation or skin absorption. Odors smell like bleach
(Chlorine) or freshly mowed grass or hay (phosgene). Symptoms include
tightness in the chest, as well as coughing, choking and so forth. In addition,
they cause eye irritation and pulmonary edema. Exposure takes place
primarily through inhalation of the vapors. If concentrations are high
enough, death will occur. Since they react with moisture, these agents go
after the tissues in the lungs once they enter the human body. The onset of
signs and symptoms usually occurs within two to twenty-four hours.
Chlorine, for instance, has been used as a warfare agent since the time of
World War I. On the battlefield, Germany made use of its properties as a
choking agent. Generally non-persistent, Chlorine may last longer in low-
lying areas, depending on environmental conditions. In addition to the
symptoms already described, people will also experience vomiting and

Choking Agents

Choking agents such as chlorine, enter the body by way of inhalation.

Sufficient levels of exposure result in death. When the agent comes into
contact with the fluids in the lungs a reaction takes place. This reaction
produces chemical changes in the chlorine. The change produces
hydrochloric acid, which causes the lungs to fill up with more fluids.
This fluid inflow reduces the ability of the lungs to properly utilize
oxygen. Preventing oxygen transfer, the chemical reactions can produce
a “drowning” affect in the victim.


Irritants are on the low end of the spectrum in terms of injury. These agents
generally refer to those chemicals that are found in military and law
enforcement crowd control applications. Skin absorption and inhalation are
the usual routes of exposure for people. The irritants include: tear gas, mace
and the so-called pepper spray.

These chemical agents are designed to cause pain, burning, or discomfort

on exposed mucous membranes and skin. These effects occur within
seconds of exposure, but seldom persist more than a few minutes after
exposure has ended. However, victims with respiratory problems, small
children, infants and the elderly may experience symptoms over a far
longer period of time. Large doses over extended periods of time can
produce fatalities. Victim symptoms include immediate burning sensation
of the eyes, coughing, difficulty breathing, involuntary closing of the eyes,
and a stinging sensation on moist skin surfaces. Victims may report
multiple odors including hair spray and pepper due to the variety of
propellants used to dispense these agents.

Law enforcement, as well as the military services, have used these types of
chemical agents for quite some type. Typically, they are deployed in a
number of confrontational situations. Police officers use these tools to
enhance enforcement capabilities in dealing with persons who resist lawful
authority, or otherwise commit criminal incidents. In this regard, chemical
agents have proved to be essential to the law enforcement function of
providing public safety and security. Additionally, the chemicals have
greatly assisted police personnel in controlling potentially dangerous

Chemical agents have been used by the police to subdue criminal and
riotous individuals or groups for many years. The police of Paris are
credited with the modern development of the concept in the year 1912
when “hand bombs” filled with an early tear gas were used to
incapacitate gangs of criminals that were presenting a serious threat to
life and property in the French capital. From this law enforcement
origin grew the subsequent development of military chemical warfare
which began with tear gas and quickly escalated to the dreaded lethal
and disabling gases of World War I and the modern era.

In the early Paris “hand bombs” a chemical substance known as “ethyl

bromacetate was used in the composition of the crowd control agent.
Although the chemicals had the potential to be very volatile in nature, small
concentrations could be very effective in police operations. This substance
is related to “tear gas”. Both substances are part of a group of substances
that are referred to as “lacrimators”. This makes reference to the fact that
they cause accelerated tear reaction in the eyes, resulting in a “weeping”
affect. The vapor or gas that is produced by the chemicals has demonstrated
effectiveness in confrontation incidents. Due to the common reaction of
producing tears, the phrase “tear gas” has pretty much followed the chemical
composition into modern times. Until the advent of “pepper sprays”, three
major agents have been developed for police applications since the early
1900’s. These included: CN agent (choloroacetophenone), CS agent
(orthocholobenzalmalononitrile), and the nausea chemical, DM agent

Use of force issues are of critical importance to law enforcement operations.

The ability to control combative and confrontational subjects in a lawful
manner is an essential component of the police mission. Order maintenance
activities remain a vital part of what police officers do every day. As such,
irritants play a role in the reasonable and humane application of enforcement
strategies. Law Enforcement personnel are trained to deploy such tools,
along with associated tactics, in the proper application of force options.
These type of chemical agents are necessary in self-defense incidents,
barricaded criminal actions, crowd control situations as well as other
applications. Means of delivery to the target area include: expulsion by way
of explosive device, pyrotechnic by burning the composition, fogging by
means of a cloud making device, and liquid dispersal.

CN Agent: chloroacetophenone – discovered in Germany in 1869, is

considered the currently used “tear gas” type weapon. It has a
characteristic apple blossom odor, and is dispersed as a particulate
cloud. Sometimes, it may be dissolved in a liquid and then
subsequently released as an aerosol. CN acts as an irritant to the
upper respiratory system, as well as the eyes and skin. For some
people, it may also produce nausea. It can be deployed by hand
grenade, projectile or fogging dispersal device.
CS Agent: orthochlorbenzalmalonitrile – was first developed in
1928, and is a later version type crowd control agent. CS is a white
powder substance that produces more significant effects than its
counterpart, CN. Reactions tend to be more severe and more
DM Agent: Diphenylaminechlorasine – discovered in 1918, DM is a
nausea agent that causes a person to undergo severe headaches, nasal
discharge, pains in the nose, sinus and chest. Subjects also
experience vomiting as well as sensory disturbances. Law agencies
are generally cautioned not to use the DM agent due to the severe
physical reactions it causes.

Although OC (oleoresin of Capsicum) has come into more accepted use in

recent years by law enforcement, it has a long history in the world
community. According to some sources, OC was used in the India-China
wars around the year 2,000. In 1931, OC was developed as a military
munition. And, for a long time, OC has been used as an alternative
medication. As a defensive product, it has been used by the U.S. Postal
Service since 1961 to repel dogs. In the law enforcement field, police
officers began using OC in the early 1970’s. The substance Capsaicin is a
natural material in the cayenne pepper plant. The fatty oil product of the
plant is Oleoresin. Capsaicinoids are part of the plant’s placenta and seeds.
The odor of OC is typically that of a pepper smell. While medically
considered a neurotoxin, which is removed from the pepper plant, OC
consists of an off-white color powder that is soluble in fats, oils and alcohol.
In dealing with confrontational people, OC is extremely affective. A
person’s reaction time is about 3 to 15 seconds, with affects lasting up to 30
minutes or more. It is effective on combative people both psychologically as
well as physically. The primary effects of OC include: involuntary spasms
and closing of the eyes, burning sensation, tears, constriction of the throat
for minimal air flow, chest tightness, as well as other associated symptoms.

For police and military applications, the world over, the irritant chemicals
have been effective in controlling uncooperative people. The irritants remain
an essential tool in the array of equipment needed by law enforcement to
ensure order maintenance and peace keeping responsibilities. OC spray, for
example, has been proved effective even on persons under the influence of
alcohol or illegal drugs. And, its popularity has grown significantly over the
last ten years. Exposure routes generally follow that of other chemical
weapons, including inhalation and skin absorption. By the very nature of
their design, they are intended to cause a certain amount of pain. This
relates to burning sensations and physical discomfort once contact is made
with mucous membranes and the skin. The volatility and persistence of OC
depends upon the surface it is applied. Its rate of action tends to be fast was
exposure is made. Involuntary tearing is typical among the irritant class of
chemical weapons. Likewise, vomiting may sometimes occur with certain
subjects. But, the overall experience of shortness of breath, nose and throat
irritation remains of primary significance in most cases. Irritants are not
considered to be weapons of choice by terrorist groups or individuals.


In most cases, terrorist groups and individuals have relied on the use of
conventional explosives. Approximately 70% of all incidents defined as
terrorist acts are related to the use of explosives. These devices have a long
history, particularly in regard to warfare. Grenades and other pyrotechnics
date back to very early centuries in ancient China. The word “grenade”, for
example, comes from the Latin word “Granatus”, which referred to a
handheld device used by the Spaniards during the 16th century. The Spanish
military called their explosive device “Granada”, because it resembled the
pomegranate fruit. Such implements of warfare are suggested to have been
used by the Romans around 250 B.C. In the 13th century, with the advent of
gunpowder, historians report that grenades, as well as other explosives were
developed by Western countries. The tactical deployment of such devices is
reported to have taken place during the Crusades. Containers such as glass
globes, jars, kegs and various types of pots were used to fashion grenade-
like explosive devices. Later, in 1677, it is recorded that “rifle-type”
grenades were fashioned from muskets and used in Germany. (62)

According to FBI bomb statistics covering the period of 1990

through 1995, there were 10,122 actual bombings (including
incendiaries) and another 3,278 failed bomb or incendiary
attacks, resulting in 3,176 injuries and 355 deaths. Both the
Oklahoma City and World Trade Center bombings involved
detonation of high explosives to cause maximum damage. The
World Trade Center bomb contained approximately 1,200 lbs
of Urea Nitrate. The Oklahoma City bomb was approximately
4,800 lbs. Of fertilizer grade Ammonia Nitrate and fuel oil.
The vehicle bomb used on the barracks in Beirut is believed to
have contained approximately 12,000 lbs of explosives that
have not been positively identified. An understanding of basic
definitions, terms and concepts is essential for developing a
complete understanding for and appreciation of the dangers
associated with explosives, particularly when used by terrorists
to attack their targets. (63)

Explosive devices may be configured so that they also expel or otherwise

disseminate chemical, biological or radioactive materials. Once exploded,
the explosive device may also produce secondary hazards. These hazards
result in unstable building structures, disrupted utility services, and
dangerous debris. The construction of these weapons may also contain
deadly shrapnel. Items such as nails and other sharp objects may be
incorporate in the overall design of the device. Sometimes, the container is
configured so that it fragments on detonation. The terrorist preference for
explosives can be seen in the simplicity of acquisition and design. Materials
are readily available for the construction of low-tech explosive devices. A
variety of components can be obtained to make simple, yet destructive
devices to create terror and injury. From pipe bombs to truck bombs, the
fabrication of a destructive device can come in many shapes and size. For
example, it is not very difficult to attach a homemade pipe bomb to a
propane cylinder. This type of device incorporates very easy to obtain
materials, from both hardware and sporting goods stores.

In very basic terms, explosives are substances that undergo violent

decomposition once a sequence is initiated. This consists of an oxidation
process that is essentially an instantaneous event. This process is sometimes
thought of as a burning sequence of actions. An explosion stems from this
violent action that is the result of a sudden release and expansion of gases.
Explosive devices can come in a variety of configurations. They can be
unconventional in nature, such as an aircraft or vessel turned into a bombing
mechanism. Vehicle bombs, for instance, have been very popular over the
years to deliver explosives to a target. Also, pipe bombs have been used
frequently in attacks of all kinds. In this case, a quantity of explosive
material is placed inside a tube, pipe, or other such configuration. After
sealing the device, a timer or some sort is attached. Or, a remote triggering
mechanism is used, as well as motion sensing units. Basic kinds of
triggering devices can be purchased from electronics supply stores. Pipe
bombs of various designs continue to be the most common type of explosive
device used. Sometimes, terrorist may construct a “satchel charge”. This
makes reference to the military-like device enclosed in a carrying bag.
Today’s terrorist “satchel charge” may be carried inside a backpack. Often,
the contents include various sharp objects that cause more injuries once the
device explodes. Bombs may also be contained inside packages or letters.
And, these usually explode when opened.

Low cost and low-tech explosives can be found in mixtures called

propellants. In the realm of ordinance propellants, these materials are
generally classified as single-based, double based and composite. These
materials are generally black powder and smokeless powder. Single based
propellants are composed of “gelantinized nitrocellulose” with no high
explosive additives. A high explosive additive might be something on the
order of “nitroglycerin”. For the double-based propellants, they are a
composition of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin. The composite based
propellants are formulated from mixtures of fuels and inorganic oxidants,
and contain only small amounts of nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin. As a
propellant burns, the grains decrease in size and amount. Black powder is an
example of a “low explosive”, and consists mainly of potassium nitrate
(sometimes sodium nitrate), charcoal and sulfur. It is highly susceptible to
heat, friction and a spark. These materials are found typically in
ammunition types, and used for expelling a projectile. Smokeless powder,
on the other hand, is used primarily for firearms ammunition. (64)

Propellants are low order explosives. They are developed to “deflagrate”,

which means burn. As they burn, they produce gases. When confined to a
container the gases expand outward and create an explosion. Low order
explosives require burning or shock in order to initiate their properties. By
comparison, high order explosives are contrived to “detonate”. These are
very sensitive substances that include TNT, dynamite and plastics. Low
order and high order explosives react differently with regard to reaction
time, velocity of reaction and the subsequent amount of pressure generated.
Low order explosives burn at a rate less than the speed of sound, whereas
high order explosives detonate at greater than the speed of sound. The
reaction in high explosives is such that the fuel and the oxidizer are
chemically bound to each other. The shock wave tears apart this binding
and produces gases as a result of the action involved. As a bomb explodes
three things result from this action: pressure, fragmentation and thermal
affect. The heat produced from the explosion depends upon the mixture or
composition of the explosive device. Naturally, high order explosives
generate greater temperatures than low order explosives. TNT, for example,
which is also known as “Trinitrotoluene”, is used as a component of many
types of explosive mixtures. Of the high explosives, TNT is considered to
be more stable than most. It tends to have a storage life longer than other
types of high explosives.

When a bomb explodes pressure is released and three major actions occur.
These include blast pressure, fragmentation and thermal effects. Blast
pressure consists of two aspects: positive and negative pressure. With
regard to positive blast pressure, the action of the explosion at “ground
zero”, or the center, causes the pressure to move outward. This action of
moving away from the center causes significant pressure of pounds per
square inch. The pounds per square inch are exerted as the result of the
explosive energy release. The pressure per square inch is in the thousands of
pounds per square inch. This primary blast wave can cause damage to
humans due to the sudden change in air pressure. The shock can tear vital
organs, as well as damage the eardrums. In contrast to the initial action of
the pressure release, a secondary phase occurs. This is referred to as the
negative pressure. In negative pressure, air returns to fill the vacuum created
from the initial blast at the center of the explosion. Fragmentation concerns
those objects that are expelled into the surrounding areas as a result of the
explosion. At high rates of speed, the blast causes deliberate “missile-like”
fragments, contained or attached to the device, to fire in multiple directions.
In addition, parts of surrounding structures may also become fragments of
the explosion. Debris such a wood, glass and concrete can also become
deadly projectiles. These flying projectiles can inflict all kinds of injury
upon the human body. While fragmentation is seen as parts of the device
itself, shrapnel is sometimes added to increase the device’s affect. Nails,
nuts and bolts, ball bearings, and other objects are sometimes used to
enhance the destructiveness of the bomb. When the bomb explodes, heat is
generated. The thermal effects, which may also be incendiary in nature,
vary by nature of the device’s design and components. It is a function of
type of mixture, container and additives (fuels, accelerants, etc.). The fireball
produced at the time of the explosion is representative of the thermal effect.
A bomb is activated by a series of actions that begin with initiation. This
series of events, from initiation to explosion, is referred to as the “firing
train”. The initiation of a bomb can be either by electric or non-electric


Initiation of explosives is either non-electric or electric. With non-

electric, a safety fuse is inserted into a detonator and the detonator
into the explosive; a fuse is then ignited. In electric initiation, the
detonator is inserted into the explosive and an energy charge is
initiated in the electric line to ignite the explosive. (65)

Explosive devices, or bombs, can be viewed as being either conventional of

nuclear. The fuses are sometimes configured so that they cause the firing
chain to activate when the bomb makes contact with a target (contact fuse).
They may also be the type of device that explodes in proximity to the target,
or otherwise called a proximity device. These bombs may activate due to a
change in the air pressure around them, or they may use radar guidance and
measure the distance to the ground. Sometimes, bombs are described as
being general purpose in nature, guidance directed, armour-piercing, frag-
type (fragmentation), and incendiary. The general-purpose explosives use
mixtures such as TNT. Destruction results from a combination of factors,
which include: blast pressure, vacuum, fragmentation and shock wave.

With regard to high explosives, their reaction can be sensitive to the

environment around them in varying degrees. High explosives can be
activated by various stimuli, such as impact or heat. Some are more prone to
activation with the slightest agitation than others. An electrical charge, such
as static discharge or shock may set them off instantly. This would include
the group of high explosives known as “primary explosives”. Primary
explosives are very sensitive. These substances are very susceptible to
agitation. And, for this reason, they are used in the making of detonators.
Some examples of primary explosives include: lead azide, mercury
fulminate, silver azide, lead styphnate, RDX and PETN (66). Lead azide is a
substance that is used in the design of detonating fuses. It is not as sensitive
as mercury fulminate. Sometimes it is used as a boosting charge in other
explosive mixtures. Lead azide is usually detonated by a blasting cap or heat
source. By comparison, mercury fulminate on the other hand is very
sensitive. It can be activated by heat, impact or friction. Mercury fulminate
is one of the oldest initiating substances used as a primary explosive
compound. It is very poisonous in nature, and was used historically in
percussion caps for muskets.

Silver azide and lead styphnate are considered highly volatile and sometimes
unstable chemicals. They will readily detonate from heat or shock. Lead
styphnate is sometimes combined with lead azide to enhance its properties of
detonation when electrical ignition is applied. Lead styphnate is very
susceptible to static electricity. This chemical substance is used mainly in
primers for ammunition, and also as a mixture for detonators. RDX and
PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate) represent very sensitive high explosive
compounds. RDX, sometimes called “cyclonite”, has the chemical name of
“cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine”. The letters RDX actually stand for “Royal
Demolition explosive”, and originate from Great Britain. RDX is a military
explosive that is often mixed with plasticizers, as well as other explosives in
order to develop various compositions, such as C-4. PETN by comparison
was developed in 1894 in Germany. It is used in detonating cords, which
burns at an extremely high rate of speed. PETN is also found in grenades
and blasting caps. (67)

From primary explosives, follows another group called “secondary

explosives”. These types of explosives need a greater force of action acting
upon them in order to cause an explosion. This could be a detonator filled
with primary explosives, which turn activates the firing train by shock affect.
Secondary explosive require a “booster charge” to initiate the firing
sequence. They are not as sensitive to external action as the group of
primary explosives. An example of a secondary type of explosive might be
an “ANFO bomb”. This consists of ammonium nitrate and fuel oil
configured with some time of timing fuse. The category of secondary
explosives includes: TNT, Dynamite, ANFO, C-4 and others of a similar
nature. TNT, discussed earlier, is a powerful explosive substance and is
composed of nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon and oxygen. It is sometimes
combined with other explosive mixtures or compounds to produce a
composition explosive. TNT is considered to be very stable, with a storage
capacity for long periods of time. It does not react easily to impact or
friction. TNT is sometimes employed in mixtures to create a “booster
charge” for other explosives. This may include high explosive artillery
shells, as well as other bombs for military applications. TNT tends to work
well with other substances, without the apparent instability that some
possess. For use in military munitions, TNT can be melted and pour into the
container of the shell casing for more effective utilization.

Secondary explosives such as dynamite, are important to many commercial

applications. From excavation and mining to renovations of structures,
dynamite plays a role in certain engineering and corporate related activities.
The composition of dynamite consists of a significant ingredient called
“nitroglycerin”. Nitroglycerin, a powerful type of explosive, is mixed with
other chemical compositions and subsequently placed in cylindrical
containers with plastic or wax paper type wrappings. Its composition is the
result of the chemical action of glycerol and sulphuric and nitric acids. Over
time, dynamite can become extremely dangerous due to chemical leakage.
The nitroglycerin has a tendency to seep out of the packaging. Crystals may
form on the “tubes or sticks” of the dynamite. Given this condition, it is
possible for an explosion to occur from this state of the dynamite. ANFO
type explosives are also used in surface blasting for various purposes. The
type of construction work for which ANFO might be used could be
underground mining or quarry blasting. These kinds of explosive mixtures
use ammonium nitrate as the main ingredient with some type of fuel oil
additive. When ammonium nitrate is combined with fuel mixtures it
becomes an explosive substance. Dynamite or TNT can then be used to
detonate the resulting composition. ANFO can be used as an effective bomb
in a variety of ways. Plastic explosives (C-4 for example) resemble putty
and can be shaped to fit the application involved in a particular operation.
They are composed of mixtures using RDX and PETN, along with
plasticizing substances so they become flexible in nature. A detonating
device would be necessary in order to activate the firing of the “plastic
explosive”. Composition explosives are generally preferred by covert
operatives, such as terrorists, because of their concealment capabilities.
These explosives can be applied to a variety of surfaces with a various
configurations. They can be utilized to fit the requirements of unique and
varied applications. Configurations referred to as C-3 and C-4 appear to be
the contemporary types being used throughout the world. Plastic explosives
were used extensively during World War II. In the U.S., plastic explosives
became standardized as a composition explosive material, in which about
88% RDX was combined with about 12% oily nonexplosive plasticizers.
Composition C was eventually replaced by “C-2”, and subsequently C-3, as
changes evolved in the mixture and properties of the substances. Later, C-3
gave way to C-4, which was viewed as a better composition plastic
explosive. C-4 consists primarily of RDX, motor oil, and other substances
giving it more versatile qualities. (68)


Low Order Explosives High Explosives

Primary Secondary
Explosives Explosives

In addition to composition types of explosives, “sheet” explosives have been

designed for the inherent flexibility of usage in both military and
commercial applications. It is adaptable in many ways. Both waterproof
and applicable to a variety of situations and surfaces, sheet explosives
combine PETN with other mixtures to be used in a wide range of
temperatures. Flex-X is a type of sheet explosive that was designed for
military applications. Having a typical military green color, it is used for
cutting, breaching and producing crater affects. Flex-X is particularly useful
against hard metal surfaces, such as steel. These types of explosives can be
quickly employed to deal with surfaces of various configurations and shapes.
Another type of composition explosive goes by the name of Semtex. It is
considered a very popular type of explosive among the various terrorist
groups. And, it also appears very popular in the terminology of assorted
media coverage of bombing incidents. Semtex is available throughout the
world and is less expensive than other types of explosives. Some consider it
to be one of the best types of plastic explosives developed in recent years.
Semtex looks something on the order of “Silly putty or Play Dough”. In
1887, Alfred Nobel invented the early forms of plastic explosives.
Sometime, around 1966, Stanislav Brebera, a member of the Communist
Party in Czechoslovakia, introduced his development of the plastic explosive
known as Semtex. The explosive was introduced in Viet Nam by the
Communist forces. The Semtex comes from the name “Semtin”, which is a
village in East Bohemia. This is the place where Brebera developed Semtex.

Over the years, tons of Semtex have been exported to countries like Libya,
Syria, North Korea, Yugoslavia, Iraq and Iran. Semtex is considered to be
far more powerful than TNT and other traditional types of explosives. In
addition to the composition types of explosives, booster explosives represent
a group of explosive materials involved in the transmission of explosive
force. Booster explosives are designed to be components of the “explosive
train” to transmit and enhance the force and heat of the initiating explosive.
Their function is to ensure the firing sequence works as constructed. The
reliable detonation of the burster charge is crucial to the explosive action.
Water gels are explosive mixtures that contain water, fuel source, an
oxidizer and other components to ensure effective function of the explosive
mixture. Tertiary explosives require well-designed containers and significant
force of action in order to detonate. An explosive device that includes
tertiary explosives as components, may also require the use of primary
explosives so that enough power is generated to cause an explosion.
Examples include substances such as ammonium nitrate and ammonium
Improvised explosive combinations span the spectrum of individual human
creativity. These have included car bombs, pipe bombs and packaged
charges of different configurations. Car bombs (or truck) may employ a
large amount of explosives, and could be remotely activated or set to a time
delay mechanism. While vehicular bombs have been seen in recent years as
a large scale terrorist weapon, pipe bombs are generally the most commonly
used explosive device. In terms of design and explosive potential, pipe
bombs are vastly different from vehicle bombs. Pipe bombs typically are
configured from a length of pipe or tubing, with explosive material pressed
inside. The ends of the pipe are capped off, and some sort of timing device
is attached to either the middle section, or one of the ends of the pipe. It is
similar to a hand grenade or Molotov Cocktail. Remote sensors, fuses,
clocks, motion detectors and so on, can be attached to the pipe bomb, in
order to active the explosive sequence. Another type of low-tech, but
effective homemade explosive is the “backpack” or “satchel charge” device.
This device can be extremely effective, and is usually more powerful than a
hand grenade. The contemporary “backpack” device is related to the old
military expression that was used for a cloth-type pack filled with
explosives. Metal objects, glass and so forth, are sometimes packed around
the explosive material to enhance the damage and injury capabilities.

Picture depicts an assortment of

devices, including pipe bomb;
dynamite-fuse-metal nails device,
rocket-type explosive projectile,
hand grenade, and land mine.

Picture depicts various aspects of

the pipe bomb device. The overall
appearance of an improvised or
homemade device is subject to the
creativity of the designer. Bombs
can take on a variety of
appearances that can be deceptive.
On inspection a suspected device
must be treated with extreme
caution and care. Also, one must
keep in mind that the designer
could be exceptionally skilled in
the development of the device.
Metal or PVC type materials are
used in the construction of pipe

Picture depicts the diagram of a

sample hand grenade. This device
consists of a “body”, “filler”, and
a “fuse assembly”, as the main
parts of the overall design. It has
a safety pin and safety lever
attached. When the pin is pulled
and lever released, the firing train
is activated. A striker hits the
primer and a flash is emitted
which ignites the delay element.
This burns and initiates the

Explosives can come in

various forms and
designs. The Rocket
propelled grenades, for
examples, or RPG’s, can
place an explosive
projectile in variety of
locations very quickly,
and with very deadly
effects. They can be
fired at both moving or
fixed targets. The mail
bomb, on the other hand,
can be extremely deadly.
The diagram pictured,
portrays a sample design
of a package or letter
bomb. These can be
activated by a number of
firing mechanisms.
They can also contain
hazardous types of
materials, such as
biological agents.

Basic precautions include the careful analysis of all mail received, prior to
opening any pieces. This is especially true if the letter or package was not
expected. Such mail should not be accepted particularly if it is being received in
a foreign location. Staff personnel, as well as family members should refuse
unexpected mail. If, for some reason, the item is suspected to be a bomb, then it
should be treated that way. Indicators include things like excessive postage,
poorly spelled names and common words, wrong title of person addressed to,
oily stains, lack of return address, weight feels heavy, and stiffness of materials
inside. Suspicious packages may also have excessive tape and wrappings
around the contents.

Chapter 12: Preventive Countermeasures:

Proper planning prevents poor performance. Planning, of course, requires

resources, and resources require expenditures in terms of training, education
and equipment. And, expenditures mean the use of limited tax dollars to
plan for a range of possibilities that may never happen. Planning for
potential disasters also means competition for strained government budgets
that must contend with other pressing issues. Developing tactical
contingencies for the implementation of preventive countermeasures applies
to people, places and things. That is, preventive countermeasures are
designed to reduce losses in terms of people, the environment and property.
Primarily, the issues relate to protecting the protectors, so that they can
protect others. Officers should be trained to the extent necessary that they
become tactically and technically proficient in the provision of public safety
services. The use of the so-called weapons of mass destruction by hostile
forces, presents a range of challenges to local law enforcement and
emergency service personnel.

Events that include the use of the WMD materials are dangerously
confrontational for first responder personnel. A broader, less defined
perspective is encountered, as terrorists and associated groups become
more creative and more dangerous. These kinds of terrorist tactics
require extreme caution on the part of the criminal justice and public
safety community. Such actions require more intelligence gathering,
more training and increased numbers of law enforcement personnel.
Such possible situations also require a well-informed public that is
better educated in personal safety matters. The criminal justice is
typically used to traditional and more historic kinds of acts. While law
enforcement has become accustomed to dealing with conventional
bomb threats, actual explosive devices, gun incidents and hostage
situations, more sinister dimensions occur when chemicals or bio-
toxins are added to an incident. Add the potential for a nuclear device
and real problems emerge. The psychological aspects can be
devastating for an entire population.

Traditional terrorist tactics appear to have adapted to more modern

techniques, as well as technology. Innovations in science and industry can
also be used for more sinister purposes. And, as the world’s only
superpower, the U.S. remains a primary target for terrorist groups and their
tactics. Our technology, economy, and political systems are second to none
in the global community. The U.S. remains a favorite target of just about
everyone who has a gripe about something, both internally and externally.
We are at the same time the most desirable place to live, and the best
“enemy” to oppose and hate. As such, nations, groups and individuals
hostile to the U.S. will seek out technological advances of various kinds.
Their acquisition of such capabilities will be turned toward criminal actions.
More non-traditional attacks are likely in the coming years. It becomes
critical that each state and the local governments focus on local security
countermeasure in view of rapid changes in the global community. Public
service personnel and the public in general need to be educated and trained
appropriately. Each will have different levels of necessary response
capabilities. In particular, law enforcement recruitment, training and career
development are essential components for ensuring effective public safety.
Likewise, members of the community will need to certain levels of
understanding and awareness. In the event of a serious threat to local
communities, rapid deployment of public safety resources is critical.
Priorities must be established and command decision-making must be set
into motion. The basics of command, control and communications very
rapidly come into play, when an incident of significant proportion occurs. Of
all considerations, life and health become aspects of the initial response that
are at the top of the list. Officer survival issues are extremely critical aspects
for the first responders.

Priority Planning

Life and Health Safety Issues

Perimeter and Scene Control – Incident Management
Property – Facilities – Area Stabilization
Terrain – Landscape – Visibility and Access
Line-Staff-Management Issues
Operational Control – Public Information and Notification
Support Services – Resources - Coordination

Taking appropriate actions in light of priority planning objectives, is

essential to the mission of public safety. Law enforcement officers, as well
as all first responders, should endeavor to ensure the implementation of
these tactical priorities. The preliminary phases of responding to the scene
generally involves rescue attempts with regard to injured persons at the
location of the incident. The first phase of the incident response calls for
identification of the victims once they are located, providing medical care
and subsequently removing them from the scene. In every case, officer
survival issues are critical. First responders must be cautioned to be aware
of the possibility of secondary devices, snipers, accomplices, booby traps,
chemical weapons, and so on. For these reasons and more, first responders
must take care not to be over anxious to rush in on a particular situation. A
careful on-scene threat assessment must be made quickly and decisively. As
always life safety is the main priority for everyone associated with the
incident scene. This especially includes the rescue personnel. If first
responders become incapacitated, then they will be incapable of protecting
or rescuing the victims. After the provision of medical care and protection
of people, the focus can then shift to the scene itself. This relates to issues
of managing and stabilizing the crime scene. This means the scene must be
managed to the extent necessary in order to contain the problem at hand.
Efforts are directed toward preventing the situation from getting out of
control and spreading to a larger area. In brief, the scene must be secured,
the perimeter protected, victims and witnesses supervised, potential
contamination contained, and proper notifications activated. The following
acronym may be useful in this regard.

P – proceed to the scene quickly, safely and with proper tactics

R – render medical assistance to the victims and ensure protection
E – effect containment of the scene, arrest and detention of suspects
L – locate and identity witnesses and manage their presence at the scene
I – institute incident command system, establish chain of command, etc.
M – maintain integrity of the scene, protection people, places and things
I – interview and interrogate as appropriate to the people involved
N- notify appropriate support services, resources, make notations
A – arrange for decontamination, containment of WMD, collect evidence
R – report information to chain of command, document incident,
Y – yield responsibility to higher authority as appropriate (74)

Operational Considerations

I. Assess Security/Safety and Threat Level: response & initial

approach should be done with tactics in mind.
A. If there is one indicator, respond with heightened level of
awareness, as known and unknown aspects.
B. If there are multiple indicators, then it may be the scene of a
terrorist incident, and extreme caution should be exercised.
1. Initiate response operations with extreme caution.
2. Be alert to actions against responding officers.
3. Evaluate and implement personal protective
counter measures as needed for the scene, based
on information assessed.
4. Determine the level of maximum respiratory
5. Decide command, control and communications
II. Ensure appropriate law enforcement and other public service
coordination and response:
A. Institute necessary notifications and incident command
structure, and determine whether individual, team or
coordinated effort.
B. Always approach with caution and use routes conducive to
a tactical response.
C. Approach scene from either uphill or upwind if at all
possible, given the nature of the scene or incident.
D. Consider level and extent of reinforcement and backup
support resources.
E. Be alert to congestions, density, layout and terrain as
obstacles to the approach of the situation.
F. Determine location for command post, grouping areas,
staging points, etc.
III. Command and Control: ensure appropriate command and
control structures are summoned as needed for the scene
A. Establish, or otherwise place into motion, necessary
command, control and communications infrastructures.
B. Ensure perimeter security and seal off the area, denying
entry or access to all non-essential personnel, the public and
the media (activate public information officer system).

Securing and protecting property and other valuables become a secondary

consideration to the safety of people. After life safety issues are dealt with,
then actions can focus on the environmental aspects of the surroundings.
Terrain and layout of the area determine that operational aspects of the
actions to be taken. Certain personnel should be trained in special teams to
deal with unique hazards at the scene of an incident. This will require
additional resources and materials that provide for the protection of the first
responders, as well as the environment. Typically, the fire services division
of the local government are trained and equipped to deal with hazardous
materials issues (hazmat). Various levels of local government should
investigate and assess the capabilities of the fire services in the local
community. And, as a followup, efforts should be made to ensure the
acquisition of equipment and resources necessary to confront hazardous
materials incidents. Unless specifically trained in responding to such
hazards, law enforcement personnel should relinquish this task to the fire
service. Responding to HAZMAT situations requires an understanding of
the potential for exposure and contamination of personnel.

During an incident, law enforcement will

be concerned with protecting the crime
scene. Police and fire service personnel
must work together to achieve mutual
objectives. Joint training exercises will
be crucial to fostering understanding in
the coordination of achieving the
required goals and objectives for each
group. Evidence will likely be destroyed,
contaminated, moved and otherwise
disrupted. The recovery and protection
of such evidence will become a difficult
task. Explosive devices, chemical and
biological hazards may be present. This
(76) will require caution on the part of law
enforcement personnel. Alertness to the
possibility of secondary devices must be
seriously practiced at a crime scene.

Environmental and terrain considerations are not always easy to secure and
protect. The incident scene will change as a result of the WMD incident.
Likewise, depending on the nature of the incident, protecting first responders
from the environmental conditions becomes a high priority. Protective
devices, clothing and support materials will be essential. Given the nature of
American technology and scientific knowledge, critical support resources
are essential to effective tactical responses. Such technology and scientific
capability should be employed to the extent possible. The local
governmental infrastructure may dictate the level of response. Interagency
coordination and cooperation at all levels of government will be important.
Local law enforcement may not have sufficient equipment or protective
clothing to effectively cope with hazardous materials. In addition, there are
limitations as to the extent to which law enforcement can be trained to
respond to WMD incidents. The resources, tools, equipment and time to
train all personnel within a police agency may be limited. Effective
countermeasures must rely on cooperative multi-agency alliances within
significant geographical areas. Basic awareness training is essential for law
enforcement personnel in anticipating danger, gathering street level
intelligence and planning coordinated interdiction. In addition, officers need
to be able to recognize hazardous situations, secure and isolate crime scenes,
activate chain of command structures, coordinate collective responses and
manage people at the scene.
For law enforcement personnel, basic common sense tactics apply to any
incident scene. This is especially true when dealing with WMD incidents. It
is very important that responding officers reduce their exposure to hazards at
a particular scene. Reduction of exposure, in terms of dose, concentration
and time, will be necessary for responding officers to consider. A number of
factors are critical: age, fitness, overall health condition, sensitivity to the
agent present, level of exposure, etc. Some people may be affected
differently than others. An older officer, or a less physically fit officer, may
have a lower level of resistance. A number of factors must be calculated
into the equation of exposure, contamination and dose level. In essence,
exposure refers to how a person is affected once a foreign agent enters the
body. External aspects concern the issue of contamination, which requires
officers to avoid be contaminated as much as possible. Levels of protection
involve the use of protective types of clothing that first responders may
employ. Standard issue police uniforms do not offer a significant degree of
protection at the scenes of hazardous materials.

In confrontation with a potential WMD incident, law enforcement officers

typically do not have significant levels of protection. Avoiding
contamination at a crime scene becomes a paramount concern. Police
uniforms offer little protection against chemicals, biological agents and other
potential hazards. While some local agencies are training and equipping
special units with protective clothing, masks and materials, the first
responder is likely to be the uniformed patrol officer. Personal security
strategies are crucial to issues of officer safety and survival. A threat
analysis on a personal level is an important part of the police mission. All
officers should undertake a daily assessment of their individual security
profile. From the home to the office, each officer should evaluate his or her
individual security countermeasures. They should examine the tools of their
profession, equipment, resources and support systems. Everything should be
analyzed in terms of developing personal safety strategies. It should be kept
in mind that the opposition is capable of doing its homework very well.
Organized crime, terrorists, extremist groups and so on, conduct their own
research on the activities of law enforcement. They seek to know routines,
vulnerabilities and weaknesses. Their capabilities include access to
information systems, surveillance techniques, infiltration, informants,
political contacts, etc.
Security countermeasures are limited only by the human imagination.
Technology is constantly innovating and advancing by leaps and bounds.
Some adversarial groups have access to advanced training resources from
both law enforcement and military sources. This makes the opposition
potentially very well trained, knowledgeable and dangerous. Routine
activities should be carefully evaluated. Officers must ensure they train
themselves effectively in every aspect of their profession. Awareness of the
environment, habits, patterns of behavior, off duty activities, routes of travel
and methods of operation should be assessed on a regular basis. The
opposition is certainly capable of gathering intelligence, conducting
stakeouts, following officers, making notes of patterns and assessing
organizational weaknesses. In contrast, officers can conduct their own
intelligence gathering and monitor their daily operations. This should be a
part of an overall personal vulnerability analysis. Officers should always
strive to avoid becoming a target of someone who has a desire to attack law
enforcement personnel. “Hardening the target” is a concept from class
crime prevention training. It applies to officer survival considerations as

Generally speaking, the levels of personal protection at a hazmat scene are

typically described as Levels A, B, C, and D. The lowest level is referred to
as Level D. This is the standard issue police uniform which offers very little
protection. Although appropriate for most situations encountered on patrol,
it will not protect against WMD hazards. Level C concerns the equipment
that is generally provided to military personnel. This level of protection
consists of material that is worn over the military uniform. It includes
chemical resistant covering with a hood, as well as a mask with respirator.
The Level C suit (outer garment, hood and mask with air purifying system)
provides protection against airborne and radiological hazards. It may not,
however, provide overall protection when there is a risk of spills, splashes or
extreme environmental conditions affecting the air purification system. Such
aspects relate to atmospheric concentrations of airborne contaminants. This
is a key difference between the Level C and the Level B. The Level B
protection is required for the highest level of protection of the breathing
system. There still remains a risk of skin exposure, since emphasis is on the
breathing system. In this configuration, the air tank is external to the suit.
The Level B protection is appropriate in low splash areas and no skin
exposure hazards (hard hat, chemical resistant boots and gloves, self-
contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), resistant clothing, etc.). The Level
A suit moves up the scale to providing the highest level of protection. This
suit is a self-contained system with the SCBA located under the suit. It can
be viewed as similar to that of a NASA “space suit”. The Level A suit
provides a high degree of respiratory and skin protection in high risk zones.
These could be areas with a high splash and spill potential, along with toxic
respiration and skin exposure hazard.
Protecting the first responder, who may not have immediate access to such
equipment, remains a critical issue in response to WMD incidents. Without
proper equipment, first responders need to ensure that they exercise an
appropriate consideration with regard to “time, distance and shielding”.
Time concerns dealing with the crime scene in such a manner as to avoid
exposure to WMD materials. It involves effective management of the crime
scene in an orderly and planned manner. Time is to be used as a tool for
implementing proper countermeasures in securing an incident location.
Such utilization necessitates minimal exposure to hazards and threats within
the incident scene. It also involves reducing the amount of exposure time in
contaminated areas and enhancing officer protection. Time should be used
to think, plan and initiate effective actions at the scene of an incident.

Planning an appropriate response involves the effective use of personnel,

resources and equipment. Balanced with those ingredients, it is a matter of
implementing a good strategy, using the materials available, that results in
positive operations. Good operational strategy is built upon anticipation of
problems, developing solutions, recognizing threats, and initiating an action
plan. Along with timing, maintaining proper distance is also important.
While it is necessary to ensure a minimum of exposure time to contaminated
areas, keeping a safe distance adds to the protective aspects of the
operations. Various governmental guidelines have been established for
recommended standoff distances. These distances should be evaluated in
order that officers become familiar the overall recommendations. Protective
cover, or shielding, goes along with time and distance. Buildings and so
forth should be used in order to provide cover protection.



The types of harm for which first responders must plan, in terms of
protective countermeasures, have been described as six areas of threat.
These have been defined as the aspects of WMD that pose on scene dangers
to the officers responding to the incident. Each type of potential weapons
use presents unique hazards that threaten people. Protective measures
should be considered with regard to the different possibilities that may exist.

Thermal Hazards – Explosive devices present the possibility of extreme heat

and pose thermal hazards in this regard. This are of consideration relates to
both heat and cold that are extreme enough to damage the human body.

Radiological Hazards – Alpha, beta, gamma and neutron radiation present

health hazards. An atomic detonation creates the potential for radiation
exposure, as well as such materials enclosed inside an unshielded container.

Asphyxiation Hazards - When certain gases replace the oxygen in the

atmosphere, the human blood supply becomes depleted. It becomes a health
threat when oxygen cannot reach the body’s cells.

Chemical Hazards - Toxic substances, such as nerve, blood and blister

agents, create extreme health hazards. When present, they present severe
threats to people at the scene.

Etiologic Hazards - These refers to bacteria, viruses and toxins. Such

substances cause diseases, as well as physiological injuries to humans.

Mechanical Hazards – These threats result from pieces of objects that are
destructive to the human body. They include such things as shrapnel and
flying projectiles of various sorts. (79)

Attacks may occur by a single or multiple incident initiative. That is, one
lone terrorist may carry out a “murder-bomb” action, such as blowing
himself or herself up as part of the terrorist cause. Or, he or she may initiate
a situation in which there is threat to smash a vial of alleged anthrax. On the
other hand, a multiple incident scenario might involve several terrorists
carrying out an attack, using decoys, diversions, secondary devices, booby
traps and so forth. Actions may be overt or covert in nature. A public health
crisis may be initiated by the planting of toxins in a restaurant.

Assessing Scene for Indicators of an Attack

 Gather information from communications system as to any relevant

data that may assist in determining nature of the incident. Written or
verbal threats may have preceded the incident. A biological attack,
for example, may show that a large number of people are experiencing
extreme illness or death. Injuries may follow a linear progression in
the direction the wind is blowing. There may be signs of an explosion
with limited structural damage. Laboratory supplies may be present at
the scene, along with the accumulation of insects. Physical symptoms
and outward warning signs of an attack may be indicated by debris,
injuries, structural damage to facilities, the death of people, animals
and plant life, as well as odors and vapor clouds.
 A bio-hazard situation generally relates to the affects of “etiological
harm” (a primary harm hazardous effect). Places where bio-agents
have been produced may also present a level of “chemical harm” (a
secondary harm hazardous effect). If explosives were used, the issue
of “mechanical harm” subsequently arises in the investigation and
response to the scene. In consideration of these potential harm
capacities, officers must ensure proper protective measures.
Contaminated areas and people should be controlled to minimize
exposure to officers and personnel. Movements should be tactical in a
manner that keeps officer upwind, uphill and upstream from the
 Debris field, casualties, structural damage, and so on should be
analyzed to determine the nature and extent of the incident. If the
incident is suspected to be of a nuclear nature, then the presence of a
“radiological dispersion device”, or mechanism may be at the scene.
 If a terrorist group uses some type of radiological device, then the
public’s fear level should be expected to be at a very high level. To
detect radiation levels and subsequent contamination will require the
use of specialized equipment at the scene of the incident. Signs and
symptoms may be delayed for hours, perhaps even days, after the
incident has occurred. Components may be found at the scene that
suggest the deployment of a radiological dispersal device.
Communications of some sort may have preceded the attack, such as a
written note, or a telephone call to the news media.

 Pieces of materials may be found, such as labels from special

containers, or radiological placards. Every effort must be
maintained to minimize exposure, which relates to time, distance
and shielding. This type of harm is difficult to assess upon
immediate arrival at the scene. Due to the nature of radiological
materials, primary and secondary harm factors relate to radiation
and subsequently the corrosive action of the chemical processes
(corrosive gases).
 Protective measures include: securing and controlling the area in
question, avoiding entry into the area in question, awareness that
inhalation, ingestions and exposure are involved in radiation
hazards, deploy protective clothing and detection equipment as
soon as possible and implement decontamination measures
quickly. Determine available support services:
Fire, EMS, HazMat,
EOD – Bomb Squad
Emergency management
Public Works
Utilities Services
Public Health Department
Environmental Protection Agency
Others are required by the nature of the incident
 Incendiary attacks may be preceded in a similar fashion by threats,
either written or verbal. Or, they may come as a complete
surprise. An assortment of accelerants might be used and
configured inside unidentified packages. All personnel should be
alert to suspicious packages, and anything that looks out of place.
Exposure to burns and subsequent property damage concern the
primary and secondary affects of incendiary devices.
 Chemical attacks may involve a variety of weapons designed to be
inhaled, ingested, absorbed or injected into the body. Generally,
symptoms of exposure occur within minutes of contact with the
chemical materials. Chemical agents may be present if dead
animals are discovered, along with the appearance of unusual
looking liquids at the scene of a suspected incident. Vegetation
may also appear dead of damaged and no other explanation can be
found. Odors that are unexplained, such as sweet and fruity
aromas, may be indicative of the presence of chemical agents.

 If a chemical agent is present, then there may also be fragments of

munitions or exploded ordinance at the incident scene. And,
depending on the environmental conditions, low hanging clouds
may indicate something out of the ordinary is happening.
Chemical incidents present harm in the form of chemical and
thermal injuries. They also present secondary dangers in the form
of asphyxia and the presence of sharp objects (mechanical –
shrapnel). Protective operations must ensure that countermeasures
are in place regarding chemical, thermal, asphyxiation and
mechanical harm.
 Ensure rapid tactical and operational responses to the critical
incident scene:
o Isolate, contain, secure and deny access
o Protect the public and officers – Life safety issues –
evacuate people as soon as possible, or provide on-scene/
and in-place protective measures;
o Implement self-protective and security countermeasures for
personnel at scene
o Minimize risks and reduce exposure of on-scene personnel
by limiting the numbers of personnel deployed
o Commit only essential needed personnel to scene activities
o Confine and contain the critical environment – contain
contaminated and exposed persons
o Ensure decontamination procedures and actions
o Protect and secure – water supply, exposure, utilities, fire
suppression, Hazmat, officer safety;


Mass Decontamination

 Decontamination area should be configured so that it is

upwind, uphill and in a secure zone.
 Officers responding to rescue efforts should be fully
clothed in appropriate protective gear, SCBA’s, and
deploying incident specific equipment.
 Once protective measures for both scene and personnel are
in place, then rescue personnel can approach victims.
 Contact should be avoided with any suspected substances,
victim’s clothing, personal affects, surfaces areas and so
 The high-risk zone, high hazard area or incident scene
should be adequately secured and protected. Victims
should be removed from the high hazard zone and isolated
in a holding area for further analysis and treatment.
 Efforts should be directed to assess and treat injuries as
well as gather information relative to the incident and the
scene particulars.
 Depending on the nature of the incident, signs and
symptoms may cover a range of reactions including:
problems with breathing, reddish skin colorations, eye and
skin irritations, nose and throat complications, pupils that
are pinpointed, convulsions, vomiting and so on.
 Victims should be separated into groups as related to the
nature and scope of injuries and complications. For
example, symptomatic and asymptomatic conditions may
be one group. Another may be those who are ambulatory
and non-ambulatory.
 Support services in terms of medical personnel should have
a secure and protected area to provide victim services. The
type of equipment employed for decontamination purposes
may depend on the incident scene, the nature of the
incident, severity of injuries, number of people involved
and the amount of resources available.

 Explosives incidents may involve a range of materials and

components. Debris may be scattered over a large area. There may be
primary and secondary devices associated with booby traps and
backup mechanisms. Extreme care and cautioned should be used.

Following rescue efforts, preservation of

physical evidence becomes of critical
importance. Proper planning and
implementation of a crime scene search, along
with the collection of evidence requires careful
thought and analysis. Unexploded devices, for
instance, may still be present at the scene, as
well as fragments or portions of exploded
devices. Attention should be given to the
obvious and the not so obvious. Explosive
incident present levels of harm as related to
thermal affects, mechanical aspects related to
fragmentation, potential radiological dispersal,
chemical exposure and etiological risks. Special
care must be exercised for all personnel in terms
of self protection both before and after a blast

Before a blast occurs, and following the initial threat, time must be used to
maximum advantage in order to safeguard people and property. Caution
should be exercised in moving people into open areas once a decision is
made to evacuate a structure. The size and type of the device, depending on
what information is known, may determine the distance the shielding
employed to protect people and first responders. Other factors include the
nature of the environment, the layout of buildings and the availability of
other protective structures. Following the blast, additional security
precautions must be employed to protect first responders and others.

Post-blast actions should allow for the implementation of appropriate

security and safety protocols. Entering areas around ground zero must be
exercised with care and caution to ensure that first responders are fully
protected. Unexploded devices, booby traps, chemicals, bio-toxins,
radiation and other contaminants may present additional dangers.

Caution is important!
Presence at ground zero must be controlled.
Secondary devices and actions may be present.
Incendiaries and other explosives may be present as booby traps.
Use appropriate contamination reduction, decontamination and disposal.

In many cases, sufficient quantities of fresh water can assist in the

decontamination efforts. Water typically represents a basic decontamination
tool. The fire department, for example, can establish hose lines for this
purpose. It is important to ensure that people, places and things are
appropriately neutralized in terms of exposure to hazardous materials.
Decontamination applies to first responders, victims, crime scenes,
evidentiary materials and equipment used at the scene. In mass
decontamination, every effort is made to cut exposure levels as they affect
large population groups. By comparison, extracting personnel from a
hazmat site will require the use of field decontamination efforts at a different
level. This process of “field decon” is more extensive that the basic
decontamination efforts. Clothing, runoff water and other items from the
scene may have evidentiary value. They should be properly secured for
further analysis to extent feasible given the nature of the incident.
Consideration should be given to patrol vehicles, equipment, documents, and
so forth. Decontamination procedures go from the overall scheme of things
down to the individual and specific aspects of exposure. That is, from the
general to the specific, or from the group to the individual. These efforts
require the combined actions and expertise of law enforcement and fire
department services. Response to such incidents is a cooperative exercise in
the use of available personnel and resources at the local level. The personal
safety of first responder personnel is always of extreme importance in
dealing with such occurrences. Contamination, crime scene security and
possible evidence must be dealt with as effectively as possible.

In addition to dealing with the operational and tactical aspects of the

incident, post-incident procedures should address issues related to “critical
incident stress”. Post-incident stress may be compounded by the nature of
the incident, and its associated dangers, horrors and destruction.
Appropriate management of this process is important to the personnel
involved. “Critical incident stress” may result when events strain normal
human abilities to adjust to extraordinary experiences. Exposure to
significant incidents may produce emotions that overwhelm the senses of the
individual person. A person’s normal abilities to cope with life experiences
may be severely taxed. Competent professional experienced support may be
required for personnel who have worked the scene of a WMD incident.
Such support resources should be highly qualified in the area of law
enforcement and fire service personnel. Officers should be provided with a
range of options that would support and compliment their individual belief
systems. This would naturally include peer support mechanisms that are
representative of the officers themselves, as well as the involvement of an
officer’s religious representatives. Competent experienced support
personnel must have a working knowledge of public safety services and the
implications that are associated with such work. This typically can only
come from people who have “been there and done that”.

Stress involves a range of reactions that may be indicative

in a number of symptoms. It may result in negative mental
and physical responses. From a physical standpoint, stress
may surface in fatigue, chills and bodily pains of one sort
or another. Mentally, a person may experience self-doubt,
nightmares, inability to focus and think clearly, as well as
anxiety and panic. These reactions may subsequently be
expressed in behaviors that become acts of withdrawal,
aggression and restlessness. Stress is the body’s reaction to
real or suspected dangers that prepares the individual for
either “standing and fighting or getting away”. Sometimes,
stress aids in survival efforts, and sometimes it has
disastrous consequences. A “debriefing” may be necessary
following incidents of intense exposure to extraordinary

Chapter 13: Tactical Implications for Field Operations Strategy:

Law enforcement personnel must be given the tools, tactics, training and
techniques to deal with a variety of dangers present in the modern world.
From traditional crime fighting to non-traditional countermeasures, law
enforcement must be capable of meeting all kinds of threats to public safety.
These threats include WMD, Hazmat, cyber crimes, organized crime and
terrorism of one sort or another. Tactical implications for dealing with such
incidents, as well as the typical street crimes, require effective leadership
and planning operations. Recruitment, selection, education and training are
crucial to the tactical implications of law enforcement. Officers must
initially be appropriately trained using a training model that is “real world”
oriented, as opposed to that which is “politically correct”. And, training
models must be developed, designed and implemented by experienced
professionals in the field of law enforcement. Training must subsequently
be translated into action based on good intelligence and investigative
capabilities. Theorists, non-practitioners, “alleged experts” and
inexperienced research “gurus” must be kept at a healthy distance. We must
be alert to the adverse influences of bureaucrats and politicians who are
sometimes persuaded by special interest groups and non-practitioners. Be
wary of people who live in “think tanks”.
In order to anticipate threats, intelligence must be gathered. Investigations
and assessments must be conducted. And, in order to develop good
intelligence, intentions and motives must be postulated. “War gaming” must
be part of the thinking processes, where various scenarios are considered.
Officer survival and safety tactics are essential training and life-style
components. The officer as a “modern warrior” concept is necessary to the
essence of professionalism in a contemporary context. Training should
emphasize that officers be constantly aware and alert to everything in their
operational environment, both on and off duty. Tactical skills must be
instilled to the point of precision. Officers must be constantly perceptive,
observant, vigilant and inquisitive. They must think prevention, suspect
motives and be on guard at every occasion. Officers must know, do and be
proficient tactically and technically. To be effective, they must be
independent thinkers and problem solvers. Officers must study and learn to
outwit the opposition at every turn by knowing as much as possible about
individuals, groups, cultures and inclinations. We must look beyond the
obvious and discern what lurks in the shadows.

We need to be alert to deception, adverse politics and diversions that may

distract us from what it is really going on. Never underestimate the inability
of “politicians” to rise to the occasion and do the right thing. And, never
underestimate the capabilities terrorists, either as individuals or groups. As
law enforcement officers, we need to see the big picture, as well as the parts
that make up all the pieces that make the picture. Vigilance requires
monitoring everything from the neighborhood to the surrounding
community, to the totality of the village or the city environment. A
distinction between the “normal” and “abnormal” must be discerned with
clarity and keen insight into human behavior. Our strategy must include the
ability to look beyond what we normally see, and watch for things out of
place, moved or otherwise disturbed. It may be very subtle and quiet, but
observation must be critical to detecting the exception.

We must learn to look for the things that cannot be seen

because they are disguised, or they are a deception. One must
look in all directions: up, down, left, right, behind, and so
forth. Being alert, means assessing the patterns and looking
for the things that don’t fit. Stop, look and listen!

Officers must practice being aware, astute, watchful and ready to take action
if it is required. We must be wary of our habits, routines and actions that
create opportunities for vulnerability. Hardening the targets, both human
and material must be practiced. Preparation and planning are important to
the development of an effective security posture. First responders should
always practice good security and safety activities. This applies no matter
where you go or what you do. The world is a dangerous place, and, officer
survival tactics apply no matter where you are or what you do. Criminals,
and particularly, the terrorist type, are committed to getting their way and
doing what is necessary to achieve their goals. They study and practice their
criminal career for whatever their personal gain might be. Likewise, officers
must anticipate and plan ahead for the “what ifs” that might take place.
Contingencies must be considered and balanced with good common sense,
training, knowledge and use of effective resources.

Basic Tactics #1

Be prepared – proper planning prevents poor performance. Planning is the

heart of developing an effective strategy. And, strategy reflects one’s belief
system, which should be built upon a solid and well-defined foundation.

Develop and implement a personal safety and security strategy for yourself
and your family. Conduct threat assessments, crime analysis and ensure
ongoing training and education. Do not allow personal information about
you or your family to be printed or published by any means. Keep phone
numbers and addresses confidential.

A personal security plan involves activities that occur both at home, at the
office and when traveling for any reason. Conduct a security analysis of
your home and working environment. Maintain a low profile as much as
possible. Avoid emulating anything you see in the movies or on television
“cop shows”.

Being aware and alert to your surroundings, avoiding predictable patterns

and training oneself are part of the personal security strategy. Gather
intelligence and investigate the facts. Develop a proactive posture that
includes good defensive measures.

Alertness involves the task of gathering intelligence. This relates to

surveillance and being keenly aware of suspicious persons, events, places
and things. Practice enhancing your sensory awareness as to people, places
and things. Develop a good sense of intuitive decision-making.

Terrorist attacks may occur near the home, at the workplace or enroute to
those destinations. Attention to detail is important in your environment in
terms of activities, layout, terrain, etc. Conduct periodic reviews of
innovations in protective equipment, weapons, tools and tactics.

Activities should not follow a predictable pattern of behavior. Personal

routines should incorporate flexibility, and you should strive to be as
unpredictable as possible. Keep your personal affairs private and avoid
divulging confidential information. Make sure your personal papers,
finances and medical needs are kept up to date.

Basic Tactics #2
Establish a “buddy system” both on and off the job. Let people know
what you are doing, where you are and when you will return. On the job,
the telecommunications system is you lifeline. Always stay in touch with
dispatch communications and report activities in detail, such as traffic
stops, encounters with suspicious persons, places, etc.

Use good common sense in your investigative activities and always use a
backup. Have contingency plans in mind before taking action. Always
plan an escape route, and use communication system effectively.

Know where to find civilian police, military police, government agencies

and other safe locations. Be alert to cover, concealment and camouflage.

Always have resources available to assist you in dealing with various

situations. Plan ahead before you leave home and use your tools, tactics
and techniques to your advantage. Weapons and support equipment
should be in good condition and readily available.

Avoid confrontations whenever possible, use good interpersonal skills and

be ready to respond to the threat if other attempts fail. Attempt to avoid a
public display if possible. Summon assistance to ensure safety and

Have a code system for alerting others, family members, co-workers, etc.,
so that they know when something is happening and possible danger is
present. Signals should be accompanied by appropriate protective action.

When traveling, be conscious of your surroundings especially when using

public transportation systems such as airports, bus terminals and so forth.
Be cautious about wearing emblems, clothing and so on that may indicate
your profession. Conduct yourself through security checkpoints as
quickly as possible. Blend as much as possible into the surroundings and
keep your surroundings in a good field of view.

Make mental notes as to suspicious persons, objects and events.

Understand the aspects of “spatial alacrity”, “visual acuity” and “body

Proper Planning Prevents Poor Performance

Effective response countermeasures span the organizational spectrum from

the individual to the agency. Protective procedures are personal, public and
private. Prevention and deterrence are relevant at all levels of society in
order that effective public safety is ensured. Individuals must train and
prepare themselves as well as groups within organizational structures. This
applies to public sector organizations as well as to private corporate entities.
Everyone has a role to play. Law enforcement, and other associated public
safety agencies, naturally, assumes the burden for much of the planning and
implementation of key strategies. Officers in the field must be able to
recognize threats and respond accordingly. They must have the ability to
observe and distinguish who presents the threat and what materials are being
used. An assessment of proactive capabilities should include at least a plan
of action, supported by contingencies. Preventive measures also encompass
“incident command systems”, with specifications as to how various agencies
and organizations will interface and work together. This involves
emergency operations plans, as well as mutual aid agreements. Efforts
should focus on coordination and liaison with all concerned agencies to
support operational needs.

Operational Plans
Emergency Response Operations
Command Structures and Mutual Aid Systems
Intelligence and Investigative Resources and Capabilities
Threat Analysis and Assessments
Detection and Monitoring Equipment
Possible Targets and Protective Measures
Leadership, Supervision and Management
Support Services and Health Care Resources
Inter-Agency Coordination and Information Exchange

Moving from the individual perspective to the organizational aspects, the

process of the “Incident Command System” (ICS) brings together respective
capabilities and resources of different agencies. The ICS is a process by
which emergency situations and critical incidents are managed in a broader
perspective. ICS has a range of applications, both large and small in nature.
In general, ICS is a management tool by which multi-agency services are
coordinated in a more uniform manner. The ICS process is part of the
continuum of public safety services that is related to effective prevention and
deterrence efforts. It is an extension of the strategies and tactics related to
WMD issues and situations. In general, local operations are concerned with
getting on scene and dealing with the initial incident. This primary response
level addresses emergency rescue efforts. It involves recovery operations,
victim-witness protection, safety and security, officer survival issues,
securing perimeters, protecting crime scenes, communications, and
investigative functions.
In addition, from the local to the state level, additional materials and
resources may be required from the state government. This may be provided
in terms of support personnel, equipment, the National Guard, and so on. A
state of emergency may be declared by the governor, and subsequently result
in a request by the state for federal assistance. The federal response may be
triggered by virtue of Presidential Directives as well as federal law, in order
to address suspected or actual WMD situations. This response may involve
the FBI, the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), and other
federal organizations. Action by the federal government may involve what
is sometimes referred to as the “Federal Response Plan”. Under the plan, the
federal government may become involved in both “Crisis Management”, as
well as “Consequence Management”. Crisis Management concerns the
immediate law enforcement aspects of the incident. This is the “police”
function that deals with the criminal nature of the occurrence. Immediately
following an incident, this process will address investigative needs in order
to deal with the threat, the actual incident aftermath and subsequent terrorist
activity. By contrast, Consequence Management addresses those issues
related to follow-up activities designed to protect the public. It is the part of
the process that focuses on putting things back together and restoring
essential community services and functions. Such management generates
the effort to restore order, ensure public health and safety, get business back
in operation and deal with the aftermath of the incident from a social

ICS operations cross over into several areas of law. These include federal
regulations, directives and standards. At the state and local level, state laws,
administrative code, ordinances and regulations may also apply to a given
situation. These must work in harmony with federal regulations. In addition
to the legal aspects of dealing with a crisis incident, multi-agency
coordination also involves the process of decision-making. The decision-
making requirements address issues related to what is going to be done, and
who is going to do it. At the agency level, police departments direct the
operations of law enforcement from the standpoint of “standard operating
procedures”, or “general orders”. By contrast, state law and local ordinance
will normally address the public’s behavior, especially in terms of criminal

Policies, Procedures and Protocols

Administrative Code
Operating Procedures
Incident Management Includes:
Command Post Placement and Organization
Officer Safety and Security
Priorities, Goals and Objectives
Action Plan and Incident Resources
Agency Coordination
Media Liaison
Expense Management
Liaison & Involvement of Prosecutor’s Office

Incident management begins from the time the first officer arrives on
the scene. And, in all probability, the first officer on the scene will
be a law enforcement officer. He or she will subsequently set things
in to motion. His or her actions may have a long-term affect on the
overall operations as they develop.


Command, control and communications are involved in each incident

encountered by first responders, and particularly law enforcement officers,
concerns management processes. A chain of command is invoked, along
with notification and procedural applications. Certain basic actions are
required in order to deal with the situation at hand. “Command” authority
applies in a variety of situations. Someone has to be in charge and take
command of the operations, as well as support services. Operational aspects
concern the tactical implications and are designed to carry out action plans.
The planning function is essential and involves those components designed
to accomplish the goals and objectives the mission. Planning collects and
evaluates information and channels it throughout the command structure.
From a logistical standpoint, the logistics of the process concern those
efforts designed to ensure resources and services in support of the mission.
Financial and administrative issues relate to the costs associated with the
overall operations. This involves accounting, procurement, personnel
management and ongoing cost analysis. There is no single best way in
which to organize the management of an incident scene. The ICS should be
organized so that it meets the needs of the specific situation.

The ICS should be managed in a manner that addresses the characteristics of

the local environment and community in which the incident has occurred.
Teamwork is essential in this process. And, no agency should seek
individual media attention or political advantage. The overall mission of
public safety and security must not be lost in the flood of media sound bites
and front page stories.

Small Scale – ICS – First Officer on

First Officer

Police Officers ----- Fire Department-----Public Works

Police Equipment HazMat/EMS Equipment

The Overall ICS Structure

On Scene Incident Commander


Command Authority
Someone has to be in charge. Direction and focus must be ensured.
The command structure is important and delegation is essential.
Establishing command and setting up a command post ensures the
process in put into action. Liaison is also an important part of this

On Scene

Information Officer Safety


Liaison Officer

The on-scene commander should ensure that proper staffing takes place in
order to facilitate the objectives involved with the incident scene. Command
authority will transfer as needed to accommodate the operational
responsibilities of the agencies involved. The agency with the primary
operational responsibilities will most likely serve as the “Incident
Commander”. Depending on the nature of the incident, the primary agency
may prefer to assign the more senior person to take command of the overall
command structure. Under the Incident Commander, the Information
Officer handles relations with the news media. He or she coordinates the
dissemination of information through news releases as appropriate to the
information process. A Liaison Officer is necessary to coordinate contact
with other agencies that may become associated with the incident scene.
The Safety Officer serves in the capacity to monitor the safety conditions at
the incident scene. In this role, he or she also evaluates and oversees the
safety of the first responders. Critical functions include: leadership, ensuring
the protection of life and property, managing and controlling personnel and
resources, supervising accountability, fostering effective liaison, and
maintaining effective communications with the Emergency Operations
Center. When a transfer of command occurs, a full briefing is necessary
from the departing commander to the incoming commander.

Conceptual Framework of Incident Command/Unified Command Structure


The ICS process fosters a unified command structure. It is a management

tool that can provide an overlay for various situations. Some of the kinds of
activities that may be approached, given the tactical implications of the
incident, include, but are not limited to, the following:

Fires, Hazmat incidents

Individual and multi-agency situations
Multi-agency disaster occurrences
Search and rescue operations
Environmental Response and Recovery
Air, Sea, Land crash incidents
Crowd Control events
Urban disturbances

In reviewing the ICS structure it is apparent that the organization is designed

to be flexible yet be consistent in terms of tactical implications. Each level
of the structure provides the basis for implementing appropriate responses to
needs of the community. And, every incident, regardless of size, requires a
basic “Incident Action Plan” (IAP) in order to facilitate the implementation
process throughout the organization. The IAP is placed into motion by the
Incident Scene Commander and subsequently transmitted to subordinates in
a clear and concise manner. Documentation, when possible, is necessary in
order to ensure administration and operational control and direction. As the
scene develops and grows in complexity it is necessary to make sure that
essential information is transmitted accordingly. Each incident scene will
have a mix of political and social parameters that may affect the overall
operations. The process of ensuring a “unified command system” assists in
coordinating multi-jurisdictional interests. Cooperation is essential when
incidents involve more than one jurisdiction. This is especially important
when local agencies attempt to coordinate operations with state agencies.
Such a process allows all participants to develop a common set of goals and
objectives. Working together for common goals should not mean that
agencies lose authority or responsibility for dealing with the incident.

Multi-Agency Collaboration Ensures:

Common Goals
Overall Mutual Objectives
Joint Operational Actions
Managed integrated Administration
Coordination of Resources
Single Authority System
Cooperative Incident Action Plan
Combined Command Post
Shared Cost of Support Services
Realistic Response Incident Situation
Shared Responsibility and Accountability
Coordinated Information Process
Geographic Mutual Aid Interface
Calculated Response to Recovery

Tactical Implications
Prevention and Deterrence

Prevention and deterrence include the necessity of effective tactical planning

to interdict criminal activity before it happens. This means developing a
proactive crime prevention strategy. Preventive activities relate to
professionally competent police work at the local level. Local law
enforcement, along with firefighting and EMS personnel, are the backbone
of public safety services in the U.S. Local officers will typically be the first
responders when an incident occurs. Effective community security
measures rest upon the ability of local law enforcement agencies. As the
first line of defense to protect cities and towns, local law enforcement must
ensure a good plan of action. This includes: planning, emergency response
measures, mutual aid agreements, cooperative intelligence gathering, multi-
agency coordination, support services and protective equipment, early
warning systems, and quality training. Early warning and rapid interdiction
are essential to effective prevention and deterrence. Following an incident,
good on-scene management of the situation becomes critical. From a law
enforcement standpoint, protection and processing of the crime scene
becomes extremely important to the total process.


Phases In Responding to Critical Incidents

Prevention and Deterrence

Law enforcement response to critical incidents involve all the essential

components of good crime prevention tactics, procedures and
practices. Hardening potential targets and reducing opportunities from
criminal behavior are vital the law enforcement mission. Activation of
response systems takes place after an incident has occurred and
concerns the notification process. The notification aspect deals with
the information flow as it is related to reporting incidents. This may
come from the public or may be initiated by officers in the field.
Important information is derived from this process and fosters a
response to the incident at hand. In responding to the incident, law
enforcement is called upon to isolate the scene, identify the situation
and protect people, places and things accordingly. Necessary actions
require personal and public safety, setting up perimeters, preservation
of the crime scene, crowd management, evacuation and securing
information from victims and witnesses. In addition, officers will be
called upon to document the incident in detail, and assist in the
transition as phases change from incident to aftermath.

In isolating the scene, law enforcement officers endeavor

to secure the area in order to establish the initial phase of
the ICS process. Inner and outer perimeters are
designated, as the crime scene is preserved, officers are
protected and the injured referred for medial attention.

Effective security countermeasures in the prevention and deterrence effort

are supported by the efficient and reliable flow of information. It is a shared
process built upon good working relationships among the various agencies.
Agencies must foster good levels of cooperation and mutual respect for each
other. Although intelligence gathering is a sensitive process, which requires
security applications, it is important that significant information be
exchanged as necessary to the mission at hand. This is especially true with
regard to personal safety issues affecting officers and the public. In
developing a proactive threat analysis as a component of the intelligence
gathering process, every possible source of information should be
considered and evaluated. Perceptions and observations should be weighed
against the known facts. All aspects should be carefully assessed as
objectively as possible. A community’s strengths and weaknesses should be
identified and appropriate security measures placed into action. Physical,
operational and personal security measures can be implemented to fit the
needs of the local community. Patrol tactics, investigative efforts, public
information and education, crime prevention objectives and so forth, all
assist in the prevention and deterrence process. The tactical implications of
prevention and deterrence suggest that agencies be more proactive, vigilant
and creative. As a part of the process, threat analysis is ongoing and
persistent in nature.


Threat assessments must also consider the impact of the various acts of
terrorism. The psychological dimension cannot be overlooked in terms of
impact on the public and personnel. It should be part of the overall planning
process. Analysis of this multidimensional element must be seriously
weighed in light of the goals and objectives for positive prevention and

The modern terrorist differs from the common criminal in that he is

motivated by a political agenda. The actions of the terrorist—murder,
sabotage, blackmail—may be identical to those of the common
criminal. However, for the terrorist, these are all means to achieve
wider goals, whether ideological, religious, social or economic. The
way to the terrorist’s ultimate political goal runs through a vital
interim objective—the creation of an unremitting paralyzing
sensation of fear in the target community. Thus, modern terrorism is a
means of instilling in every individual the feeling that the next terror
attack may have his name on it. Terrorism works to undermine the
sense of security and to disrupt everyday life so as to harm the target
country’s ability to function. The goal of this strategy is, in turn, to
drive public opinion to pressure decision-makers to surrender to the
terrorists’ demands. Thus the target population becomes a tool in the
hands of the terrorist in advancing the political agenda in the name of
which the terrorism is perpetrated. (88)

Local law enforcement planning should consider the extent to which terrorist
groups will use fear in order to destabilize the public’s sense of security.
The media is particularly vulnerable to manipulation by extremist
organizations. Every effort will be made by such groups to play the media
to achieve their objectives. Law enforcement must be ready to counter such
activities by effective implementation of public information strategies.
Careful tactical use of information must be skillfully crafted and deployed in
order to carry out the law enforcement mission. In addition, information
dissemination must be handled in a manner that does not unnecessarily
increase the public’s anxiety, fear level or insecurity. And, by contrast, local
law enforcement cannot afford to allow themselves to be used by the media,
misguided politicians or public opinion where such influence is based upon
irrational fears, psychological manipulation or other aspects of erroneous

Law enforcement should pursue a sure and swift posture in developing and
implementing preventive tactical strategies. These efforts should encompass
the analysis of things that are realistic and practical. Common sense is
crucial throughout each aspect of planning and subsequent implementation.
Each step that culminates in action should be well reasoned and balanced
with a focus on developing sensible cost-effective approaches. The ongoing
development of science and technology, as well as forensics and tactics,
supported by aggressive patrol strategies, should underscore the policies and
procedures for preventive actions. Operational actions, reinforced by both
defensive and offensive activities, should be followed by persistent
prosecutorial and punitive measures that are certain and swift in every
aspect. The law enforcement community should take the lead in fostering
emergency management coordination efforts. This involves bringing
together progressive and innovative thinkers to provide an effective planning
framework. Specific needs, resources and support mechanisms should be
identified as early as possible. Mutual assistance and cooperative efforts are
essential in the development of an effective response to acts of terrorism.
This includes elements of the federal government working closely with local
government to ensure public safety and security is at the highest level

Operational Development
Policies and Procedures – Deployment and Implementation
Local Task Force on Major Incidents
Local Community Inventory of Potential Targets
Operational Guidelines and Command Authority
Tactical Operations – Mutual Aid Policies
Command Post – Evacuation Processes
Information and Intelligence Gathering
Legal Requirements
Patrol and Investigative Operations
Crime Scene Investigations and Evidence Collection
Hostage Rescue Operations & Negotiation Teams
Bomb Threat Policies and Search Procedures
Target Analysis – Threat Assessments
Detection and Early Warning Systems – Equipment
Training and Education

Minimum Safe Distances

Threat Explosive Building Outdoor

Type: Capacity: Evacuation Evacuation
Distance: Distance:
Pipe Bomb 5 LBS 70 FT 850 FT
2.3 KG 21 M 259 M

Briefcase or 50 LBS 150 FT 1,850 FT

Suitcase Bomb 23 KG 46 M 564 M

Compact Sedan 500 LBS 320 FT 1,500 FT

227 KG 98 M 457 M

Sedan 1000 LBS 400 FT 1750 FT

454 KG 122 M 534 M

Passenger Van or 4,000 LBS 640 FT 2,750 FT

Cargo Van 1814 KG 195 M 838 M

Small Moving Van or 10,000 LBS 860 FT 3,750 FT

Delivery Truck 4,536 KG 263 M 1,143 M

Moving Van or 30,000 LBS 1,240 FT 6,500 FT

Water Truck 13,608 KG 375 M 1,982 M

Semi Trailer 60,000 LBS 1,570 FT 7,000 FT

27,216 KG 475 M 2,134 M


“A Sample Working Formula of Flexibility”

Response = Scene Safe/Render Aid +Isolate and Secure the Area + Define
the Incident + Identify + Activate Notifications + (Time/Distance/Cover) +
Secondary Threats & Devices + Special Ops/Intel + Document +
Recovery/Restore Operations + (Overcome/Improvise/Adapt)
Chapter 14: Further Considerations – Threats & Response Measures:

WMD Threats & Response Measures


Insurgent groups around the

world have used the
“Stinger”. It is an infra-red
man-portables type of
weapon that is shoulder
fired in a surface-to-air
capacity. The range is
about 5500 meters. Its
altitude ranges is about
15,750 feet. The “Grail”
has a range of about 6,125
meters, with an altitude
range of about 12,900 feet.

In addition to the “Stinger” and the “Grail”, various groups have

been known to use the “RPG”. Issued previously to the former
Soviet and Chinese, and North Korean military, the RPG is used in
a number of countries. It is a basic functional weapon that is easy
to use and has an effective range of about 500 meters, and has
shown effectiveness against armor-plated vehicles. The RPG is
known to be in use by terrorist organizations in the Middle-East,
Eastern Europe and Latin America. (91)

The weapons listed above are sample possibilities of the types of devices
that may be employed by terrorist groups. Terrorist organizations use a
variety of both conventional and non-conventional weaponry. Intelligence,
research and training sources should foster a greater understanding and
awareness for law enforcement personnel regarding the use of such threats.


Terrorism Prevention Basics

 Terrorists focus on high profile visible targets that offer ease of access and escape. Target
hardening is therefore important for to protect both people and buildings. Proper
planning is critical. Effective policies, procedures and plans should be in place, and
regularly practiced.
 Terrorists use a variety of weapons, equipment and devices to carry out bombings,
kidnappings, hijackings and other related crimes. Recognition and understanding of the
weapons and tactics that may be deployed should be part of the prevention process.
Preparation for such acts involves the same practices and procedures that are required for
other kinds of potential crisis events, disasters or major disturbances. Evacuation routes,
escape systems, emergency exits, bomb threat protocols and fire drills are important to the
planning process.
 It is essential to be vigilant with regard to terrain, landscape, structures, and so forth.
Attacks may come without warning. Terrorists want a large audience watching when
they do something. They want to maximize the “fear factor”.
 A proactive strategy of aggressive action, particularly by the law enforcement patrol
function, is important to early and timely interdiction into criminal activity. Law
enforcement is geared operationally to problem-solving efforts by working in cooperation
with community partnerships. Dealing with citizens on a day-to-day basis offers
opportunities to develop awareness and alertness on a community-wide basis.
 Crime prevention by objectives should focus on strengthening community processes to
ensure active problem solving, target hardening, training and education, intelligence
gathering, criminal behavior interdiction, maintenance of order and service orientation.
 Investigative resources should assist, enhance and foster cooperative operations within the
patrol force. First responders need the equipment, resources and training to carry out the
function of effective patrol activities. An inventory of up-to-date tools, tactics, techniques
and training should be available at all times. Training partnerships with other service
agencies should be developed to the extent possible.
 Prevention and deterrence strategies are part of an ongoing process that involves effective
leadership, planning, and resource development. Negative politics and personal agendas
have no place in public safety and security operations. A response to WMD and criminal
behavior issues, including organized crime aspects, necessitates a thorough threat
assessment process and along with emergency contingency coordination. Specialized
technical and scientific support is also vital to the prevention and deterrence process.
Sharing and coordination of materials and services from the federal government and the
private serve to enhance the local response capabilities.
 Information development that assists in the formulation of strategy and the
implementation of countermeasures is vital to prevention and deterrence. Field
intelligence must be efficiently gathered from the street level and translated into a
practical framework of application. Operational and tactical use of intelligence must be
shared appropriately and coordinated in a professional teamwork manner. The necessary
tools must be utilized in a manner that produces results.
 A professional mix of practical tools, training, techniques and tactics should be deployed
at the local level, in order to maximize the prevention and deterrence effectiveness.

Cyber Tactics
1. “Cyber-Terrorism”, and the day-to-day use of the Internet for a variety of criminal
purposes, presents a range of problems that could potentially be devastating to
business, government and the public. The goals and objectives are to maximize
protection for associated systems and equipment by ensuring high-level
safeguards. Cyber-terrorism is basically criminal activity carried out by criminals
to intimidate, threaten or coerce lawful entities, in the furtherance of their
particular goals, by using computing resources. This realm is inclusive of the
potential threats by both terrorism and industrial espionage. While there are no
foolproof methods of absolute security, there are preventive measures that can
reduce the opportunities for attacks on computing systems.
2. Basically, security countermeasures involve “locking the door and turning the
lights on”. The basics include the use of encryption where feasible, firewalls, virus
protection, passwords, vendor updates and security patches, testing and evaluation,
and security audits. Also, when a breach occurs, immediate action is necessary to
change the network configuration and realign security procedures. Skilled and
knowledgeable practitioners should be consulted in the process.
3. Protective countermeasures are vital. Critical infrastructure affected by
interrelated systems includes telecommunications, business and industry,
transportation systems, utilities and consumer services and governmental
operations. All must be assessed, analyzed and evaluated in terms of protective
measures. Threat assessment and risk analysis processes should be put into place
as an ongoing process.
4. Efforts should be designed to provide maximum protection against intentional
damage wherever possible. Priorities need to be established given the nature of the
operations and the systems to be protected. Government and private sector
coordination will be critical to the interface of security precautions. Early warning
systems must be in place, with established contingency for responding to
emergency situations.
5. A vigorous investigative and prosecutorial program should be established to work
vigilantly with government and private industry to ensure a swift response to
infrastructure intrusions and attacks. Prevention, detection and response are
essential to the overall process.
6. Implementation of human and technological security measures are essential. A
strong foundation of information security strategies and tactics includes: security
systems, personnel training and education, analysis and assessment, enforcement,
policies and procedures, legal mandates and teamwork.
7. An “Information Protection Counter-Measures” (IPC) program should endeavor to
deploy safeguards prudently as appropriate to the nature of the operations and the
personnel involved. Security needs should be well-defined and networks
segregated as necessary to the operations. Some aspects may require more security
protocols than others. The IPC must consider both internal and external threats to
the systems. Internal threats could come from employees seeking their personal
gain for one reason or another. External threats could stem from hackers, terrorists
and industrial spies. Effective management and oversight becomes critical to the
process of workable security countermeasures.

Personal Computer Security Considerations - Dialup

- Know that some people will take advantage of your electronic operations to
advance their own personal gain. Hackers and terrorists look for targets of
opportunity. Plan and implement your own security tactics. Conduct research
and get good advice from experienced practitioners.
- Ensure that work products, operations, passwords, account numbers, credit card
numbers and any other sensitive information are protected. Be cautious about
sharing or using this information over the Internet. In particular you should
never use any sensitive information in email communications. Keep your IP
address confidential at all times.
- Become suspicious if someone calls you, or emails you, and wants your
personal information (e.g. password, credit card number, etc). The phone
company, utilities services or your Internet server will not call you asking for
such information. If this happens, try to get their phone number, etc., and
verify the request. And, then call the police.
- Configure your computer for high security operations. Be extremely cautious
about “Chat Rooms”. Never reveal personal information in one of these sites.
Protect your identify online at all times. Configure your PC settings to
preclude file and print sharing possibilities.
- If for some unexplained reason you experience difficulties while online, or
system failures occur, then it is possible your system is being attacked by a
hacker. If problems persist, then be ready to shut down your system,
disconnect and reboot. A sudden slow-down of surfing activity may mean
potential problems.
- Use appropriate settings and security support systems, if you PC is always
connected to a network and connected to the Internet. Alert appropriate
services and personnel if you experience regular problems with your system.
- Make sure, before you submit any information to a website, that you check to
see if the site has “secure connections”. Regularly clear your temporary files,
such as the “browser cache” and so forth. It is possible for hackers to gain
access to such information and then use it later.
- Be suspicious of email from persons you do not know. Avoid opening
attachments to such emails as they could contain a virus. Any information you
receive should be treated cautiously, especially if you are not familiar with the
- Be ready to disconnect and redial if you are experiencing problems connecting
to a website. Check your “Internet connection information” to see if there is a
lot activity on your connection. If so, and you have not attempted to open a
website, conduct file downloads, or other activity, someone may be accessing
your system.
- Keep data files encrypted on your computer if you are doing any kind of
important activity. Use firewalls, virus protection, security protocols, security
updates to operating systems and so on to protect your operations.








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