You are on page 1of 21

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I thank JIS for giving


Opportunity to do this training.
I adorn my sincere thanks & gratefulness to the
DEPARTMENT of EIE
For giving us an opportunity to pursue vocational training for partial
fulfillment of B.TECH (EIE), their encouragement & help in the
pursuit of my studies.

I am really thankful to Mr. ______ (MATHAMUNDU), ______ (MATHAMUNDU)


&
Mr. _________ (AJHKJD) who guided me to do the project in
iCyse .inc
in a successful manner.
Feel a Sense of happiness in thanking all the employees of iCyse Network
for the help rendered the patience & support they gave during my project
work.
I am extremely grateful to all the respondents who spent their
Valuable time to answer my questions.
1. INTRODUCTION

Write your own Text


INDEX:

SECTION A:
1. GENERAL OVERVIEW OF PLC – Given below, edit if you like

A. SIEMENS

Write your own text

(Hardware platform – S7 300, Software platform – STEP 7, HMI - WinCC)

2. FACTORY VISIT

Write your own text


(PLC Panel – Visual observation, system info, continuity check, Control Desk/Post)

SECTION B:
AUTOMATION PROJECT ON A BOTTLING PLANT PROCESS

A. PROJECT OBJECTIVE
B. LOGIC WRITE UP
C. LADDER PROGRAM
E. HMI SCREEN SHOTS
SECTION A

1. WHAT IS INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION

Industrial Automation is the use of Control Systems to control Industrial Machinery and Processes,
reducing the need for human intervention.
If we compare a job being done by human and by Automation, the physical part of the job is replaced
by use of a Machine, whereas the mental capabilities of the human are replaced with the
Automation.
The human sensory organs are replaced with electrical, mechanical or electronic Sensors to enable
the Automation systems to perform the job.
For example, a grinding wheel driven by a human can be replaced by a motor (which is a machine).
But starting and stopping the grinding, which were done by the human by ‘looking at’ the output, will
be replaced by the control of the motor by Automation.
Higher level of human intelligence like planning, analysis, prediction and intuitive decision making is
not done by this Level of Automation.

LIMBS TO DO
SENSORY
ORGANS
HUMAN THE WORK

BRAIN

SENSORS CONTROL OF
MACHINES &
IN FIELD DEVICES
AUTOMATIO
N

Automation compared to human activity


CONTROL SYSTEMS USED IN INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION

• Micro-controllers
• Programmable (Logic) Controllers or PLC
• Distributed Control System or DCS
• Computers, etc.

WHAT IS PROGRAMMABLE (LOGIC) CONTROLLER

Programmable (Logic) Controller or PLC is a type of computer commonly used in commercial and
industrial control applications.
The prominent manufacturers of PLC are Allen-Bradley (Rockwell), Siemens, GE Fanuc,
Schneider Electric, Mitsubishi, etc.

HOW IS PLC DIFFERENT FROM COMMON COMPUTERS

The PLC and computers are different in their hardware and software as their target application and
solution areas are different. While the computer is required to do many activities simultaneously or
compute and handle huge amount of data, the PLC is required to interact with the process and focus
on controlling a physical process reliably, which means, common PC syndromes like hang, crash or
reboot can not be tolerated for a PLC.

Hence, the difference can be summarized as follows:

• The number of simultaneous processes handled by PC is more than PLC


• PC is faster in terms of processor speed and data handling capacity
• PLC has higher capability of handling external input output signals, specially discreet input
and outputs
• The PLC is more reliable, repetitive and precise for a particular job
• PLCs are very rugged and designed to work under harsh ambient conditions
• PLC hardware is generally modular and expandable
• PLC is essentially a Real Time System
REAL TIME SYSTEM

A system is a Real Time System when it can respond to an external event within a specified window
of time.
Responses can be periodic, time-initiated, input driven or interrupt driven. The time is determined by
the time constant of the dynamic process.

Example of time constants for external processes:


• Milliseconds for machining or electric power systems
• Seconds for flow / pressure processes
• Minutes for temperature controlled processes
• Weeks/months/years for social / economic processes

LEVELS OF AUTOMATION

Automation can be categorized in various levels based on the required intelligence level. In relation to
the human capabilities, both physical and mental, each level relates to a particular capability.

The definition of levels is not unique and is available in 3 Level, 4 Level, 5 level models. One of the
commonly used models is described below.

FOCUS ON
MANAGEMENT

& INFORMATION

Level 4
ERP

Level 3
MES

Level 2
Process Automation

PLC, DCS,
Level 1
HMI, SCADA

Sensors
Level 0
Drives

FOCUS ON
PROCESS &
CONTROL
Levels of Automation

COMPONENTS OF PLC

A PLC consists of minimum the following components:

• Central Processing Unit (CPU)


• Memory
• Power Supply
• Rail / Rack
• Input Modules
• Output Modules

PROGRAMMING
TERMINAL
RAIL / RACK

INPUT OUTPUT

CPU
MEMORY

Power Supply
Components of PLC

CPU

The CPU is the “Brain” of the PLC. It essentially performs the following functions:

• Updating the Input / Output status


• Scanning the application program
• Perform all binary (logical) and arithmetic functions as per the inputs and the application
program and generate output
• Communicate with Memory and Programming Terminal to read or write program or data

The CPUs are categorized primarily based on their Input/Output handling, special functions and
communication capabilities.

The operating system of the CPU is permanently written in the same. Unlike personal computers, the
hardware and the OS, as well as the programming software, are always from the same manufacturer.

Memory

The Memory stores the operating system, the application program and sometimes user data.
Depending on the type of data to be stored, memory can be Read-Only type or ROM. Operating
systems of the CPU are stored in such memory areas. The user program is generally stored in a
Read-Write memory or RAM.

Memory can be built in the CPU or can be external. External memory is normally of Flash EPROM
type. The RAM is normally backed up by the Battery provided in the PLC in case of power failure.

Power Supply

The Power Supply provides power to the CPU, Memory and the Input / Output modules. This is the
power required by the electronics of the modules to function and NOT the field power required for the
input / outputs.

Rail / Rack

The modules of a PLC are either mounted on a Rail or a Rack. While the Rail serves only as a
mechanical support for the modules, the Rack serves both as a mounting support as well as a
backplane. The backplane is the PCB board, similar to the motherboard of a PC, on which modules
are connected.

Input / Output Modules

If CPU is the “Brain” of the PLC, Inputs are the “Sensors”. The information acquired by the inputs is
used by the CPU to generate outputs. Input / Outputs are of two types:

• Digital

• Analog

Digital Modules

Though the digital input and output modules vary through a wide range in terms of size and type, the
following are their characteristics.

• Digital input modules are used to read signals from selector switches, push buttons, limit
switches, proximity switches, etc
• Digital output modules switch on/off relays, contactors, lamps, etc.
• Digital inputs and outputs can accept 24V DC, 48V DC, 120V AC or 240V AC. The entire
module is for a particular voltage.
• The number of inputs / outputs or channels available on a single module can be 8, 16, 32 or
64.
• The most commonly used signal voltage level is 24V DC.

DIGITAL DIGITAL
PLC
INPUTS OUTPUTS
CPU

Types of Digital Inputs and Outputs


Analog Modules
• The Analog Input modules are used to read signals from analog transducers, potentiometers,
etc
• Analog Output modules are used to give setpoints to drives or other processes or for
displaying values on meters

ANALOG PLC ANALOGO


INPUTS UTPUTS
CPU

Types of Analog Inputs and Outputs

The principle of operation of an analog module is based on the analog to digital converters or vice
versa.

For analog input modules, the analog value connected to the terminals of the analog channel is
converted into digital value by means of Analog to Digital Converter (ADC). The digital value is further
processed for diagnostic data like overflow, wire breakage, etc. before being sent to the CPU via the
backplane bus.

For analog output modules, the digital value generated by the CPU is sent to the analog module via
the backplane bus for conversion into analog value by means of Digital to Analog Converter (DAC).
The digital value is processed for diagnostic data like overflow, etc. before being sent to the DAC.

Analog Input Types

Analog Inputs are available in four types –

• Voltage – 0-10V, +/-10V


• Current – 0-20mA, 4-20mA
• Resistance – Pt100, standard resistance (linear)
• Thermocouple – J, K, N, L, etc.

CONFIGURATION OF PLC

PLC is a modular system can be configured in different ways:

Centralized

In Centralized configuration, the I/Os are located near the CPU or within a short distance from it. The
input/outputs, irrespective of their physical location, are wired up to the PLC panel. This type of
configuration is useful when the process is compact and concentrated and not spread across a long
distance.

PS

I/O CONNECTION
I/O

CPU I/O
C
O
NN
EC

Process Area 1 Process Area 3


TI
O
N

I/O

ON
ECT I
O NN
I/O C
EC TIO N I/O
ONN
I/O C

Process Area 4

Process Area 2
Centralized configuration of PLC
Remote I/O

In the Remote I/O configuration, the I/Os are distributed in smaller groups and located near the
devices the signals are connected to. The communication between the CPU and the I/Os are
established with the help of BUS system. The protocol of the communication is specific to the
manufacturer of the PLC.

The advantages of the Remote I/O systems are as follows:

• Savings in wiring cost as the I/Os are wired near the field devices and the major length of the
cable is one single twisted pair cable.
• Troubleshooting in field cable problems become easier.
• Remote I/O stations are rugged and can be housed in control desks, control posts, MCC or
other similar enclosures

BUS CONNECTION

REMOTE I/O
PS REMOTE I/O
B US CONNECTION

CPU I/O
I/O CONNECTION
I/O CONNECTION
BUS CONNECTION

BUS CONNECTION

Process Area 1 Process Area 3

REMOTE I/O
REMOTE I/O

I/O CONNECTION
I/O CONNECTION

Process Area 2 Process Area 4


Remote I/O configuration of PLC
PROGRAMMING BASICS

• The user develops the Application Program on a Programmer and transfers the program to
the CPU for execution.
• Programming is done through a Programming Software Package, which is dependant on the
manufacturer and the type of PLC used.
• Almost all prominent PLC vendors have PLCs in Small, Medium and Large category. The
categorization is done on the I/O handling and communication capacity.
• Some of the CPUs come with a mode switch on it. At PROG position, only programming can
be done, but outputs are not transferred. At REM position, both programming and execution is
done. At RUN position, only program execution is done, no program transfer to the CPU is
allowed.
• The way of execution of the program in the CPU is based on the Type of Program it is written
into.

Types of Programs

The application program running in a CPU can be categorized as per their type of execution –

• Cyclic Program
• Time Interrupt Program
• Event Interrupt Program
• Startup Program
The Cyclic Program is the main program of the PLC and is executed cyclically. The status of inputs
from the field and the status of outputs by the PLC is updated once every cycle.

SCAN &
EXECUTE
PROGRAM

READ INPUTS WRITE OUTPUTS


FROM FIELD TO FIELD

Cyclic Program Execution

The Time Interrupt Program is a section of the program which is triggered based on a time value.
E.g., this part of the program is executed every 100 mS.

The Event Interrupt Program is triggered by an event, which can be either internal or external. It can
be triggered by a hardwired signal or a fault or other internal event.

Startup Programs are executed during startup only and are not processed during normal running.

A. SIEMENS

Write your own text

(Hardware platform – S7 300, Software platform – STEP 7, HMI - WinCC)


3. FACTORY VISIT
Write your own text
(PLC Panel – Visual observation, system info, continuity check, Control Desk/Post)
SECTION B – AUTOMATION PROJECT

• PROJECT OBJECTIVE

To use a Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) to control A BOTTLING PLANT PROCESS


develop the PLC software and HMI Screens for the system.

• LOGIC WRITE UP

The Bottling Plant consists of the following

A) The Bottling Plant consists of two main stages : the filling stage and the capping stage.

B) The model Plant can handle five bottle at a time.

C) When start push button is pressed, a batch of five bottles are sent to the conveyor.The batch then
proceeds towards the filling station.

D) The filling process takes about 10 secs to complete.

E) After the completion of the filling process the batch proceeds towards the capping station.

F) The capping takes few seconds to complete.

G) After the completion of the capping process, a mew batch of five bottles appears at the conveyor
and the cycle begins again.

H) The entire cycle can be paused at any stage.Press the Pause button freezes the operation: bottles
remain where they are and the counter keeps its last count.One morev press of the pause button
restarts the system

I) Stop button causes the entire operation to stop.


• LADDER PROGRAM
• HMI SCREEN SHOTS