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PROCEEDINGS INDONESIAN PETROLEUM ASSOCIATION
Eleventh Annual Convention, June 1982
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CENOZOIC STRATIGRAPHICNOMENCLATURE IN EAST KUTAI BASIN, KALIMANTAN

by Edward Marks*,Sujatmiko**,Lki Samuel***,


H.'Dhanutirto*,T. Ismoyowati* and BB. Sidik*

ABSTKACT INTRODUCTION

The Cenozoic sediments of the eastern Kutai Present multicompany intensive exploration
Basin, East Kalimantan, are composed of in tk Kutai Basin, as in other parts of lndone-
several deposystems that can be distinguished sia, has made it imperative that we review and
by their lithic successions and separated by refine previous lithostratigraphic terms in the
disconformities evident on seismic records. light of modern concepts.
Five deposystcms are separated into the fol-
lowing Groups with their subdivisions: the Aims
Pleistocene to Recent Mahakam Group, divided
into the deltaic Handil Dua Formation to the The aims of this work are to get satisfactory
west and the marine Attaka Formation to the answers on nomenclature, which should be ba-
east; the middle Miocene to Pliocene Kampong sed upon the nature of the rock bodies in time
Baru Grocp, consisting of the deltaic Tanjung and space. In turn, the nomenclature should
Batu Formation to the west and the marine have value the better to understand the distri-
Sepinggan Formation to the east; the middle bution of potential and realized reservoirs
Miocene Balikpapan Group, containing the found in the Kutai Basin.
upperrnost carbonate to marine clastic Klanda-
san Tongue of the marine Gelingseh Formation Problems
and the paralicdeltaic beds of the Mentawir
Formation; the early to middle Miocene Bebulu Previously published nomenclatonal systems
Group divided into a carbonate Maruat Forma- have not accomplished the aims of the work
tion and a deeper water clastic and carbonate to everyone's satisfaction. Many workers have
Pulau Balang Formation, and the late Oligocene noted tendencies in previous work to neglect
to early Miocene Pamaluan Formation. thin but very important lithic as well as time
These Groups and their subdivisions are boundaries. Companies have differed as to no-
described at their type and reference localities, menclature as well as to time relationships of
and their inter-relationships and boundaries the rocks.
are discussed with vertical and horizontal secti-
ons. Purpose
The purpose of this paper is to present a for-
mal system of group and formation names for
* Union Oil C o . of Indonesia -Balikpapan
-
** Total Indonesie Balikpapan
*** 'Pertamiia Unit EP IV - Balkpapan
the lithostratigraphic units encountered in the
'South East Kutai Basin, Kalimantan, Indonesia.
148
We have limited our-selves to the late Oligocene middle Miocene Bebulu Group, the Maruat
to Recent sediments where, to date, we have Formation accumulated in a shallow carbonate
production. shelf, while the Pulau Balang Formation was
This work is condensed from the Workshop deposited in Inner to Middle Neritic waters,
of Stratigraphic Nomenclature, held on 29 consisting of more clastic sediments.
September 1981, in Balikpapan. Five papers on I n the middle Miocene, the Balikpapan
the Stratigraphic Nomenclature in E. Kutai Group Paralic to Deltaic Mentawir Formation
Basin were presented and discussed. This work was deposited, while the Gelingseh Formation
is pursued upon the recommendations made sediments were laid down in Middle Neritic
by the management and governing ooards of waters with occasional Outer Neritic to Bathyal
Pertamina, and the Stratigraphic Commission incursions. At the end of the Balikpapan Group
of Ikatan Ahli Geologi Indonesia. time, an Inner Carbonate Shelf, Reef Shoal
The writers wish to thank the management sequence was deposited in shallower waters.
of Pertamina, Total Indonesie and Union Oil and a Middle Neritic, low oxygen invimnment
Co. of Indonesia for their help and encourage- was deposited deeper at the time ofthe Nan-
ment in producing this paper. dasan Tongue Member. A break in sediments
is noted here, then the Miocene to Pliocene
Location Kampong Baru Group Tanjung Batu deltaic
Formation prograded t o the east, while the Se-
The Kutai Basin straddles the eastern margin pinggan Formation was deposited in Inner to
of Kalimantan (textfig. 1). The northern boun- Middlo Neritic waters, with some shallow car-
dary is the Mangkalihat Penninsula, to the east bonate accumulations. At the end d the Plio-
is the Makassar Straits Trough, and to the s w t h cene, a lowering of sea level produced a hiatus,
the Kutai Basin is bounded by the Paternoster especially to the west. During the Pleistocene to
Shelf. Recent still&and, the present Mahakam delta
H a n d Dua Formation continued its prograda-
Geologic History tion from the west over the more marine Atta-
ka Formation in the east.
In the Kutai Basin (text figs. 2 and 3),
sediments are known to have been deposited
since early Tertiary time, filling the basin Previous Work
progressively from the west toward the east.
The area of maximum sediment thickness, One of the earliest workers was L.M.R. Rut-
the Depocenter, shifted progressively eastward ten (1914) who published notes on the Balik-
with time, and the maximum thickness of late papan Beds, the Pulau Balang and the Bebulu.
Miocene to Recent sediments is formed in the 1.M. van der Vlerk and J.H.F. Umbgrove (1927)
offshore portion of the basin (Billman and established the Tertiary Letter Stages Ta to Tf.
Kartaadiputra 1974, p. 1). Packages of sedi- Later, Umbgrove (1929) added Tg and Th.
ments were formed in a series of deposystems. W. Leupold and I.M. van der Vlerk (1931)
A cross-section A-A’ on figure 1 can be seen published a table of bio-and lithostratigraphic
in figure 2. Each deposystem developed a group units for the Kutai Basin. In 1943, M.F.
of formations in a sea regressing to the east. Glaessner (pp. 63, 64) summarized the above
The earliest unit in our discussion is the Pa- work, tying the Indo-Pacific Area to European
maluan Formation of Oligo-Miocene age. stages. R.M. van Bemmelen (1949, pp 134-
Bathyal sediments continued to infill the basin 142) discussed the lithic and paleontologic
until at the top of the unit Outer Neritic units of the Kutai Basin.
sediments are present. In the early to basal The Stratigraphic Lexicon of Indonesia was
149
issued in 1961 by P. Marks which alphabetically Boundaries
listed units named to that time.
C.G. Adams (1 970) revised the Tertiary The upper boundary of the Pan'aluan Fo:-
Letter Stages in accordance with the works of ination is rrpresentzd by limestone beds which
Bolli (1966) and Blow (1969). H.G. Billman are pa; t of the Maruat Formation of the Bebulu
and L.W. Kartaadiputra (1 974) published a late G r m p 'T!iere is also an upper contact with the
Neogene zonation applied to the Offshore base of the Pulau Balang. The lower boundary
Kutai Basin. L. Samuel and S. Muchsin presen- is difficult to define lithologically as monoto-
ted a litho-and bio-stratigraphic section of the nous mudstoiles and shales also occur in the
Kutai Basin in 1975. R. Haak and J.A. Postuma underlying Oligoccne '--uyu Formation.
(1975) correlated the Tertiary Letter Stages
with the pelagic zones of Blow (1969).
Distribution
Stratigraphy
'The Painaluan Formation is exposed over
On textfigures 3 and 4 are summarized the much of the western half of the Kutai Basin,
general stratigraphic sequence for the Cenozoic and it also appears at the surface ill the core
System in the Kutai Basin. The Age, Groups, of some of the most easterly anticlines. The
Formations, Lithology, Seismic markers, and formation has been intersected in some wells
Environment are listed for the lithostratigrapliic drilled onshore and offshore.
units. As the Sea Level Curve demonstrates, the
seas were regressive until the latest Pliocene,
when a deepening started another cycle in the Type Section
Recent.
The original type section was mentioned
STRATOTYPE SECTIONS near Pamaluan village but in that locality only
the upper Pamaluan is exposed. Hence, the
Peringtali Anticline arid Janibu Syncline,
Type and Hypostratotype sections have been located 80 Km NW of Balikpapan, East Kali-
designated for the formations listed here. mantan, are proposed as hypostratotypes of
Where possible, classic type sections have been the Pamaluan Formation, see textfig. 7.
used. If on examination, many beds are covered
or inaccessible, Hypostratotype sections are
also designated. Lithologic description

in general, the Pamaluan Formation is repre-


PAMALUAN FORMATION* sented by light gray to black mudstones and
shales with carbonaceous plant remains.
Name Origin The lower Pamaluan consists of massive
siltstones and mudstones with occasional thin
The name Pamaluan was taken from the (1 5 cm), very fine, tight sandstones.
village of Pamaluan, 30 Km NNW of Balikpa- The Upper Pamaluan is predominantly
pan, East Kalimantan (Leupold and v.d. Vlerk mudstone with conchoidal fractures, or bedded
1931, p. Marks 1961). shales, often with carbonaceous leaf remains.
Sandstone and coal interbeds are also found,
and a thin limestone occurs near the top of the
* L.Samuel. formation.
150

Paleontology PULAU BALANG FORMATION**

Globorotalia kugleri, Globigeniza ciperoeilsis, Name Origin


Globorotalia opinuz, Globorotalia izana, Globi-
gerina sellii, Globigerina ampliapertura, Globi- Tile name of this formation was originally
gerina prasaepis, Uvigerina h ispida, Ra thysip hon taken from Pulau Balang (Balang Island), an
sp., Animodiscus spp., Cydammitza spp., island located approximately 8 Km north-east
Sphaeroiu'ina bulloides. of the city of Balikpapan in the Balikpapan
Zones : N 2 - N4. Bay (Rutten, L.M. 1914).

Enviroiiment Boundaries

Generally marine, with an Outer Neritic to The Pulau Balang Formation is a deeper ma-
Bathyal environment of deposition. rine unit of the Bebulu Group which is
overlying the Pamaluan Formation and under-
lying the Balikpapari Group, Mentawir and
Gelingseh Formations. However this formation
Late Oligocene to early Miocene (N2 - N4). shows an inter-fingering relationship with the
Maruat limestone Formation. The top of the
Pulau Ralang is indicated by the Total Indone-
sia Co seismic marker, which is traced into
the subsurface.
BEBULU GROUP*
Distribution

Distribution of the Pulau Balang Formation


can be noted onshore (see fig. 6) and offshore
Name Origin in the Total Maruat No. 1 well and Tengah
Field.
The name for this group is derived from
Sungai Bebulu, a small creek about 45 Km Type Section
southeast of Balikpapan, East Kalimantan,
Indonesia (Umbgrove 1927, pp 28-41). Type section : Pulau Balang surface secti-
Leupold and v.d. Vlerk's (1931, p. 614) on (Textfig. 8).
name of Bebulu beds in part is synonymous Location : Pulau Balang, Balikpapan
with the Bebulu group. The Bebulu as conside- Bay, 8 Km northeast of
red by Leupold and v.d. Vlerk above, which Balikpapan, East Kaliman-
consists of marls and limestones, is here placed tan.
in the Maruat Formation. Onshore, this forma- Thickness :+
-
1855 m (6086 feet).
tion underlies the Pulau Balang Formation. In
places offshore, a portion of the Maruat overlies
the Pulau Balang. Both the Pulau Balang and Lithologic description
the Maruat Formations are included in the
Bebulu Group. The Pulau Balang Formation consists of in-
terbedded sandstones and siltstones with occa-

* Sujatmiko
** T. Ismoyowati
151
siona; limestones and claystones. The lime- cated 42 Km S.S.E. of Balikpapan. The name
stones contain Foraminifera, fragments of Maruat is derived from Tanjung hlaruat, a pro-
Bivalves and Algae in a micritic matrix. The montory located 50 Km S.S.W. of Balikpapan.
sandstones occur in thin to thick beds with
cross bedding and worm burrows. The sand- Boundaries
stones are dominantly quartzose, light gray to
white, friable to hard, occasionaly calcareous, The upper boundary of the Maruat Formation
fine to coarse grained. In the lower part ofthese is placed at the top of the upper carbonate
beds a few thin layers of coal and sand are sequence, well defined by the Co seismic mar-
noted. ker. The Ralikpapan Group Mentawir Formati-
on and the Gelingseh Formation is found zbove
it. The lower boundary is placed at the base of
Paleontology the lower carbonate sequence, usually a fair
seismic marker, above the Pamaluan Formation.
Globigerinoides altiapertunts, Globigerinoi- To the east, in a deeper environment, the more
des difninutus, LepidocJdina ( N ) sitmatrensis, clastic Pulau Balang Formation is encountered.
Lepidocyclina ( N ) angulosa, Flosculinella bon-
tangensis, Flosculinella globulosa, Ro bulus Distribution
inornatus, Bulimina sp, Trochammina sp.,
Nonion sp., Eponides repandus, Amphistegina The Maruat formation can be mapped on-
papillosa, Brizalina limbata, etc. shore, East Kalimantan (Textfig. 6). In tfie
offshore area, it can be traced seismically
Zones : N5 - N7 or younger.
throughout the southemmost portion of the
East Kutai Basin.
Environment
Type Section
The lower part of the Pulau Balang Formati-
on onshore was deposited in an lnner Neritic Type well : Total Indonesie--1npex -

environment with Deltaic - Paralic influence. Pertamina Maruat No. 1


In the upper part Middle Neritic open marine (textfig. 9).
sediments were deposited. Coordinates : 116’ 55’ 22.0” E
1’ 38’ 20.7” S
RTE : 9 m (30’)
Water Depth : 42m (1 38’)
Early Miocene Te5 possibly higher; N5 - N7 Total Depth : 3455m (1 1335’)
possibly higher. Interval : 1261m (4137’)-1690m
(5545’)
Thickness : 429m (1408’)
MARUAT FORMATION*

Name Origin Lithologic Description

The name Maruat was taken from Total In- The formation consists of two main carbo-
donesie Pertamina Maruat No. 1 well, an off- nate sequences at its type locality, consisting
shore exploration well drilled in 1971. It is lo- of bioclastic calcarenite (reefal facies). These
two carbonates are separated by 30m (98’)
* Sujatmiko of interbedded gray shale and fine grained
152
argillaceous sandstone prohabiy bzlongirig to a this is preoccupied by Rutten (1914), Mohler
tongue of the Pulau Balang Poiination (textfig. aid ten Berge (1949) and Luki Samuel (1980).
9). According to the Stratigraphic Code of Indo-
nesia (Suyono 19751, the name Klandasan of
Marshall and Schumann is considered a junior
synonym to the Mentawir.

Boundaries

Tlic upper boundary of the Paralic Mentawir


is marked by an onlap of the overlying Klanda-
hiiro.rrncnt san Tongue Member of the Gelingseh Formati-
on, represented by the Bu seismic marker of
Shallow Carbonate Shelf. Total lndonesie in the offshore area. The lower
boundary is placed at the top of the Bebulu
.4gc Group Maruat Formation or Pulau Balang
Formation, marked by the Cu seismic marker.
Te5 - Tf! (Early Miocenc Early Middle
Miocene) Distribution

BALIKPAPAN GROUP1/ 'Ihe Mentawir Formation can be mapped


onshore, over the southern part of the East
Name Origin Kutai Basin (textfig. 6 ) , and in the offshore
by using electric log;.
The name for this group is derived from the
town of Balikpapan located on the east coast Type Section
of East Kalimantan. W. Leupold and I. M. van
der Vlerk (1931) called this group as layers, The Type Section for the Mentawir Formati-
but since "Layers" is not formal stratigraphic on is at S . Mentawir (Rutten, 1914), 2 3 Km
terminology (Suyono 1975) it is recommended NNW of Balikpapan, East Kalimantan. Many of
that this sequence be called a group. the sequences are covered by soil, and the
The Balikpapan Group is here divided into Reference Locality below described is here by
two formations: the Mentawir Formation and proposed.
the Gelingseh Formation.
Hypostratotype Section

MENTAWIR FORMATION * Location : Outerops on the beach


behind the Pertamina ten-
Name Origin nis court near the Banua
Patra building and along
The name Mentawir is taken from the Men- J1. Minyak in front of Gate
tawir river located app. 2 3 Km NNW of Balik- I11 Pertamina refinery
papan town (texfig. 5). This formation was complex. At Gn. Pancur,
called in 1981 as the Klandasan Formation by outcrops of Mentawir
Marshall & Schumann (1981, p. 285) but occur in a quarry cut
approximately 300 metres
* H.Dhanutirto south of Pertamina Area
153

IV Main Office, Balikpa- (1914) from S. Gelingseh located near Sang-


pan, East Kalimantan, In- kulirang Bay, East Kalimantan.
donesia (textfig. 10).
Thickness 540 m (1772'). Boundaries

The upper boundary of the formation in


Lithologic description the Union - Perlamina Sepinggan No. V 1
well is represented by a disconformity of
This formation consists mainly of massive
Middle Miocene T f - 2 age. This boundary is a
sands and sandstones, white, light gray to
good electric marker, and represents a change
brown, fine to medium grained, soft to friable,
from the shales and limestones in the Klanda-
occasionally interbedded with clays, siltstones
san Tongue Member above, indicated by the
and lignite beds. Intercalated with this formati- Bo seismic marker of Total lndonesie, to the
on, a number of marls and limestones are sands, marls and clays in tile Gelingseh. The
found, which possibly belong to the Gelingseh lower boundary is placed at the top of the Ma-
Formation or as discontinuous limestone ruat and Pulau Balang Formation of tile Bebulu
streaks.
Group, and is marked by the 6~ Seismic mar-
ker.
Paleontology
Distribution
No guide fossils have been found in the
Mentawir Formation. Some benthonic fossils The distribution of the Gelingseh formation
occur, mainly arenaceous forms including Tro- can be noted onshore in the Klandasan Tongue
chammina, ltaplophragrnoides and Ammoba- Member, see below. It is present in the offshore
culites. However, the Gelingseh equivalent
in wells in the Kenndingan and Attaka Fields in
marls and limestones already discussed above
the northern Kutai Basin and extends to the
contain Miog.vpsina, Miog),psinoides, Lepidoqv-
Southern portion of Kutai Basin.
tibia, Flosc~dinella borneensis in the upper
portion and Flosculinella bontangensis in the
Type Section
lower portion.
Although the Gelingseh was named from S.
Environment
Gelingseh, no type section was made. It is there
fore recommended that the Union Oil Co. of
Paralic to Deltaic environment.
Indonesia - Pertamina Sepinggan No. V--1
well be designated as the Hypstratotype Section
Age range
for the Gelingseh Formation.
Middle Miocene Tfl--2 (N9 - NI3) by
Hypostratotype Sectie ~
homotaxy.
Hypostratotype
GELINGSEH FORMATION* section well : Union Oil Co. of Indonesia
Sepinggan No. V - I (text-
Name Origin fig. 11).
Coordinates : Lat 1° 25' 45.54 S
The name Gelingseh was taken by Rutten [~ng I 160 54' 19.67 E
RTE : 31' (9m) KB
* B.B. Sidik Water Depth : 133' (40m)
154
Total Depth : 11974’ (3650m) Nannoplankton
Interval : 7,900’ (2408m) to 11,040’
(3365m). Sphenolithus moriformis, Cyclicargolitus
Thickness : 3,140’ (957m) floridanus.

Lithologic Description
Environment
The sequences are mainly sandy clay, clay,
and thin limestone beds. The general environment of this formation
79007(2408m) Top of the Gelingseh for- is Middle Neritic, with occasionally a trans-
mation. gressive phase bringing in Outer Neritic to
8000’(2438m) Clay/claystone, light gray, Bathyal sediments.
soft, occasionally firm,
non calcareous; with a Age range
little caal, black moderate
hard, shiny, brittle. Middle Miocene.
8400’(2560m) Sandstone, white-light
gray, very fine to fine
grained, moderate sorting,
subrounded, friable, occa-
sionally moderately hard; KLANDASAN TONGUE MEMBER*
with thin limestone,
brown, bioclastic, hard, to
very hard. Name Origin
8686’(2647m) Clay, gray to drown,
moderately hard, very The name Kiandasan was originally derived
slightly calcareous; Inter- from a small creek which flows in the eastern
bedded with thin layers of part of Balikpapan town. Muller (1922) gave
sandstone, friable, mode- this name to the limestone and marl sequence
rately hard, white gray, which can be found at the surface at Gn. Mar-
very fine to fine grained, koni, Balikpapan, and placed it in the upper
grading into siltstone with part of the then named ”Balikpapan Layers”.
carbonaceous material. Leupold and v.d. Vlerk (1931, p. 619) placed
10,620’ (3237m) Claystone, light gray to it in the ”Gelingseh or Upper Balikpapan
brown, buff, soft to slight- Beds”. The name Klandasan was used by
ly firm, slightly calcareous. Marshall and Schumann (1981, p. 285) for
11,040’ (3365m) Bottom of Gelingseh for- another unit, the Mentawir (ut supra p. 13),
mation. but this is preoccupied by Muller 1922, Rutten
1927, Mohler and ten Berge (1949) and L. Sa-
muel (1980). According to the Stratigraphic
Paleontology Code of Indonesia (Suyono 1975) the Klanda-
sari as used by Marshall and Schumann is a ju-
Globorotalia siakensis, Flosculinella bonra- nior synonym of the Mentawir.
ngensis, Globigerinoides cf. altiapertums,
Miogypsina sp, Lepidocyclina spp, Miogypsi-
noides sp.
’ Zones : N9 - N13. * LukiSamuel
155

Boundaries Paleontology

Miogypsina spp., Miogypsinoides spp.,


The Klandasan Tongue is a member of the Lepidocyclina rutteni, Flosculinella borneensis.
Gelingseh formation of the Balikpapan Group. Down dip : GIobobulimina sp. (pyritized),
At the type locality in Gn. Markoni, the Klan- Bolivina sp., Robulus inornatus.
dasan limestone overlies the Mentawir Formati- Zone : Tf2, N11 - N13.
on and underlies the Tanjung Batu Formation
of the Kampong Baru Group (textfig. 12). Environment
In the Offshore area, this member coincides
with the Bo seismic marker as defined by Total Onshore : Inner shelf, Reef Shoal carbonates;
Indonesie. Lithologically it changes into mark in the offshore, a Middle Neritic,
and shales, and can be distinguished electrically low oxygen environment.
as- well as lithologically from the overlying Age : Middle Miocene Tf2.
Sepinggan or Tanjung Batu Formation and the
underlying Gelingseh Formation.
KAMPONG BARU GROUP*
Distribution
Name Origin
The Kiandasan Member is well distributed
in the southern flank and eastern plunge of The KamPong Baru was referred to by
Klandasan Anticline, Balikpapan, East Kaliman- LeuPold and van der Vlerk in 1931 (P. 61913
tan. In the northern flank of the anticline, ho- from "Kampong Baru near Samarinda, Kutai
wever, only small patches of the limestone District, E.(Kalimantan). This village lies E. of
are exposed. Sanga-Sanga, not to be confounded with ano-
ther Kampong Baru only 3 Km N. of Balikpa-
pan (where the same beds are out-cropping)".
Type Section (P. Marks 1961, p. 61). The Kampong Baru
Group has two formations, the Tanjung Batu
and the Sepinggan Formations.
Gunung Markoni is designated as the Type
Section (Muller 1922). It is a hillside about 700
m north of Jalan Markoni at KM 5, southeast of
'Balikpapan Town, East Kalimantan (textfig. TANJ ~ BATU G FORMATION**
12). Along the hill at Gn. Markoni, a 35m
thick section of limestone (Sudarjanto 1981)
and marls belonging to the Klandasan Member
Name Origin
is quarried, so the limestone is well exposed,
texfig. 12.
The proposed name of this formation was
taken from Tanjung Batu, a small Peninsula
located approximately 4 Km N 338' E of ITCI
Lithological description Jetty, Balikpapan, East Kalimantan.

Limestone, gray hard, massive, fossiliferous, * E. Marks


intercalated with marls. ** T. Ismoyowati
156

Boundaries Lithologic description

The Tanjung Batu Formation is a unit of the The type sections of the Tanjung Batu For-
Kampong Baru Group which overlies the Klan- mation consist of rather different lithologies.
dasan Tongue Member of the Balikpapan Gro- Lithologically Section I consists of interbedded
up, represented by the Bo seismic marker of shales, clays, siltstones, sands and coals. The
Total Indonesie. It underlies the Sepinggan sandstones are white to yellowish white in co-
Formation, and in some areas where the latter lor, composed mainly of frne to medium quartz
is removed, the Handil Dua and the Attaka grains, moderate to well sorted, mostly friable
Formations of the Mahakam Group overlie it. and loose. The sandstones have a channel type
Towards the east, the Tanjung Batu Formation geometry and become more shaly toward
makes an inter-fingering contact with the lower the margin of the channel. Three cycles of del-
part of the Sepinggan Formation. taic depositional sequences can be observed
along this exposure. Each cycle is distinguished
by the existence of coal seams. They are mostly
Distribution black, lignitic, occasionally friable. Alternation
of shales and siltstones can be observed in the
The Tanjung Batu Formation can be noted small gully, showing current ripples and lamina-
onshore within the bounds of the Kampong tions.
Baru Group (textfig. 6). Offshore it is found in In the lower part of this sequence a thin la-
wells from Kerindingan Field in the northern yer of concretions of clayironstone, dark
part of Kutai Basin to the Total Maruat No. 1 brown, hard, occurs above the sandy clay
well in the south. layers.
In Section 11, the sequence which is in latera-
lly the same position as Section l, lithologically
consists of clays, shales and coals. The clays
Type Section
are carbonaceous, gray, soft and plastic. The
shales occur in thin to thick beds, dark gray,
Type section : Tanjung Batu surface sec-
soft and carbonaceous. Thin layers ofsandy clay
tion (textfig. 13).
are noted in the lower part of the sequence.
Thickness :A 15m (Section I) and +_ In the upper part, the coal beds occur in very
57m (Section 11). thick sequences. Above these thick coal beds,
a hundred foot section is covered by soil, and
then in the very upper part laminated sandstone
Hypostratotype Section beds occur with intercalated clays and shales.
Hypostratotype
Section Well : Union Oil Sepinggan S- -1
Paleontology
(textfig. 14).
Coordinates : Lat 01’ 25’ 47.418” S Trochanzmina arenosa; Textularia aggluti-
Long 116’ 56’ 0.117”E nans.
RT elevation : 55’ (17m) Zone : possibly N13 - - N15 equivalent, by
Water Depth’ : 149’ (46m). homotaxy.
Total Depth : 12500’ (381 l m )
Interval : 7520’ to 11308’ (2293m Environment
to 3448m)
Thickness : 3788’ (1 155m) This formation is almost barren of fauna,
157

only few arenaceous forams being noted. The Type Section


occurrence of the coal beds suggest paralic-
deltaic environment, and also the fining upward Type well : Union Oil Co. of Indone-
of sand grain-size of the sand layers is typical sia -Pertamha Sepinggan
of a channel deposit. S- 1, Textfig. 15.
Coordinates : Lat 01’ 25’ 47.418” S
Long. 116’ 56’ 00.71 1” E
RTE : 55’ (17m)
Middle Miocene to Pliocene, Tf3-Th equiva- Water Depth : 149’ (46m)
lent. Total Depth : 12500’ (381 lm)
lnterval : 1010’ (308m) to 7520’
SEPINGGAN FORMATION* (2292m)
Thickness : 6510’(1984m)
Narne Origin
Lithologic description
The Sepinggan Formation name is taken
from the Sepinggan Field and from the type 1010’ - 5000’
Clays, medium to dark gray,
section, Union Oil Co. of Indonesia Sepinggan soft, sticky, with thin sands,
(308m -1 524m)
S-I. The name $Sepinggan’isderived from Su- loose, quartzose, very fine
ngai Sepinggan, township of Balikpapan, East to fine, subangular to
Kalimantan. subrounded, clear, some
thick lignite beds at 1700’.
Boundaries 5000’ - 6200’ limestones, white, hard,
(1 524m-1890m) crystalline to chalky.
The upper boundary is placed at the top of 6200’-6500’ Sands, loose, quartzose, f i e
shallow marine shales, sands and carbonates, (1890m- 198 Im) grained, subrounded, clear,
just under a lowering of sea level that in some occasional calcareous ce-
areas left a non-conformable surface above menting, thin limestone
which is the Mahakam Group Handil Dua and beds as above, and clays as
Attaka Formations. The lower boundary is above.
marked by a seismic reflector, the flu marker, 6500’-7520’ Limestones as above, with
as defined by Total Indonesie at the Klandasan (1981m-2292m) siltstones, medium brown,
Tongue Member of the Gelingseh Formation. medium gray, soft t o firm,
The lower Sepinggan Formation lies to the east and sands at base of section,
of the deltaic Tanjung Batu Formation, but the loose, fine to medium grai-
upper part of the Sepinggan overlies the Tan- ned, subrounded, clear,
jung Batu offshore, and onshore where not occasional calcareous ce-
erosionally removed. menting.

Distribution 7520’ (2292m) Base of Sepinggan Formati-


on.
The Sepinggan Formation runs from the
south to the north of the Kutai Basin area Paleontology
offshore, and onshore where not erosionally
removed. 1010’ (308m) Late Pliocene Anzrnunia
ikebei (Billman and Karta-
* Sujatmiko and E. Marks adiputra 1974,p.305).
I58
1190’ (363m) Early Pliocene Asanoina sp Please note that this formation does not corres-
(idem) pond to the pay zones of Handil field. Pays are
1790’ (546m) Late Miocene Pseudorofalia in the Kampong Barn and Balikpapan Groups.
catifliformis (idem).
5000’ ( I 524m) Late Miocene Ammonia
yabei (idem). Boundaries
7520’ (2292m) Base of Sepinggan Formati-
on. The upper limit is the present day sea floor
or land surface where it is exposed. The lower
Zones : N13 - N21 boundary is a contact, in places unconformable,
with the underlying Kainpong Baru Group
Environments Sepinggan Formation or Tanjung Batu
Formation. This contact can be seen in seismic
1010’ (308m) Inner to Middle Neritic, sections as a fair marker.
Reef-Reef Shoal in part.
7520’ (2292m) Base of Sepinggan Formati- Distribution
on.
The western side of the Straits of Makdssar,
Age forming the offshore eastern Kutai Basin, is
covered with the Attaka Formation.
Middle Miocene Tf3, N13 equivalent, to late
Pliocene Th, N21 equivalent. Type Section

Type well : Union Oit Co. of Indonesia


MAHAKAM GROUP* - lnpex - Pertamina Atta-
ka 1A (textfig. 16).
Name Origin Coordinates : La1 0’ 10’ 55.053” S;
L,ong. 117’ 38’ 14.665” E
The name is derived from the Mahakam UTE : 32’(10m)
River, Kutai District, Kalimantan, forming the Water Depth : 175’ (53m)
latest deposystem and contributing its sedi- Total Depth : I 1660’ (3554m)
ments t o this Group. The Mahakam Group Interval : 216’ (seafloor) to 1350’
has two formations, the Handil Dua and the (66m - 41 I m)
Attaka formations. Thickness : 1 134’ (346m)

ATTAKA FORMATION* Lithologic Description

2 16’-700’ Clays, light greenish gray to


Name Origin (66m - 213m) medium gray, plastic, sligh-
tly calcareous; shell frag-
The formation name, Attaka, is taken from ments, gastropods, pelecy-
the Attaka field and the Union-lnpex-Pertamina pods; trace glauconite. Lig-
Attaka 1 A well, where it is normally found. nitic interbeds.
This name is derived from the Japanese Atsuta- 700’-900’ Sand, white, pale yellow,
ka, meaning Bonanza (Seventy Six, 1973).
(21 3m - 274m) clear, angular t o subroun-
ded, medium to coarse, in
* E.Marks part very coarse t o pebbly.
I59
900’- 1000’ Claystone, light olive gray, HANDIL DUA FORMATION *
(274111 - 305m) slightly plastic, slightly cal-
careous. Name Origin
1000’- 1350’ Bioclastics, coralgal, mollus-
(305m---41lrn) can shells, foraminifera;thin The name Handil Dua was taken from
interbeds, Lignite. Handil Dua village, some 80 Km NE of Balik-
1350’ (411m) Base of Attaka Formation papan and 37km SSE of Samarinda (textfig;
17). This village, which is located in the Maha-
Paleontology kam Delta, has been chosen by Total Indonesie
as its operational base for the Mahakam Delta.
Sea floor to 389m (1 19m) No samples. Please note that this formation does not
389’ to 1350’ Cdcarih zone (Billman and correspond to the pay zones of Handil field.
(1 19m - 41 lm) Kartaadiputra 1974 p. 305). Pays are in the Kampong Baru and Balikpapan
Calcarina calcar, Calcarina Groups.
spengleri, Asterorotalia pul-
chella, Pseudorotalia schme- Boundaries
teriana, Pseudorotalia conoi-
des, Operculina complrmata, The Handil Dua Formation, which are mo-
Operculina ammonoides, dern marine deltaic sediments formed during
Common Pelagics. the last phase of the Holocene Transgression,
900’-1 350’ Globoquadrma humerosa overlies unconfomably the Pliocene
(274m-4 11m) N16-bN22 found in this sediments of the Tanjung Batu Formation
interval. (textfig. 4).
Distribution
Nannoplankton
As a Recent sediment, the Handil Dua For-
910’ (277m) Coccolithus domnicokfes mation is developing in a prograding Mahak
“17 - “19 (N21-N22) Delta, comprising approximately 1300 km
9
Zones : N22-N23.
of predominantly marshy and swampy subaerial
delta plain, 1000 km2 of delta front and 2700
Environment km2 of prodelta accumulations (Allen et al,
1979), textfig. 18.
Sea floor 216‘ (66m) Middle Neritic Type Sections
Sea floor -389’ No samples
(66m - 119m) In the Mahakam Delta borings S5 and S7
389’ - 630’ Outer Neritic are among a number of shallow (15 to SOm)
(1 19m - 192m)
cored borings which have been chosen as co-ty-
630’ - 900’ Shallow Marine - Restricted pe sections (textfigs. 1 7 and 18). In addition,
(192m - 274m) a large number of surface sediment samples
900’ - 1350’ Neritic, Open Marine were taken from many parts of the Mahakam
(274m - 41 lm) Delta, situated between 0’ 21’ and l o lo’
South Latitude, and 1170 15’ and 117’ 40’
East Longitude.

Pleistocene to Recent N22 - N23. * Sujatmiko


160
Lithological description bulu Group divided into the Maruat Formation
and the Pulau Balang Formation; The Middle
The Handil Dua Formation is composed Miocene Balikpapan Group divided into the
of sand, clay, and mud. These sediments are Mentawir Formation, the Gelingseh Formation,
found either in delta plain, delta front or and the Klandasan Tongue Member of the Ge-
prodelta environments. lingseh; the Middle Miocene to Late Pliocene
Kampong Baru Group consisting of the Tanjung
Paleontology Batu and the Sepinggan Formation, and the Ple-
istocene to Recent Mahakam Group divided
The following foraminiferal assemblages into the Attaka and the Handil Dua Formati-
were examined from sea bottom samples taken ons.
by a Berthois hand dredge. The samples repre-
sent approximately the upper lOcm of sedi-
REFERENCES
ments.

Hyposaline fauna : ADAMS, C.G., 1970. A reconsideration of the


East Indian letter classification of the Ter-
Hapbphragmodes spp., Trochammina spp.,
tiary. Wl. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) Geol.,
Palmerinella spp.
v.19, no. 3, p. 85-137,3 textfigs,
AGUNG, H., 1981. Stratigrafi daerah Pulau
Tidal Marine fauna:
Balang, Teluk Balikpapan, Kalimantan Ti-
’Fseudoeponides nakanoensis, A s terorota-

mur. Unpub. Honors paper. Cadjah Mada
lia trispinosa, EMhidium koeboeensis
Univ., Fak. Tek. Jur. Tek. Geol., Yogya-
karta.
Marginal Marine fauna :
ALLEN, C.P. LAURIER, D. & THOWENIN,
Aeudorotalia spp., Elphidium spp.
J., 1979. Etude se’dimentologique du delta
dc la Mahakam. Notes et Memoirs, No. 15,
Shallow Marine fauna:
Compagnie Francaise des Petroles, Paris,
Operculina spp.
156, p., 2 p l .
BILLMAN, H. G. & KARXAADIPUTRA, L.
Environment W., 1974. Late Tertiary biostratigraphic
zonation, Kutai Basin, Offshore, East Kali-
Mixed Fluvial - Tidal Marine Deltaic System mantan, Indonesia. Proc. Ind. Petr. Assn.
3d Ann. Conv., p. 301-310.
BLOW, W.H., 1968. Late Middle Eocene to
Age Recent planktonic foraminiferal biostrati-
Post - Holocene transgression (SO00 - 7000 graphy. Eroc. 1st Internat. Conf. Plankt.
years b.p.) (Allen et al, 1979). Microfossils, p. 199-421.
BOLLI, H. M., 1966. Zonation of Cretaceous
to Pliocene marine sediments based on
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS planktonic foraminifera. Bol. Informativo
Assoc. Venezolana Geol. Min. Petr. v. 9,
In summary we have recommended the no. 1,32 p.
adoption of the following lithostratigraphic GLAESSNER, M. F,, 1943. Problems of strati-
units for use in the Kutai Basin: In the late graphic correlation in the Indo-Pacific
Oligocene to Early Miocene, the ‘Pamaluan Region. Proc. Roy. SOC. Victoria, v. 55
formation; The Early to Middle Miocene Be- (N.S.) pt. 1, p. 41 -80.
161

HAAK, R. & POSTUMA, J. A, 1975. The rela- MULLER, F. T., 1922. Berichte uber die geo-
tion between the tropical planktonic logische Untersuchung der Klandasan Anti-
foraminiferal zonation and the Tertiary Minale. B.P.M. Report, unpubl.
Far East Letter Classification. Geol. en RUTTEN, L. M. R., 1914. Studien uber Fora-
Mijnb. v. 54,no. 314, p. 195-198. miniferen aus Ost-Asien (Fortsetzung).
INDONESIAN PETR, ASSN., 1974. ~ d k - S-1. Geol. Reichs-Mus. Netherlands.
papan-Tandjung Field Trip Guidebook, Ser. 1, v. 9 (1911 - 1914), no. 4, p. 281-
30-., 5 pl. 324.
LEU~OLD,w. & VAN DER v ~ m1. ,M., SAMUEL, L., 1980. Pengaruh Kegiatan Permi-
1931. The Tertiary. In Festbundel K. Mar- nyakan Terhadap Geologi Tatalingkungan
tin, Leidsche Geol. Meded., v.5, p t . 3 , ~ . Kota Balikpapan. Jour. Ikatan Ahli Geolo-
611-650. gy, Indonesia, June, 1980, 6 fgs.
MARKS, P., 1961A. Stratigraphic Lexicon of ----- & MUCHSIN, S., 1975. Stratigraphy
Indonesia, Rep. Indonesia Kement. Perekon. and sedimentation in the Kutai Basin, Kdi-
Pusat Djawat. Geol. Bandung, Publ. Keilm. Ind- Petr. 4th An.
No. 31, Ser. Geol., 233 p- 6 pls. Conv. p. 27-39.
1961B. ~ dstratigraphic
~ , hxicon SEVENTY SIX, 1973. Attaka means bonanza.
of Indonesia. Rep. Indonesia Kement. Seventy six, March, p- 14-
perekon. pusat DjaWat. ~ ~ Bandung. ~ 1 SUDARJANTO,
. 198 1. Stratigrafi batubara dan
h b l . K e h . no. 31 A, Ser. Geol. 135 p., 1 batugamping daerah Balkpapan Timur* un-
pub. Honors paper, Gadjah Mada Univ.,
Pi-
MARSHALL, A. J. & SCHUMANN, H. O., Fak. Tek. Jur, Tek. Geol., Yogyakarta.
198 1. Stratigraphy and Hydroarbon poten- SUYONO MARTODJOJO, 1975- Stratigraphic
ti4 of the Beds in the Kutei Ba- Code Of Indonesia. lkatafl Ahli Geologi
sin, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Proc. Ind. Indonesia, l9 P.
Petr. h s n - 10th Ann. Conv. p. 285 - 295. UMBGROVE, J.H. F., 1927- Neogene formi-
MOHLER, W. A*, 1943, Palaeontology and niferen van de Soengai Beboeloe, Pasir,
Stratigraphy of the ti^^ of SJ. B ~ ~ ~
Zuidoost-Borneo. ~ Wetensch.
~ . Meded. Dienst.
Unpubl. Rep't., Chishitsuchosajo. Bandung, Mijnb- Ned. Indie-v.5, Pa 28-41-
12 p, 4 PIS. ., 1929. Tertiary sea connections
MOHLER, W. A. &TEN BERCE, J.R.J., 1949. between Europe and the Indo-Pacific area.
Palaeontologisch onderzoek Mentawir en Proc. 4th Pacif. Sci. Congr. Jawa (reprint
standardsectie Klandasan. Unpubl. Rep't, p. 1-14).
B. P. M. Report, no. 10415,20 p. VAN BEMMELEN, KW., 1949. Geology of
MUGNIOT, J. F., 1981. Seismic facies inter- Indonesia, p. 126-142, &art p. 139.
pretation, a contribution to the stratigraphi- VAN DER VLERK, I.M. & UMBGROVE, J.H.
cal framework of the Mahakam Delta, F., 1927. Tertiare gids foraminiferen van
Workshop on Strat. Nomencl. in East Kutai Nederlandsche Oost-Indie. Wetensch. Me-
Basin, Kalimantan, 8 p., 8 fgs. ded., vol. 6,35 p.
162

MAJOR STRUCTURAL
imj Pre-Tertiary Basement ELEMENTS
.......... 1 0 0 0 F t . Bathymetric OF KALIMANTAN
Contour

Km. Figure 1
163

DIAGRAMMATIC CROSS-SECTION A --A'

KUTAI BASIN

FIGURE

h 1 f I

0 SANDSTONE 0 SHALE

LIMESTONE BASEMENT
164

DIAGRAMMATIC STRATIGRAPHIC SUCCESSION


SOUTH EAST KUTAl BASIN
EAST KALIMANTAN INDONESIA -
FIGURE 3

AGE

PLEIST
TO
RECENT

"CIOCENE

LATE
MIOCENE
GROUP -
.-........... .. .. .. .... ... ...

MIDDLE
MIOCENE
? Tft
x vouMcn

.......

MIODLE
MIOCENE

EARLY
MIOCENE
Te 5

N4
EARLY
MIOCENE

LATE
3LIGOCENI

LEGEND 0:,"n", B liqnite

silts @ limestone
shale -a- Seismic Marker
165

.
LITHO -AND BIO - STRATIGRAPHY
SOUTH EAST KUTAI BASIN
EAST KALIMANTAN INDONESIA -
FIGURE 4
L

I . BENTHONIC I LlTHO UNIT PROPOSED

I QUATERNAR)

-
N 23/22 Q
LOCALZONES

CALCARINA
I

I
I
GROUP

MAHAKAM
GROUP
FORMATIONS / MERS

LATE N 21 \MMONIA IKCEEI


W
z N 20
W
V Th
I! :ARL' N 19 ASANOINA
-I
a
- N 18 ~

S CATILLIFORMIS
N 17

W
2
w
LATE

WDDL
--
N 16

N 15

N 14

N 13

N 12

N II
~
Tg

Tf 3

Tf2
AMMONIA YABEIl

FM z
TANJUNG B A T U

0
-
0

2 -
MARUAT PULAUBALANG

EARL' Te 5

r;
PAMALUAN
LATE FM
OLIGOCENE
166
167

I FIG. 6 DISTRIBUTION OF GROUPS

MAHAKAM GROUP

KAYPUNG BARU BROUP

n BALMPAPAM O R O ~ P
168

TYPE SECTION
PRlNGTALl AND JAMBU SURFACE SECTIONS
PAMALUAN FORMATION
FIGURE 7
HICKNESS g ENVIRONMENT
m 0 z
I-
AGE a & - 0' DESCRIPTIONS
E
W L
YL c g z =
I -I c

-
ANG

Mudstone with conchoidal fractures


OOO. or bedded shales, often with carbonaceous
leaf remains.

Sandstone and coal beds are also found.


Thin limestone occurs near the top o f
the formation.

iooo

Groy to block shales with no visible


plant fragments.
Interbedded with medium groined sandstone
up to ( 5 m thick

TUYU FORMATION

I
TYPE SECTION
B A L A N G I S L A N D SURFACE S E C T I O N
P U L A U BALANG FORMATION
FIGURE
THICKNESS . ENVIR(
v) I - =
r O
S L !I DESCRIPTIONS W
5 -
t

L i w -1 6
Z
- L
Q
I ' L o m
" C

Light gray t o white, friable t o -


hard, occosionally calcareous,
f l n e t o coarse grained, q u a r t z -
ose sondstones.
The sandstones occur i n thin
t o thick beds with cross bedding
and worm burrows. Interbedded
with the sandstones ore thin t o
moderately thick beds of dark gray,
occasional;y carbonaceous, calca -
reous, siltstones and claystones.
In the upper part of the column
ore 1.2 - 2. 2 m., white t o tan,
massive, fossiliferous limestones.
170

TYPE
SECTION
TOTAL INDONESIE - INPEX - PERTAMINA MARUAT No.1
MARUAT FORMATION

z 2
1 1
0 DEPTH E N V l RONMENT
e
fr
AGE F EINE T -
t- D E S C R I P T I0 N S -ikI;~ $
B (METERS)
O W
"2 Ef 4 !$(
MENT, IIR F M

z
-
0
I-
a
z UPPER
U LIMESTONE
0
LL

I-
%
U
! PUL4U BALANG
FY

a
z LOWER
LIMESTONE

-
PULA1 BALANG FM
171

HYPOSTRATOTYPE SECTION
BALIKPAPAN SURFACE SECTION
MENTAW IR F 0 R M A TlON
FIGURE 10
E l ITHICKNESS II ENVIRONMENT
4
0 DESCRIPTIONS
z
I
t
- 3

(LANDASAN TONGUE MBR.


---
--_-
----
..........
.................
500 -- 1650 ------eoe
--- ---
-.
.........
........
-
........
---
........
........
Sandrtones, quortzore, white, l i h t gray
__.___
......... "' to brownish, soft to friable, fine to
-
5 400 --I320 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..
........
-.......~ . .. ._.. . coarse grained.
3
0 -.. .....-........-. - B o a
............... The sandstones occur in thin to very
W .
ZOO -- too0 .. .-.. . .. .. ... - a 0 6

!2 f.-.:...
? -.........
.......
cross bedding
z .........-.

z
I
a,
200 - - 6 6 0

100 --330
1.........
.........
.........
-.
....-

---
. .......-

---leo,
........
.

........-
........
........
.......
.......
.........
........
.........
.........
.......
. ...
.. .. ..
. .....
.........
'003

802
lnterbadded with the sandstones ore

thin to medium lignite layers, clays

and siltstoner in t h e upper part.

...............
- TH .WE% UNKNOWI
P U L A U B A L A N G FM.
172

HYPOSTRATOTYPE SECTION
UNION - PERTAMINA SEPINGGAN V -1
G EL I N G S E H FOR MATI 0 N
FIGURE I 1
DEPTH $ ENVIRONMENT
f,
$ % u s
5
U AGE
IN
FEET
0
2
0ESCRIPTIONS Ec zE k g
E (METERS) f g ; z mY 4

LANDASAN TONGUE MBR 1 I


L

Clay .claystone,liqht pray ,soft .occasionally firm


non coRareous,with l i l t l e coal, black moderate
hard, brittle, shiny.
Sandstones,while light gray,very fine to fine
grained ,mod sorting rubrounded,friable.
occortonatly mod hard with thin limestone
brown, bioclostic.hord

rr)
c

z
I Clay .pray to brown, moderate hard, ver y
(3, slightly c o k a r e o u f
z lnlerbedded with thm layers sandstone, whlte-
9ray.very fine to fine proined.prading to
siltstone with carboniferous moteriol

-
Cloyrlone, light pray brown. b u f f , soft to
slightly firm,rlightly calcareaus.
Interbedded wtlh l h i n layers sendstone,
KLANDASAN TONGUE MBR
c
z
MIDDLE MIOCENE :1
C
Tf - 2 n
T
- N
a ::
1
1 -
U
P s

0
I I
m
n
- -4-
0
174

I-! -
-

m
w =

lN3lVAlIIO3 91 - E41
3 ~ 3 3 0 1m ~a a i w

NOllVWMOj n1V9 SNIIPNVI'


175

HY POSTRATOTYPE SECTION
UNION - PERTAMINA SEPINGGAN S - 1
TANJUNG BATU FORMATION

'
E
2
AGE F IENE T
(METERS)
0
2
5
DESCRIPTIONS

SEPlNGGAl

z
-
0
I-
4
a w
=
O Z
LL
0
0
-
= r
I-
4
co
W
I-
4
c3
z - 1
=>
7
z
a
I-

KLANDASAN TON
176

TYPE SECTION
UNION-PERTAMINA SEPINGGAN S - I
SEPINGGAN F O R M A T I O N

Cloys medium to dark p r a y , s o t l , ~ l t c h y;

with thin sands,loose,quarliose.~~ryfine

lo fine qratnad.subonpulor lo subrouded,

clear.lOme thin l i p n i l 0 beds 0 1 1700'

L i m e s l o n e s , w h i l e . hord.cryrlolline l o chnlky
i 57

TYPE SECTION
I UNION INPEX - - PERTAMINA ATTAKA IA
A T T A K A FORMATION
FlGUl IE 16
z DEPTH E N VIRONMENT
0
I-
a
I AGE IN
FEET
ss 0 E S C RIP T I 0 N S
cc
2 (METERS) C
2

Colcorina

nite, lignitic interbeds.


Sond,white, pole yellow, cleor angular to subroundrd,
medium to coarsetin port very coarse to pebbly.

Bioclostics ,corolgal ,molluscon shells,forominifera ,


thin interbeds lignite.

WAKA FIELD

n
178

T Y P E SECTION
CORE S-5/B1
HANDIL DUA F O R M A T I O N

DEPTH ENVIRONMENT

AGE 3 s -1

I-
y :
e
c1
-
0ESCRIPTIONS w
J
+ c
8 :+’ s
0
a
-
* c ’

4ND SURFACE

c
z
W
0
W
a
I
W
z
lLl

SE NOT

2!!izLL
BALlKPAPAW
179

TYPE SECTION
CORE S-7
HANDIL DUA FORMATION
FIGURE 18

L A N D SURFACE
I---+ , clays. dark \
i.
Sands, clayey gray plant remains

Sands, f i n e grained, g r a y , clayey.

I - * C l a y s , g r a y , lenlicular
z
W Clays,gray,with lenses o f sand and silt5
0
W
a
I
Sands, very fine . c l a y e y , w i t h lenses Of silty clays
W
z
w
u
0
-I
0 Clays, g r a y , with horizontal laminations,
I Plant remains, abundant bioturbations
and shell fragments
~~ .. . .. . . . . .

..-.. - -
.. . ..
-----
8ASE NOT R