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• Renewable sources of energy are

STEAM POWER PLANT continuously produced in nature, and

they will not get exhausted eventually in
• Power is the basic necessity for the future.
economic development of a country. • Examples: Hydel energy, solar energy,
• Development of heavy or large scale wind energy, tidal energy, geo-thermal
industries as well as medium scale and energy and biomass.
small scale industries, agriculture, • All the renewable energy sources have
transportation, etc., depend on electric their common origin in sun.
power generation • Non-renewable sources of energy will get
• It is therefore necessary to utilise the exhausted eventually in future.
present resources of energy with utmost • Examples: Energy from fossil fuels.
care and with maximum efficiency.
• It is the duty of engineers and scientists
to find ways and means to supply the Non-renewable sources of energy
required power at the cheapest rate.
• At the present rate of consumption,
unless new reserves are found, the
Conventional and Non-conventional sources of existing reserves of coal and oil will last
energy for another 150 and years respectively.
Commercial and Non-commercial energy
• The basic energy sources for generating sources
electric power are thermal, hydel, and
nuclear. • Energy sources like, coal, oil, gas, uranium
• These sources are known as and hydel power are known as
"conventional sources of energy", as commercial energy sources, because they
these sources are used for the last two are directly used to produce electricity.
hundred years for power generation. • Energy sources like, wood, dung, waste
• In the case of hydro-power, generation of etc. are known as non-commercial energy
power is dependent at the mercy of the sources. These are mainly used as fuel for
nature. cooking and are also used in cottage
• The other two resources, viz., thermal industries (e.g., smithy).
and nuclear are exhaustible. • In sugar mills also non-commercial energy
sources are utilised.
Renewable and Non-renewable sources of
energy The energy sources available can also be classified
into three major types based on the yield of the
• Renewable sources of energy is neither
net energy. They are:
consumed nor converted into something
else. Examples: hydel, solar, wind, tidal, • Primary energy sources.
geo-thermal. • Secondary energy sources.
• On the other hand, non-renewable • Supplementary energy sources.
sources of energy are exhaustible.
Examples: fossil fuels (coal, petroleum
products), natural gas, nuclear fuel. Primary energy sources

• The energy source which provides a net

CLASSIFICATION OF ENERGY SOURCES supply of energy is called primary energy
• The various energy sources are grouped • Examples: coal, natural gas, uranium, oil
under two main types. etc. The energy to be expended to obtain
• They are: Renewable energy sources and these fuels is very much less than the
non-renewable energy sources. energy that can be obtained from them
by combustion or nuclear reaction.
Renewable sources of energy
Secondary energy sources
• From the secondary energy sources, the • This includes coal delivery, preparation,
yield of energy is less than the input. coal handling, boiler furnace, ash
• Examples: solar energy, wind energy, tidal handling and ash storage.
energy, water energy, etc. • The coal from coal mines is delivered by
ships, rail or by trucks to the power
Supplementary energy sources • This coal is sized by crushers, breakers
• If the net energy yield provided by the
• The sized coal is then stored in coal
energy source is zero, it is called
storage (stock yard).
supplementary energy source. Example:
• From the stock yard, the coal is
thermal insulation.
transferred to the boiler furnace by
means of conveyors, elevators etc.
LAYOUT OF STEAM POWER PLANT • The coal is burnt in the boiler furnace and
ash is formed by burning of coal.
• Steam is an important medium for • Ash coming out of the furnace will be too
producing mechanical energy. hot, dusty and accompanied by some
• Steam is used to drive steam engines and poisonous gases.
steam turbines. • The ash is transferred to ash storage.
Usually, the ash is quenched to reduced
temperature, corrosion and dust content.
Steam has the following advantages. • There are different methods employed
for the disposal of ash.
1. Steam can be raised quickly from water • They are hydraulic system, water jetting,
which is available in plenty. ash sluice ways, pneumatic system etc.
2. It does not react much with materials of • In large power plants hydraulic system is
the equipment used in power plants. used.
3. It is stable at temperatures required in • In this system, ash falls from the furnace
the plant. grate into high velocity water stream.
• It is then carried to the slumps.
Equipment of a Steam Power Plant

A steam power plant must have the following


1. A furnace for burning the fuel.

2. A steam generator or boiler for steam
3. A power unit like an engine or turbine to
convert heat energy into mechanical
4. A generator to convert mechanical energy
into electrical energy.
5. Piping system to carry steam and water.

The working of a steam power plant can be

explained in four circuits.
Water and Steam circuit
1. Fuel (coal) and ash circuit.
2. Air and flue gas circuit. • It consists of feed pump, economiser,
3. Feed water and steam flow circuit. boiler drum, superheater, turbine
4. Cooling water flow circuit. condenser etc.
• Feed water is pumped to the economiser
from the hot well.
Coal and Ash circuit • This water is preheated by the flue gases
in the economiser.
• This preheated water is then supplied to • This pre-heated air is supplied to the
the boiler drum. furnace to lid the combustion of fuel.
• Heat is transferred to the water by the • Due to combustion of fuel, hot gases (flue
burning of coal. gases) are formed.
• Due to this, water is converted into

• The flue gases from the furnace pass over

boiler tubes and superheater tubes.
• (In
• XJiler,wet steam is generated and in
• The steam raised in boiler is passed
superheater the wet steam is
through a super heater.
superheated by the flue ;ashes.)
• It is superheated by the flue gases.
• Then the flue gases pass through
• The superheated steam is then expanded
economiser to heat the feed water.
in a turbine to do work.
• After that, it passes through the air pre-
• The turbine drives a generator to produce
heater to pre-heat the incoming air.
electric power.
• It is then passed through a dust catching
• The expanded (exhaust) steam is then
device (dust collector).
passed through the condenser.
• Finally, it is exhausted to the atmosphere
• In the condenser, the steam is condensed
through chimney.
into water and recirculated.
• A line diagram of air and flue gas circuit is
• A line diagram of water and steam circuit
shown separately in figure 104.
is shown separately in figure 1.3.

Cooling water circuit

• This circuit includes a pump, condenser,

cooling tower etc.
• The exhaust steam from the turbine is
condensed in a condenser.
• In the condenser, cold water is circulated
to condense the steam into water.
• The steam is condensed by losing its
latent heat to the circulating cold water.

Air and Flue gas circuit

• It consists of forced draught fan, air pre-

heater, boiler furnace, superheaterer,
economiser, dust collector, induced • Thus the circulating water is heated. This
draught fan, chimney etc. hot water is then taken to a cooling
• Air is taken from the atmosphere. tower.
• The action of a forced draught fan. • In cooling tower, the water is sprayed in
• It is passed through an air pre-heater. the form of droplets through nozzles.
• The air is preheated by the flue gases in
the pre-heater.
• The atmospheric air enters the cooling Fuel transportation, handling and
tower from the openings provided at the storage charges are more.
bottom of the tower. FUEL HANDLING SYSTEM
• This air removes heat from water. Cooled
water is collected in a pond (known as • Coal delivery equipment is one of the
cooling pond). major components of plant cost.
• This cold water is again circulated through • The various involved in coal handling are
the pump, condenser and cooling tower. as follows:
• Thus the cycle is repeated again and
again. Some amount of water may be lost
during the circulation due to vaporisation
• Hence, make up water is added to the
pond by means of a pump. This water is
obtained from a river or lake.
• A line diagram of cooling water circuit is
shown in figure 1.5 separately.

Merits (Advantages) of a Thermal Power Plant

1. The unit capacity of a thermal power

plant is more. The cost of unit
decreases with the increase in unit
2. Life of the plant is more (25-30 years)
as compared to diesel plant (2-5
3. Repair and maintenance cost is low
when compared with diesel plant.
4. Initial cost of the plant is less than
nuclear plants.
5. Suitable for varying load conditions.
6. No harmful radioactive wastes are i) Coal delivery
produced as in the case of nuclear
plant. • The coal from supply points is delivered
7. Unskilled operators can operate the by ships or boats to power stations
plant. situated near to sea or river whereas coal
8. The power generation does not is supplied by rail or trucks to the power
depend on water storage. stations which are situated away from sea
9. There are no transmission losses or river.
since they are located near load • The transportation of coal by trucks is
centres. used if railway facilities are not available.
ii) Unloading

De-merits (Disadvantages) of thermal power • The type of equipment to be used for

plants unloading the coal received at the
postation depends on how coal is
1. Thermal plants are Jess efficient than received at the power station.
diesel plants. • If coal is delivered trucks, there is no need
2. Starting up the plant and bringing of unloading device as the trucks may
into service takes more time. dump the coal to the outdoor storage.
3. Cooling water required is more. Coal is easily handled if the lift trucks with
4. Space required is more. scoop are used.
5. Storage required for the fuel is more. • In case the coal is brought by railway
6. Ash handling is a big problem. wagons, ships or boats, the unloading
7. Not economical in areas which are may be done by car shakes, rotary car
remote from coal fields.
dumpers, cranes, grab buckets and coal Advantages of belt conveyor
• Rotary car dumpers although costly are 1. Its operation is smooth and clean.
quite efficient for unloading closed 2. It requires less power as compared to
wagons. other types of systems.
iii) Preparation 3. Large quantities of coal can be discharged
quickly and continuously.
• When the coal delivered is in the form of 4. Material can be transported on moderate
big lumps and it is not of proper size, the inclines.
preparation (sizing) of coal can be
achieved by crushers, breakers, sizers,
driers and magnetic separators. Screw conveyor
iv) Transfer
• It consists of an endless helicoids screw
• After preparation coal is transferred to fitted to a shaft (shown in figure).
the dead storage by means of the • The screw while rotating in a trough
following ~'SteI11S: transfers the coal from feeding end to the
discharge end.

Belt conveyor

• Figure 2.2 shows a belt conveyor.

• It consists of an endless belt moving over
a pair of end drums (rollers).
• At some distance a supporting roller is This system is suitable, where coal is to be
provided at the centre. transferred over shorter distance and space
• The belt is made up of rubber or canvas. limitations exist.
• Belt conveyor is suitable for the transfer The initial cost of the consumption is high and
of coal over long distances. there is considerable wear of screw.
• It is used in medium and large power Rotation of screw varies between 75-125 r.p.m.
Bucket elevator
• The initial cost of the system is not high
• It consists of buckets fixed to a chain ( as
and power consumption is also low.
shown figure).
• The chain moves over two wheels.
• The coal is carried by the buckets from
bottom and discharged at the top.

• The inclination at which coal can be

successfully elevated by belt conveyor is
about 200
• Average speed preferred than other
Grab bucket elevator • The bunker, fires can occur in dormant
• It lifts and transfers coal on a single rail or pulverized coal from spontaneous heating
track from one point to the other. within 6 day of loading.
• The coal lifted by grab buckets is • This time can be extended to 13 days
transferred to overhead bunker or when a blanket of CO2 is piped into the
storage. top of the bunker.
• This system requires less power for • The perfect sealing of the bunker from air
operation and requires minimum leakage can extend the storage time as
maintenance. two months or more.
• The grab bucket conveyor can be used • The coal in the bunker can be stored as
with crane or tower as shown in figure long as six months by expelling air from
below. above the coal with the use of Co2 and
• Although the initial cost of this system is then blanketting of all sources of air.
high but operating cost is less. • A control system used for storing the
pulverised fuel in bunker is shown in
figure .

Storage of Coal
• It is desirable that sufficient quantity of Pulverised Fuel Handling System
coal should be stored. Two methods are in general use to feed the
• Storage of coal gives protection against pulverised fuel to the combustion chamber of the
the interruption of coal supplies when power plant.
there is delay in transportation of coal or
due to strikes in coal mines. • First is ‘Unit System’ and
• Also when the prices are low, the coal can • second is ‘Central or Bin System’.
be purchased and stored for future use. • In unit system, each burner of the plant is
• The amount of coal to be stored depends fired by one or more unit pulverisers
on the availability of space for storage, connected to the burners, while in the
transportation facilities, the amount of central system, the fuel is pulverised in
coal that will whether away and nearness the central plant and then distributed to
to coal mines of the power station. each furnace with the help of high
• Usually coal required for one month pressure air current.
operation of power plant is stored in case • Each type of fuel handling system consists
of power stations are situated at longer of crushers, magnetic separators, driers,
distance from the collieries whereas coal pulverising mills, storage bins, conveyors
need for about 15 days is stored in case of and feeders.
power station situated near to collieries.
• Storage of coal for longer periods is not
advantageous because it blocks the
capital and results in deterioration of the
quality of coal.

Pulverised Coal Storage in Bunker

• Periodically a power plant may encounter
the situation where coal must be stored
for some time in a bunker, for instance
during a plant shut down.
Ball and Race Mills

• The coal received by the plant from the

mine may vary widely in sizes.
• It is necessary to make the coal of
uniform size before passing the pulveriser
for efficient grinding.
• The coal received from the mine is passed
through a preliminary crusher to reduce
the size to allowable limit (30 mm).
• The crushed coal is further passed over
magnetic separator which removes
pyrites and tramp iron.


• A line diagram of ball mill using two
• In this mill the coal passes between the
classifiers is shown in figure.
rotating elements again and again until it
• It consists of a slowly rotating drum which
has been pulverised to desired degree of
is partly filled with steel balls.
• Raw coal from feeders is supplied to the
• The coal is crushed between two moving
classifiers from where it moves to the
surfaces, namely, balls and races.
drum by means of a screw conveyor.
• The upper stationary race and lower
• As the drum rotates the coal gets
rotating race driven by a worm and gear
pulverised due to the combined impact
hold the balls between them.
between coal and steel balls.
• The raw coal supplied falls on the inner
• Hot air is introduced into the drum.
side of the races.
• The powdered coal is picked up by the air
• The moving balls and races catch coal
and the coal air mixture enters the
between them to crush it to a powder.
classifiers, where sharp changes in the
• The necessary force needed for crushing
direction of the mixture throw out the
is applied with the help of springs.
oversized coal particles.
• The over-sized particles are returned to
the drum.
• The coal air mixture from the classifier
moves to the exhauster fan and then it is • The hot air supplied picks up the coal dust
supplied to the burners. as it flows between the balls and races,
and then enters the classifier.
• Where oversized coal particles are
returned for further grinding, whereas
the coal particles of required size are
discharged from the top of classifier.


Pulverised coal firing is done by two systems:

• Unit system or Direct system.

• Bin or Central system. • The dry coal is then transferred to the
pulverising mill.
Unit System • The pulverised coal obtained is
• In this system (figure below) the raw coal transferred to the pulverised coal bunker
from the coal bunker drops on to the (bin).
feeder. • The transporting air is separated from the
coal in the cyclone separator.
• The primary air is mixed with the coal at
the feeder and the mixture is supplied to
the burner.

• I. The pulverising mill grinds the coal at a
steady rate irrespective of boiler feed.
• 2. There is always some coal in reserve.
• Hot air is passed through coal in the Thus any occasional breakdown in the
feeder to dry the coal. coal supply will not affect the coal feed to
• The coal is then transferred to the the burner.
pulverising mill where it is pulverised. • 3. For a given boiler capacity pulverising
• Primary air is supplied to the mill, by the mill of small capacity will be required as
fan. compared to unit system.
• The mixture of pulverised coal and Disadvantages
primary air then flows to burner where • 1. The initial cost of the system is high.
secondary air is added. • 2. Coal transportation system is quite
• The unit system is so called from the fact complicated.
that each burner or a burner group and • 3. The system requires more space.
pulveriser constitute a unit.
• 1. The system is simple and cheaper than • Since the source of heat is the
the central system. combustion of a fuel, a working unit must
• 2. There is direct control of combustion have whatever equipment is necessary to
from the pulverising mill. receive the fuel and air, proportioned to
• 3. Coal transportation system is simple. each other and to the boiler steam
demand, mix, ignite, and perform any
Central or Bin System other special combustion duties, such as
• As shown in figure crushed coal from the distillation of volatile from coal prior to
raw coal bunker is fed by gravity to a ignition.
dryer where hot air is passed through the • Fluid fuels are handled by burners; solid
coal to dry it. lump fuels, by stokers.
• The dryer may use waste flue gasses,
preheated air or bleeder steam as drying Classification of Combustion system
• The hand firing system is the simplest
method of fuel firing but it cannot be • The gate can be raised or lowered as
used in modern power plants as it gives needed.
lower combustion efficiency, it does not • Simultaneous adjustment of grate speed,
respond quickly to fluctuation loads. fuel bed thickness, and air flow controls
the burning rate so that nothing but ash
Combustion equipment for steam boiler remains on the grate by the time it
reaches the furnace rear.
• The ash falls into the ash pit as the grate
turns on the rear sprocket to make the
return trip.
• As the raw or green coal on the grate
enters the furnace, the surface coal gets
ignited from heat of the furnace flame
and from radiant heat rays reflected by
the ignition arch.
• The fuel bed becomes thinner toward the
furnace rear as the combustible matter
burns off.
• Under grate air pressures are varied by
Classification of mechanical stokers dampers from front to rear of the stoker
• In small boilers, the grate is stationary
to admit gradually reduced quantity of
and coal is fed manually by shovels.
primary air fed by the FD fan.
• But for more uniform operating
• The secondary air aids in mixing the gases
condition, higher burning rate and greater
and supplies oxygen to complete
efficiency, moving grates or stokers are
Stokers may be of the following types: Chain grate stokers
• A travelling type chain grate is shown in
1. Travelling grate stoker figure 2. 13.
2. Chain grate stoker
3. Spreader stoker
4. Vibrating grate stoker
5. Underfeed stoker.

Travelling grate stokers

• The grate surface is made up of a series of
cast-iron bars joined together by links to
form an endless belt running over two
sets of sprocket wheels with a surface as
wide as needed (figure 2.12).
• A coal gate at the rear of the coal hopper
regulates the depth of the fuel bed. • The chain grate stoker consists of an
endless chain which forms a support for
the fuel bed.
• The chain travels over two sprocket
wheels one at the front and other at the
rear of furnace as shown in figure.
• The front sprocket is connected to a
variable speed drive mechanism.
• The coal is fed by gravity from a hopper
located in front of the stoker.
• The depth of the fuel on the grate is
regulated by hand adjusted gate as shown
in figure.
• The speed of the grate varies at the rate
at which the coal is fed to the furnace.
• The combustion control automatically • Feeder is a rotating drum fitted with
regulates the speed of the grate to blades.
maintain the required steam generation • Feeders can be reciprocating rams,
rate. endless belts, spiral worm etc.
• The ash containing a small amount of • From the feeder the coal drops on the
combustible material is carried over the spreader distributor which spread the
rear end of the stoker and deposited in coal over the furnace.
the ash pit as shown in figure. • The spreader system should distribute the
Advantages coal evenly over the entire grate area.
• 1. It is simple in construction and its initial • The spreader speed depends on the size
cost is low. of coal.
• 2. It is more reliable in service therefore Advantages
maintenance charges are low. • The various advantages of spreader
• 3. It is self-cleaning stoker. stoker are as follows:
• 4. The heat release rates can be • I. Its operation cost is low.
controlled j ust by controlling the speed • 2. A wide variety of coal can be burnt
of chain. easily by this stoker.
• 5. It gives high heat release rates per unit • 3. A thin fuel bed on the grate is helpful in
volume of the furnace. meeting the fluctuating loads.
• 1. The amount of coal carried on the grate Method of Feeding Coal to Combustion Chamber
is small as the increase in grate size
creates additional problems. Overfeed supply of coal
• This cannot be used for high capacity • In case of overfeed stoker the coal is fed
boilers (200 tons/hr. or more). on to the grate above the point of air
• 2. The temperature of preheated air is admission as shown in figure
limited to 180°C.
• 3. The clinker troubles are very common.

Spreader Stoker
• A spreader stoker is shown in figure .
• In this stoker the coal from the hopper is
fed on to a feeder which measures the
coal in accordance to the requirements.

The mechanics of combustion in overfeed stoker

is described below
• The pressurised air coming from F.D. fan
enters under the bottom of the grate.
• The air passing through the grate is
heated by absorbing the heat from the
ash and grate itself, whereas the ash and
grate are cooled.
• The hot air then passes through a bed of place and part of the broken volatile
incandescent coke. matter reacts with the oxygen of air.
• As the hot air passes through
incandescent coke, the 02 reacts with C to ASH HANDLING SYSTEM
form CO2' • Boilers burning pulverized coal have dry
• The rate of carbonoxidation depends bottom furnaces.
entirely on the rate of air supply. • The large ash particles are collected
• The water vapour carried with air also under the furnace in a water-filled ash
reacts with C in incandescent zone and hopper.
forms CO, CO2 and H2. • Fly ash is collected in dust collectors with
• Part of CO2 formed reacts with C passing either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)
through incandescent zone and converts or a baghouse.
into CO. • Ash must be collected and transported
• The gases leaving the incandescent region from various points of the plants.
of fuel bed consist of N2' CO2' CO, H2 and • Pyrites, which are the rejects from the
H2O· pulverizers, are disposed of with the
• The raw coal is continuously supplied on bottom ash system.
the surface of the bed. Three major factors should be considered for ash
• Here it loses its volatile matter by disposal systems.
• The heat required for the distillation of 1. Plant site.
coal is given by incandescent coke below 2. Fuel source.
the fresh fuel. 3. Environmental regulation.
• The ignition zone lies directly below the • The sluice conveyor system is the most
raw fuel undergoing distillation. widely used for bottom ash handling,
• The gases leaving the upper surface of the while the hydraulic vacuum conveyor is
fuel bed contain combustible volatile the most frequently used for fly system.
matter formed from the raw fuel, N2,
CO2' CO, H2 and H2O. Sluice Conveyor System
• Additional secondary air is supplied at a
very high speed to create turbulence
which is required for complete
combustion of unburned gases.
• The combustion of the remaining
combustible gases is completed in the
combustion chamber.
• The burned gases entering the boiler
contain Nz, COz' 0z and HzO and some CO
if the burning is incomplete. Hydraulic Vacuum Conveyor

Under-feed stoker
• In this type of stokers, the fuel and air
move in the same direction.

The reactions which take place in the
incandescent zone of under-feed stoker
are exactly the same as in the
incandescent zone of over-feed stoker
except some breaking of the molecular ASH HANDLING EQUIPMENT
structure of the volatile matter takes
• Mechanical means are required for the
disposal of ash.
The handling equipment should perform the
following functions:

1. Capital investment, operating and

maintenance charges of the equipment
should be low.
2. It should be able to handle large • In this method water at sufficient
quantities of ash. pressure is used to take away the ash to
3. Clinkers, soot, dust etc. create troubles. sump. Where water and ash are
The equipment should be able to handle separated.
them smoothly. • The ash is then transferred to the dump
4. The equipment used should remove the site in wagons, rail cars or trucks.
ash from the furnace, load it to the • The loading of ash may be through a belt
conveying system to deliver the ash to a conveyor, grab buckets.
dumping site or storage and finally it • If there is an ash basement with ash
should have means to dispose of the stored
hopper the ash can fall, directly in ash car
or conveying system.
5. The equipment should be corrosion and
wear resistant.
Water Jetting System


1. Hydraulic system.
2. Pneumatic system.
3. Mechanical system.
The commonly used ash discharge equipment is as • Water jetting of ash is shown in figure.
follows: • In this method a low pressure jet of water
coming out of the quenching nozzle is
1. Rail road cars. used to cool the ash.
2. Motor truck. Etc. • The ash falls into a trough and is then
Hydraulic System
• In this system, ash from the furnace grate Pneumatic System
falls into a system of water possessing • In this system ash from the boiler furnace
high velocity and is carried to the sumps. outlet falls into a crusher where larger
• It is generally used in large power plants. ash particles are crushed to small sizes .
• Hydraulic system is of two types, namely, • The ash is then carried by a high velocity
low pressure hydraulic system used for air or steam to the point of delivery.
intermittent ash disposal, second water • Air leaving the ash separator is passed
jetting system. through filter to remove dust etc. so that
• Figure shows hydraulic system. the exhauster handles clean air which will
protect the blades of the exhauster.
• Draught is achieved by small pressure
difference which causes the flow of air or
gas to take place.

The purpose of draught is as follows:

• To supply required amount of air to the
furnace for the combustion of fuel.
• The amount of fuel that can be burnt per
square foot of grate area depends upon
Mechanical System the quantity of air circulated through fuel
• To remove the gaseous products of


• Figure shows a mechanical ash handling

• In this system ash cooled by water seal
falls on the belt conveyer and is carried If only chimney is used to produce the draught, it
out continuously to the bunker. is called natural draught.
• The ash is then removed to the dumping • Artificial draught
site from the ash banker with the help of
If the draught is produced by steam jet or fan it is
known as artificial draught.
• Steam jet draught
• For power generation steam power plant It employs steam to produce the draught.
mainly depend on coal and other fossil • Mechanical draught
fuels to produce electricity.
• A natural result from the burning of fossil It employs fan or blowers to produce the draught.
fuels, particularly coal, is the emission of • Induced draught
fly ash. The flue is drawn (sucked) through the system by a
• Ash is mineral matter present in the fuel. fan or steam jet.
• Two emission control devices for flyash • Forced draught
are the traditional fabric filters and the
more recent electrostatic precipitators. The air is forced into the system by a blower or
• The fabric filters are large baghouse filters steam jet.
having a high maintenance cost (the cloth
bags have a life of 18 to 36 months, but Natural Draught
can be temporarily cleaned by shaking or • Natural draught system employs a tall
back flushing with air). chimney as shown in figure below.
• The chimney is a vertical tubular masonry
DRAUGHT structure or re-inforced concrete.
• Draught is defined as the difference • It is constructed for enclosing a column of
between absolute gas pressure at any exhaust gases to produce the draught.
point in a gas flow passage and the • It discharges the gases high enough to
ambient (same elevation) atmospheric prevent air pollution.
pressure. • The draught is produced by this tall
• Draught is plus if P atm <P gas and it is chimney due to the temperature
minus Patm> P gas. difference of hot gases in the chimney
and cold external air outside the chimney.
greater flexibility (control) to take the
fluctuating loads on the plant.
• Today's large steam power plants
requiring 20 thousand tons of steam per
hour would be impossible to run without
the aid of draft fans.
• A chimney of any reasonable height
would be incapable of developing enough
draft to move the tremendous volume of
air and gases (400 x 103 m3 to 800 x 103
m3 per minute).
• The further advantage of fans is to reduce
the height of the chimney needed.
• The draught required in actual power
• Due to this pressure difference (p), the plant is sufficiently high (300 mm of
atmospheric air flows through the furnace water) and to meet high draught
grate and the flue gases flow through the requirements, some other system must
chimney. be used, known as artifical draught.
• The pressure difference can be increased • The artificial draught is produced by a fan
by increasing the height of the chimney or and it is known a fan (mechanical)
reducing the density of hot gases. draught.
Merits of Natural Draught • Mechanical draught is preferred for
• 1. No external power is required for central power stations.
creating the draught.
• 2. Air pollution is prevented since the flue Forced Draught
gases are discharged at a higher level. • In a forced draught system, a blower is
• 3. Maintenance cost is practically nil since installed near the base of the boiler and
there are no mechanical parts. air is forced to pass through the furnace,
• 4. It has longer life. flues, economiser, air-preheater and to
• 5. Capital cost is less than that of an the stack.
artificial draught.
Demerits of natural draught
• 1. Maximum pressure available for
producing draught by the chimney is less.
• 2. Flue gases have to be discharged at
higher temperature since draught
increases with the increase in
temperature of flue gases.
• 3. Heat cannot be extracted from the flue
gases for economiser, superheater air • This draught system is known as positive
pre-heater, etc. since the effective draught system or forced draught system
draught will be reduced if the because the pressure and air is forced to
temperature the flue gases is decreased. flow through the system.
• 4. Overall efficiency of the plant is • A stack or chimney is also used in this
decreased since the flue gases are system as shown in figure but its function
discharged higher temperatures. is to discharge gases high in the
atmosphere to prevent the
Artificial Draught contamination.
• It has been seen that the draught • It is not much significant for producing
produced by chimney is affected by the draught therefore height of the chimney
atmospheric conditions. may not be very much.
• It has no flexibility, poor efficiency and
tall chimney is required. Induced Draught
• In most of the modern power plants, the
draught used 'must be independent of
atmospheric condition, and it must have
will try to rush into the furnace as the
pressure inside the furnace is below
atmospheric pressure.
• This reduces the effective draught and
dilutes the combustion.

• In this system, the blower is located near

the base of the chimney instead of near
• To overcome both the difficulties
the grate.
mentioned above either using forced
• The air is sucked in the system by
draught or induced draught alone, a
reducing the pressure through the system
balanced draught is always preferred.
below atmosphere.
• The balanced draught is a combination of
• The induced draught fan sucks the burned
forced and induced draught. The forced
gases from the furnace and the pressure
draught overcomes the resistance of the
inside the furnace is reduced below
fuel bed therefore sufficient air is
atmosphere and induces the atmospheric
supplied to the fuel bed for proper and
air to flow through the furnace.
complete combustion.
• The action of the induced draught is
• The induced draught fan removes the
similar to the action of the chimney.
gases from the furnace maintaining the
• The draught produced is independent of
pressure in the furnace just below
the temperature of the hot gases
therefore the gases may be discharged as
• Also the pressure inside the furnace is
cold as possible after recovering as much
near atmospheric therefore there is no
heat as possible in air-preheater and
danger of blowout or there is no danger
of inrushing the air into the furnace when
• This draught is used generally when
the doors are opened for inspection.
economiser and air-preheater are
incorporated in the system.
• The fan should be located at such a place
that the temperature of the gas handled
by the fan is lowest.
• The chimney is also used in this system
and its function is similar as mentioned in
forced draught but total draught
produced in induced draught system is
the sum of the draughts produced by the
fan and chimeny.

Balanced Draught
• It is always preferable to use a
combination of forced draught and
induced draught instead of forced or MERITS AND DEMERITS OF MECHANICAL
induced draught alone. DRAUGHT OVER NATURAL DRAUGHT
• If the forced draught is used alone, then
the furnace cannot be opened either for
firing or inspection because the high
pressure air inside the furnace will try to
blowout suddenly and there is every
chance of blowing out the fire completely
and furnace stops.
• If the induced draught is used alone, then
also furnace cannot be opened either for
firing or inspection because the cold air
• Thus air is forced through the fuel bed,
furnace and passed through the chimney.
Merits of steam jet draught

• 1. This system is very simple and low in

• 2. Low grade fuels can be used.
• 3. Space required is less.
Demerits of steam jet draught

• 1. It can be operated only when the

steam is raised.
• 2. The draught produced is very low.


• The artificial draught produced by the • A condenser is a device in which the
steam jet is known as steam jet draught. steam is condensed by cooling it with
• They may be induced or forced depending water.
upon the location of the steam jet. • The condensed steam is known as
Induced steam jet draught condensate.
• The following are the advantages of
installing a condenser in a steam power
1. More work is done by the given amount of
steam than could be obtained without a
condenser. Thus, the efficiency of the power
plant is increased.
2. Steam consumption is reduced for the given
3. The condensate is recovered for the boiler feed
• The steam power plants using condenser
are shown in figure shows that the
cooling water used in condenser is not re-
circulated again and again but discharged
to the downstream side of the river.

Forced steam jet draught

• In this system, steam passes through a
throttle valve from the boiler.
• Then the steam passes through a nozzle
which is projecting into a diffuser pipe.
• The steam comes out of the nozzle with
high velocity and draws air along with it.
• The kinetic energy of the mixture of •
steam and air is converted into pressure Whereas figure shows that the cooling
energy when it passes through the water is re-circulated again and again by
diffuser pipe. passing through the cooling tower.
• In counter flow jet condensers, the steam
and cooling water flow in opposite
• In low level jet condensers, the
condensate is pumped by means of a
condensate pump into the hot well.
• In high level jet condensers, the
condensate falls to the hot well by the
barometric leg provided in the condenser.
• In ejector condensers, a number of
convergent nozzles are used.
• In down flow surface condensers, the
condensed steam flows down from the
• In central flow surface condensers, the
condensed steam moves towards the
centre of condenser tubes.
The essential elements of a steam condensing • In single pass surface condensers, the
plant is given below:
cooling water flows in the condenser
1. A closed vessel in which the steam is tubes only once.
condensed. • In multi pass surface condensers, the
cooling water flows in the condenser
2. A pump to deliver condensed steam to the hot tubes number of times.
well from the condenser.
Jet Condensers
3. A dry air-pump to remove air and other non-
• In a jet condenser, the steam to be
condensable gases.
condensed and the cooling water come in
4. A feed pump to deliver water to the boiler from direct contact and the temperature of the
hot well. condensate is the same as that of the
cooling water leaving the condenser.
5. Another pump for circulating cooling water. • For jet condensers the recovery of the
6. An arrangement for re-cooling the circulating condensate for reuse as boiler feed water
water from the condenser such as cooling is not possible.
tower or spray pond. • Depending upon the arrangement of the
removal of condensate, the jet
• are sub-divided into the following
• 1. Low level counter flow jet condenser.
• 2. High level (or) barometric jet
• 3. Ejector condenser.

Low level jet condenser

• A low level counter flow jet condenser is

shown in figure 2.35. In this condenser,
the cooling water enters at the top and
sprayed through jets.
• In jet condensers, there is direct contact
between the cooling water and the steam • The steam enters at the bottom and
which is to be condensed. mixes with the fine spray of cooling
• In surface condensers, there is no direct water.
contact between the cooling water and • The condensate is removed by a separate
the steam which is to be condensed. pump. The air is removed by an air pump
• In parallel flow jet condensers, the flow of separately from the top.
steam and cooling water are in the same
• There is a pressure drop at the throat of
the nozzle.
• The reduction in pressure draws exhaust
steam into the nozzle through a non-
return valve.
• Steam is mixed with water and
• In the converging cones, pressure energy
is partly converted into kinetic energy.
• In diverging cones, the kinetic energy is
partly converted into pressure energy.
• The pressure obtained is higher than
atmospheric pressure and this forces the
condensate to the hot weII.

• In a parallel flow type of this condenser,

the cooling water and steam to be
condensed move in the same direction.
[i.e., from top to bottom].

High level jet condenser

• A high level jet condenser is shown in
figure 2.36. This is similar to a low level
condenser, except that the condenser
shell is placed at a height of I0.36 m
[barometric height] above the hot well.
• The column of water in the tail pipe
forces the condensate into the hot well
by gravity.
Merits and Demerits of jet condensers
• Hence condensate extraction pump is not
required. Merits

1. Intimate mixing of steam and cooling water.

2. Quantity of cooling water required is less.

3. Simple equipment and cost is low.

4. Less space is required.

5. Cooling water pump is not needed in low level

jet condenser.

Condensate extraction pump is not required for

high level and ejector condensers.
1. Condensate is wasted.
2. The cooling water should be clean and free from
harmful impurities.
Ejector condenser 3. In low level jet condensers, the engine may be
• An ejector condenser is shown in figure flooded, if condensate extraction pump fails.
2.37. In this condenser cooling water
under a head of5 to 6 m enters at the top Surface Condenser
of the condenser. • In surface condensers there is no direct
• It is passed through a series of convergent contact between the steam and cooling
water and the condensate can be re-used
in the boiler.
• In such a condenser even impure water
can be used for cooling purpose whereas
the cooling water must be pure in jet
• Although the capital cost and the space
needed is more in surface condensers but
it is justified by the saving in running cost
and increase in efficiency of plant
achieved by using this condenser.
• Depending upon the position of
condensate extraction pump, flow of
condensate and arrangement of tubes the • The exhaust steam from the prime mover
surface condensers may be classified as enters at the top of the condenser and
follows: surrounds the condenser tubes through
• 1. Down flow condenser which cooling water is circulated under
• 2. Central flow condenser force.
• 3. Evaporative condenser • The steam gets condensed as it comes in
contact with cold surface of the tubes.
Down flow condenser • The cooling water flows in one direction
through the first set of the tubes situated
in the lower half of condenser and returns
in the opposite direction through the
second set of the condeser is discharged
into the river or pond.
• The condensed steam is taken out from
the condenser by a separate extraction
pump and air is removed by an air pump.

Central flow condenser

• Steam enters at the top and flows • Figure 2.40 shows a central flow
downward. condenser. In this condenser the steam
• The water flowing through the tubes in passages are all around the periphery of
one direction lower half comes out in the the shell.
opposite direction in the upper half In this • Air is pumped away from the centre of
type of condenser, the cooling water and the condenser.
exhaust steam do not come in direct • The condensate moves radially towards
contact with each other as in case of jet the centre of tube next.
condensers. • Some of the exhaust steam while moving
• This is generally used where large towards the centre meets the
quantities of inferior water are available undercooled condensate and pre-heats it
and better quantity of feed water to the thus reducing undercooling.
boiler must be used most economically.
• It consists of cast iron air-tight cylindrical
shell closed at each end as shown in
• A number of water tubes are fixed in the
tube plates which are located between
each cover head and shell.
Evaporative condenser • The water flow rate higher than this will
• In this condenser steam to be condensed only increase the power requirement of
in passed through a series of tubes and water pump without materially increasing
the cooling water falls over these tubes in the condenser capacity.
the form of spray. A steam of air flows • This type of condenser works better in
over the tubes to increase evaporation of dry weather (low WBT) compared with
cooling water which further increases the wet weather as the water vapour carrying
condensation of steam. capacity of dry air is higher than wet air at
• These condensers are more preferable the same temperature.
where acute shortage of cooling water • The arrangement of this type of
exists. condenser is simple and cheap in first
• The arrangement of the condenser is cost.
shown in figure. • It does not require large quantity of water
• Water is sprayed through the nozzles over therefore needs a small capacity cooling
the pipe carrying exhaust steam and water pump.
forms a thin film over it. • The vacuum maintained in this condenser
• The air is drawn over the surface of the is not as high as in surface condensers
coil with the help of induced fan as shown therefore the work done per kg of steam
in figure. is less with this condenser compared with
• The air passing over the coil carries the surface condenser.
water from the surface of condenser coil • These condensers are generally preferred
in the form of vapour. for small power plants and where there is
• The latent heat required for the acute shortage of cooling water.
evaporation of water vapour is taken
from the water film formed on the
condenser coil and drops the
temperature of the water film and this
helps for heat transfer from the steam to
the water.
• This mode of heat transfer reduces the
cooling water requirement of the
condenser to 10% of the requirement of
surface condensers.
• The water particles carried with air due to
high velocity of air are removed with the
help of eliminator as shown in the figure.
• The make-up water (water vapour and
water particles carried with air) is
supplied from outside source.

• The quantity of water sprayed over the

condenser coil should be just sufficient to
keep the condenser coil thoroughly