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SUB. BY: - SUB. TO:-


ROLL. NO. : -115024


SEM: - 5TH

Q. 1:- What are the primary and secondary energy sources?

Ans.:- All organisms need energy to live. Energy is conducted to all human
activities. Whenever we think or move, we use the energy that is stored in
our body and the entire object that we use or that surround us need energy
to work or needed energy when they were built.


a. Primary energy sources:-

Primary sources can be used directly as they appear in the natural

environment. Coal, oil, natural gas and wood, nuclear fuel (uranium), the
sun, the wind, tides, mountain, lakes, rivers (from which hydroelectric
energy can obtained) and the earth heat that supplies geothermal energy

b. Secondary energy sources:-

Secondary sources derive from the transformation of primary energy

sources: for example petrol, that derives from the treatment of crude oil
and electric energy obtain from the conversion of mechanical energy
(hydro-electric plants Aeolian plants), chemical plants (thermo-electric)
or nuclear (nuclear plants). Electric energy is produced by electric plants
i.e. suitable installation that can transform primary energy (non-
transformed) into electric energy.

Q.2:- What are the conventional and non-conventional sources of energy?
Describe briefly.
a. The conventional sources of energy includes:
 Coal, petroleum, natural gases are the conventional sources for
thermal power in India.
 Water is the conventional source for hydel power etc.

i. Coal
ii. Lignite
iii. Oil and natural gas
iv. Hydro electric
v. Nuclear fuels

b. The non-conventional sources of energy includes:

A plenty of energy is
needed to sustain industrial growth and agricultural production. The
existing sources of energy such as coal, oil, uranium etc. may not be
adequate to meet the ever increasing energy demands. These conventional
sources of energy are also depleting and may be exhausted at the end of
the century or beginning of the next century. Consequently sincere and
untiring efforts shall have to be made by the scientists and engineers in
exploring the possibilities of harnessing energy from several non-
conventional energy sources. The various non-conventional energy
sources are as follows:
i. Solar energy
ii. Wind energy
iii. Energy from biomass and biogas
iv. Ocean thermal energy conversion
v. Tidal energy
vi. Geothermal energy
vii. Hydrogen energy
viii. Fuel cells
ix. Magneto-hydro-dynamic generator
x. Thermionic converter
xi. Thermo-electric power.



1) Conventional energy:-

i) Such as thermal power (from coal, petroleum, natural gas), hydel

power (from high velocity of running water) are tapped and used
abundantly at present. There uses are practiced for long time but in
contrast to conventional sources of energy, non-conventional source
of energy Solar, Tidal, Geothermal, wind etc. are not used frequently
and in large scale. There uses are comparatively more recent.

ii) Except hydel power the sources of thermal power i.e. other
conventional energies are non-renewable in nature. The enormous
reserve of fossil fuels (coal, crude oil, natural gas etc.) is fast
depleting. But the sources of non-conventional energy are flow
resources there is no anxiety for their exhaustion.

iii) Except hydel power, the generation of conventional energy does

produce air pollution

iv) Except hydel power the other conventional energy is costly. But in
comparatively the no- conventional energy is much cheaper.

v) Generations of non- conventional energy do not produce air

Fossil fuels are the major sources of conventional energies. At
present, many countries are overly dependent on fossil fuels to meet there
requirement for power. The non-reserves of fossil fuel have depleted to a large
extent due to its continued use. If it continues, there is risk of complete
exhaustion f these sources of energy.
Nuclear energy plants needs to be
implemented with proper cautions and care, any accidental leakage in nuclear
power plant may lead to severe hazardous conditions.

Non-conventional energy:-
Non-conventional energy is considered the energy of
future. Considering the benefits of non- conventional energy generation many
country have started producing energy in large scale there is continuous research
for development of technology in this field to reduce the cost of production and
to make it more cost effective.

Q.3 Specify the energy status of India and Punjab and what is the role of
non-conventional energy.
Energy status of India
Total area 3287259km2
Population 1324171354(2016)
Rural population 67%(2016)
GDP (US$) 2263522518124.03(2016)
GDP per capita (US $) 1709.39(2016)
Access to electricity (%by 79.17%(2016)
Energy imports net (% of energy 34.31%(2014)
Fossil fuel energy consumption (%) 73.46 Total(2014)

India source wise installed capacity in MW

Coal 59.78%
Gas 8.96%
Oil 0.49%
Hydro 16.68%
Nuclear 1.97%
Resourcs 12.12%

Role of non- conventional energy in India:-

In India Non-conventional energy
sources consist of these energy sources that are infinite natural and restorable
example- tidal energy, solar energy and wind energy.

Tidal energy:-
This energy is a limitless and renewable source of energy. In the
state Gujrat Gulf of Kutch are appropriate place for electrical energy.

Wind energy:-
It is popular form of non conventional energy states like
Tamilnadu, Gujrat, Udisa and Maharashtra, are rich on wind energy.

Solar energy:-
Solar plants in India can be the main energy sources as per the hot
regions of India e.g.-

 Gandhinagar solar Plant-2011

 Thyagaraj stadium plant Delhi-2010
 Tata-mayladuthrai -2011
 REHFL-sadeipali-2011

India has the world’s 5th largest electricity generation capacity which currently
stands at 243GW
The demand for power has been growing at rate rapid and over taken the supply
leading to power shortage in spite of meaningful growth on power generation
over the year.

Renewable energy in Punjab:-

energy production uses fossil fuel is the major
contributor to green house gas emissions in the atmosphere which perceived to
be the main couse by IPCC (IPCC, 2007-a) , clearly indicate the worming is
having a de electrius effect on ecosystem.

Solar energy:-
Solar energy estimated at 4-7KWh/m2 of solar insulation level
about 10.50MW of solar project by dec. 2013.
It is estimated about 250MW at canal falls.
130.70MW capacity projects are in operation
Bio gas Plants:-Bio gas about 1MW from dairy water now incising from 1MW
to 10Mw capacity.