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XI 'Olill 1~I()35112if()'(}

Pergamon Press Ltd, Iq81 Printed in Great Britnin

© Pattern Recognition Sociel 3.

"tSchool of Electrical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, U.S.A.,

+Bell Telephone Laboratories, Naperville, Illinois 60540, U.S.A.

(Receired 31 October 1979: in rerisedJorm 9 January 1980: received lor publication 3 June 1980)

A~tract--For the past decade, many image segmentation techniques have been proposed. These seg-

mentation techniques can be categorized into three classes, (I) characteristic feature thresholding or

clustering, (2) edge detection, and (3) region extraction. This survey summarizes some of these tech-

niques, in the area of biomedical image segmentation, most proposed techniques fall into the categories

of characteristic feature thresholding or clustering and edge detection.

Boundary formation Clustering Edge detection Gradient operator Region extraction Segmenta-

tion Thresholding

One of the approaches of automated quantitative Let X denote the grid of sample points of a picture.

cytology is using digital image processing. This i.e. the set of pairs

approach not only mimics to some extent the human {i,j} i = 1,2. . . . . N , j = 1,2 . . . . M

recognition process but also quantify the parameters

(for example nucleus area, integrated nucleus density) where N and M are the number of pixels in the x and

which are not easily measurable with the human y direction respectively. Let Y be an nonempty subset

vision system. Image segmentation is the division of of X consisting of contiguous picture points. Then a

an image into different regions, each having certain uniform predicate P(Y) is one which assigns the value

properties. It is the first step of image analysis which true or false to Y, depending only on properties

aims at either a description of an image or a classifi- related to the brightness matrix f(i,j) for the points of

cation of the image if a class label is meaningful. An }: Furthermore, P has the property that if Z is a

example of the former is the description of an office nonempty subset of Y, then P ( Y ) = true implies

scene. An example of the latter is the classification of always P(Z) = true.

the image of a cancerous cell. Image segmentation is a Definition of a segmentation

critical component of an image recognition system

because errors in segmentation might propagate to A segmentation of the grid X for a uniformity

feature extraction and classification. predicate P is a partition of X into disjoint nonempty

The applications of image segmentation are numer- subsets X1,X 2. . . . . X N such that:

ous ~-9~. Image segmentation has been used in bio- N

medical areas such as in the identification of lung U X, = X (i)

diseases, {1°~in automated classification of white blood i=I

cells, {~1~ in detection of cancerous cells~12~ and in Xi, i = 1,2 . . . . . N is connected (ii}

chromosome karyotyping.~13t

During the past decade, many image segmentation

techniques have been proposed/1-91 These segmenta- P(Xi) = TRUE for i = 1,2 . . . . . N (iii)

tion techniques can be categorized into three classes,

(1) characteristic feature thresholding or clustering, (2) P(XIwXj}=FALSE for i=~j (iv)

edge detection, and (3) region extraction. This survey where X~ and Xj are adjacent.

is performed from the view-point of cytology image Zucker ~6~ summarized the above conditions as fol-

processing and is by no means exhaustive. For a more lows: the first condition implies that every picture

complete bibliography of image segmentation and point must be in a region. This means that the seg-

processing, the reader is referred to Rosenfield's sur- mentation algorithm should not terminate until every

vey papers. ~2 ~ point is processed. The second condition implies that

One way to define image segmentation is as fol- regions must be connected, i.e. composed of contigu-

}OWS.~l 4. 151

ous lattice points. The third condition determines

* This work was supported b3 the National Science what kind of properties the segmented regions should

Foundation Grant ENG 78-16970. have, for example, uniform gray levels. The fourth

4 K.S. Fu and J. K. Mvx

condition expresses the maximality of each region in where (x, y) is the x and y co-ordinate of a pixel;

the segmentation. S(x, y),f(x, y) are the segmented and the characteristic

Almost all image segmentation techniques pro- feature (e.g. gray level) functions of (x, y) respectively;

posed so far are ad hoc in nature. (t-9) There are no To. . . . . T= are threshold values with To equal to the

general algorithms which will work for all images. minimum and TO, the maximum; m is the number of

One of the reasons that we do not have a general distinct labels assigned to the segmented image. A

image understanding system is that a two dimensional threshold operator Tcan be viewed as a test involving

image can represent a potentially infinite number of a function Tof the form

possibilities. To build a general image understanding

T(x, y,N(x, y),f(x, y))

system would require the representation and storage

of a vast amount of knowledge. Pavlidis (15) com- where N(x,y) denotes some local property of the

mented that an image segmentation problem is basi- point (x, y), e.g. the average gray level over some

cally one of psychophysical perception, and therefore neighbourhood. Weszka (is) divided thresholding into

not susceptible to a purely analytical solution. Any three types depending on the functional dependencies

mathematical algorithms must be supplemented by of the threshold operator T. When T depends only on

heuristics, usually involving semantics about the class f(x, y), the threshold is called global. If Tdepends on

of pictures under consideration. Quite often, one must bothf(x, y) and N(x, y), then it is called a local thresh-

go beyond simple heuristics, and the introduction of a old. If Tdepends on the coordinate values x, y as well

priori knowledge about the picture is essential. Pav- as on f(x, y and N(x, y), then it is called a dynamic

lidis then quoted the example of the dalmatian dog threshold.

picture. Without the a priori knowledge that the pic- There are a number of global threshold selection

ture consists of a dalmatian dog, most human schemes. Some are based on the characteristic feature

observers perceive the picture as pure noise. However, (e.g. gray level) histogram, others are based on local

when the human observers are told that the picture properties such as the gradient or Laplacian of an

consists of a dalmatian dog, most can identify it in the image. For an image consisting of object and back-

picture. Almost all segmentation algorithms are either ground where the percent of the object area is known,

based on the concepts of similarity (e.g. characteristic Doyle(19) suggested the 'p-tile' method which chooses

feature clustering algorithms) or discontinuity (e.g. as a threshold the gray level which most closely corre-

edge detection algorithms). Despite the large amount sponds to mapping at least (i-p)~ of the gray levels

of research effort devoted to image segmentation into the object. If, for example, dark objects occupy

algorithms, very little is known about how to measure 205/o of the picture area, then the image should be

segmentation .error besides the simple criteria of the thresholded at the 80th percentile, or, more precisely,

percentage of pixels misclassified. (17) As a conse- at the largest gray level allowing at least 20~ of the

quence, it is still very difficult to answer the question picture points to be mapped into the object. This

'how good is a given algorithmT Therefore, it is not method is not applicable if the object area is un-

easy to compare different image segmentation algor- known or varies from picture to picture.

ithms. Further compounding the evaluation process, For segmenting images of white blood cells, Prewitt

different authors generally use different data and few and Mendelsohn (2°) chose thresholds at the valleys on

authors process more than several hundred images. the gray level histogram. This technique, called the

Unless one specifically implements a given segmenta- mode method, involves smoothing of the histogram

tion algorithm and tries it out on one's data, it is very into a predetermined number of peaks (modes) and

difficult to evaluat" from the published results how placing thresholds at the valleys between peaks. The

well it will work for a given set of data. For these mode method has the advantage that it minimizes the

reasons, except in very special cases, the authors will probability of misclassifying an object point as back-

not comment exactly how well a given algorithm will ground or vice versa (t) (assuming hi-modal distribu-

work although qualitative statements on the advan- tion, both background and object are Gaussian distri-

tages and disadvantages of the approach can be made. buted). In general, if we threshold at the bottom of a

valley in the smoothed histogram, the results are rela-

tively insensitive to the exact choice of the threshold

I. CHARACTERISTIC FEATURE THRESHOLDING

OR CLUSTERING level since the gray levels at a valley bottom are rela-

tively unpopulated. However, there are a number of

l.l Thresholding disadvantages. First, the knowledge of the class of

(A) Statistical. Characteristic feature thresholding is pictures we are dealing with is assumed to be known

a technique widely used in image segmentation. since many pictures may have the same histogram

Weszka(ts) recently surveyed a number of threshold and thresholding the pictures may give results that

selection techniques. In its most general form, thresh- are not necessary meaningful. Second, no spatial

olding is descrll:md mathematically as: information is used to arrive at the thresholds which

means that there is no guarantee that the segmented

S(x,y) = k if T~-t <~f(x,y) < Tk regions are contiguous. Third, the method of finding

k ffi 0,1,2 . . . . . m (1) minima between modes by smoothing, depending on

A survey on image segmentation 5

the smoothing method used, may smooth out small vacuoles near the cell boundary could be repaired.

modes. Nevertheless, for a wide class of images, this Shrinking and expansion (or sometimes called con-

method works reasonably well (for example, when traction and dilation) were used by a number of

there are isolated white blood cells in the image, see researchers (e.g.t36)) to perform segmentation.

Fig. 1). However, in many cases, even when the histo- Young and Paskowitz, ~32~ and Ingrain and Pres-

gram is bimodal, it may be difficult to accurately ton ~34~segmented blood cell images by logically com-

locate the valley bottom, since the valley may be bining three threshold images taken at three different

broad and fiat, Weszka et al. proposed ways to shar- wave lengths. Recently Weszka et al. ~26~ proposed two

pen the valley between the two modes, by histo- threshold evaluation techniques. One is based on gray

gramming the gray values of points whose Lapla- level co-occurrence matrix, the other is based on per-

cians ~2~ or gradients ~z2~are in the p-tile range. Rosen- centage of misclassification. For descriptions of local

feld et al. ~2a~ proposed using iterative histogram modi- and dynamic threshold selections, see Weszka. tl 8~

fication to sharpen the peaks in enhancing images and (B) Structural. Tomita et al. ~3°~ and Tsuji et al. ~3~

their histograms. described a method for detecting texturally homo-

Local properties can be used to select a global geneous regions based upon uniform values of some

threshold. Watanabe et al. ~24~ used the gradient local picture property. In their approach, pictures

approach to determine a global threshold. For each were first segmented into "elements" or "'atomic

gray level z, compute regions" e.g. connected components of constant gray

level. A set of properties such as shape, size, position

d = ~ p'(x,y) (2) and density was measured for each atomic region. For

each property, a histogram was constructed. When

the histogram consisted of a small number of distinct

where S.- is the set of points having gray level z; modes, it was plausible that there existed a partition

p'(x, y) is the magnitude of the gradient at the point of the picture into regions whose elements had similar

(x, y). The threshold is then chosen at the level z for property values. These modes were then separated by

which d: is the highest. Since this level has a high establishing thresholds in the valleys between the

proportion of large difference points, it should occur peaks. Elements whose property values belong to a

just at the borders between objects and background. given mode were tagged and this gave rise to clusters

Intuitively, this method would not work well on some of similarly tagged elements in the picture. Next, some

images because equation (2) is not normalized by the heuristics were applied to connect similarly labelled

number of pixels in S.-. So if S. consists of a large elements into regions. The above procedure was then

number of pixels, although p'(x, y) may be small for applied to newly formed regions until the histograms

every (x, y) in S.-, their sum is not necessarily small. of the region descriptors did not show any valleys.

Watanabe achieved good results on a data base of The approach was tested out on a few highly artificial

cervical smear images, but poor results were obtained pictures (e.g. a white cube with black dots on its sur-

by Weszka et al. ~25~ on images of chromosomes, hand- faces) and no real data example was given.

writing, and cloud cover and also by Aggarwal et Keng and Fu t33~ and Keng ta~ used syntactic tech-

al. ~26~ on pap smear images. niques to recognize highways, rivers, bridges and

Ohlander ~29) used nine one-dimensional histograms commercial/industrial areas from LANDSAT images.

of features such as color intensity for red, green and They used different LANDSAT bands for recognition

blue, overall intensity (the average of the three colors of concrete-like objects and water-like objects. The

at each pixel), hue, etc. to segment natural scenes. primitives were obtained by thresholding the different

Thresholding on values corresponding to valleys bands. The images consisting of these primitives were

bounding sharpely defined peaks in a histogram fur- then smoothed. A finite state automaton or a set of

nished clusters of points which were uniform for the templates was used to perform the recognition of line

given feature. These regions were then thresholded. objects such as highways, rivers and bridges; commer-

The procedure was repeated until all pixels were seg- cial/industrial areas were obtained by subtracting

mented. highway from the thresholded "concrete" image. In

Geometric information can be used to refine the Keng, taT) a tree automaton was used to process tex-

result of segmentation. Brenner et al. ~35~ segmented tural primitives of terrain and tactical targets from

white cells in bone marrow images by first threshold- LANDSAT and infrared images respectively.

ing the image and then examining the shape of the

resulting boundary. Using a graph of the Gallus 1.2 Clustering

eight-chain of the boundary. Brenner et al. success- Clustering of characteristic features applied to im-

fully distinguished between "'notches" which were the age segmentation is the multidimensional extension of

cusp formed when two convex objects touched each the concept of thresholding. Typically, two or more

other and the vacuoles which were near the boun- characteristic features are used and each class of

daries of white cell. By joining appropriate pairs of regions is assumed to form a distinct cluster in the

"notches'. they were able to isolate the white cell of space of these characteristic features. A clustering

interest. Similarly, irregular boundary produced by method is used to group the points in the character-

6 K.S. Fu and J. K. MuI

300

.-I

................. ~ ~ .................

0.

(a)

a,

!

' ' N * ' H + . . , ) + ) 0 . . . . )) ) t ~ l ) l # ) 1 0 t ) . l # ) * ~ . * ) ~ . a ) I . . e I )

0

i :!:,ii!i!!!ii!!iiiii!iii!iii!iiiiii i!iiii iii

GREY LEVEL 63 '!'f!iii. lilJifii!iiiiiiii!!iii!iiiii!!!iiiiii$1i[f

144

. .

. . °

. . °

° . .

. .

. .

:~i~i: '::~!!i~?~::

GREY LEVEL 63 :::

density histogram into three peaks and two valleys. (a) Original histogram and computer printout of

image, (b) smoothed histogram and computer printout of segmented image.

istic feature space into clusters. These clusters are Swain and Fu t39) to find boundaries in remote sensing

then mapped back to the original spatial domain to data which had up to 12 channels of information. He

produce a segmentation of an image. The character- divided the image into windows of size about 20 x 20

istic features that are commonly used in image seg- called "boundary cells ••. For each "boundary cell", the

mentation by clustering not only include gray values boundary finding algorithm was applied. His bound-

through different filters as in white blood cell image ary finding algorithm consisted of a clustering algor-

segmentation, it may include any feature that one ithm followed by an edge finding algorithm. The

thinks is helpful to this segmentation problem; for input to the clustering algorithm consisted of M,,, the

example, texture measures defined on a local neigh- maximum number of modes permitted and a thresh-

borhood(46.49.5o) may be used. The reason one wants old Twhich determined if two modes were distinct or

to use two or more characteristic features to perform not. The clustering algorithm first established M,,

image segmentation is that sometimes there are prob- initial mode center ink, k = 1,2. . . . M,, where

lems not resolvable with one feature that can be

resolved with 2 or more features. Figure 2 illustrates a f 2(k - 1) )

case where in two dimension feature space (x, y) the mk = l' + ~ ~(--~- I) 1_ (3)

clusters can be easily separated, but in each of the one

dimensional projections, there is a high degree of such that /a = (pl•/~2. . . . . /JL) and a = (trl,a 2. . . . . O'L)

overlap of the two distributions corresponding to the were the sample mean and variance for each of the L

two classes of regions such that no valley may exist dimensions respectively. (L was the number of chan-

between the modes of the distributions. Conversely, nels used.)

one may easily resolve two modes in one dimension Each vector of a "'clustering cell'• (a "'clustering cell"

feature space. This is equivalent to a decision bound- is a window slightly larger than a "boundary cell")

ary which is a straight line in two dimension space. was classified to the nearest mode center using a mini-

Figure 3 illustrates this idea, mum Euclidean distance rule. After all the vectors of

The use of clustering techniques to perform image a "'clustering cell" were classified, a new mode center

segmentation goes back to as early as 1969. for each mode was computed and this classification

Wacker (3a) used a clustering algorithm proposed by process iterated until there was no change in mode

A survey on image segmentation 7

x = FEATURE I

y = FEATURE 2

PIO1(x,y) pi(x,y) = PROBABILITY

DENSITY FUNCTION

OF CLASS i, i=1,2

Pi

DBOCJ'DIAOR = A PRIORI

PROBABILITY OF

CLASS i

P2P2(x,Y)

/// ~/

EQUAL PROBABILITY CONTOUR

x

(a)

FUNCTION OF x (FEATURE 1)

FUNCTION OF x GIVEN

CLASS i

PIPl( x ~ P 2 P 2(x)

x

(b)

ply)

p ( y ) : PROBABILITY DENSITY

FUNCTION OF y (FEATURE 2)

FUNCTION OF y

P2P2(Y~//)~

/e%v•/'P(Y) GIVEN CLASS i

PIDI(Y )

(c)

Fig. 2. Illustration of an example where one can easily resolve the two clusters in two dimension feature

space (a), but not in each of the one dimension feature spaces (b) and (c).

assignment of the vectors. A pairwise measure of sep- pixel (i,j) and (i,j + 1) if the first (k - 1) pixeis to the

aration was then computed for each pair of modes. left of (i,j) all belong to one mode, and (i,j+ 1) and

Let S~j be this measure for modes i and j. If S u >t T the first (k - 1) pixels to the right of (i,j+ 1) all

for all i, j = 1,2. . . . , M (where M was the present belong to another mode. Horizontal boundaries were

number of modes), then the M modes were taken to found in an analogous manner. Since no knowledge

be distinct and the clustering procedure was termin- of the scene was assumed in Wacker's approach, (38) a

ated. If one or more S u < T, then the two modes great deal of computation time was spent in determin-

corresponding to the smallest S u were merged yield- ing the n u m b e r of clusters. Also, the iterative assign-

ing M - 1 modes. The clustering procedure was then ment of pixels until there is no change in mode

repeated with M - 1 modes until all the modes were assignments is a costly computation process. Further

distinct. The results of clustering were then mapped reduction in computation time can be achieved by

back to the original spatial domain and a procedure dealing with the histogram rather than with the pixels

called Edge Finding Algorithm was initiated to find individually.

the boundaries between segmented regions. A corre- Haralick and Dinstein (51) proposed a spatial clus-

lation distance k was introduced to smooth out some tering technique applicable to multi-spectral image

noisy results. A vertical boundary existed between data. The procedure thresholded the gradient image,

8 K.S. Fu and J. K. Mut

OF CLASS i matic image with locally computed features were not

p(x) = PROBABILITY DENSITY as good as those obtained with gray level values of

FUNCTION OF x (FEATURE I ) several channels as features.

pCx)

Pi(x) = PROBABILITY DENSITY Carlton and Mitchell('~6) used texture and gray level

FUNCTION OF x information for image segmentation. They used a tex-

GIVEN CLASS i

ture measure that counted the number of local

extrema in a window centered at each pixel. Using

~,~ p(x) three thresholds called "low", "medium" and "high",

they produced three intermediate "gray level" pictures

whose values are the number of local extrema (aver-

aged over a window) produced by that threshold.

These intermediate pictures were used to derive the

number of segments in which to divide the original

X=Xd x image. The segmentation was then performed by

assigning each pixel in the original image to a region

(a) by using a four-dimensional distance measure on the

intermediate pictures, comparing each pixel to each

selected segment. This process was then repeated in a

x = FEATURE 1

hierarchical structure using decreasing window sizes

y = FEATURE 2 so that smaller regions within the larger ones were

defined. Only one example, an aerial scene of a mili-

P i ( x , y ) = PROBABILITY DENSITY tary simulation area was given. There are several par-

FUNCTION OF ( x , y )

ameters which are critical to the success of this

GIVEN CLASS i

approach, namely extreme size, window sizes, and dis-

tance similarity criteria. These parameters are not

EQUAL [ easily determined and they may vary from picture to

PROBABILITY picture depending on the details one wants to seg-

P2P2(X ) ment.

We proposed to segment blood cell neutrophil im-

ages using iterative segmentations. (52) With some

basic assumptions on the image such as that its inten-

sity histogram generally has three peaks and two val-

PlPl (x,y) I

! leys, we obtained an initial segmentation. Based on

X=Xdl x

this initial segmentation, we determined some critical

information from the image such as the presence or

(b) absence of points of maximal concavity which would

help to determine the number of clusters. The initial

Fig. 3. Illustration of the idea that distributions that can be segmentation also helped in determining the initial

resolved in one dimension feature space can also be locations of cluster centres of the clusters in the bivar-

resolved in two dimension feature space. In (a) x = x~ is iate "color-density" histogram. Segmentation was

the decision threshold. This is equivalent to a decision line

x = xd in the two dimension feature space. achieved by dividing the "color-density" histogram

into a number of clusters and these clusters were

mapped back to the spatial domain. Of the neutrophil

cleaned the threshold image, labeled the connected images, 97% were correctly segmented based on a

regions in the cleaned image and clustered the labeled data set of 378 images.

regions. Each labeled connected regio n was assigned a Aggarwal et al. (26) used a combination of threshold-

class code by the clustering algorithm. One of the ing and clustering techniques to segment cervical

critical problems of the above approach is the prob- smear images. Thresholding at a pre-set gray level

lem of distinct spatial clusters merging because of a was used to extract the nucleus. A ceiling lowering

low gradient bridge between them. clustering technique on the bivariate histogram was

Schachter e t a / . (a3. 4.4) used clustering to perform used to segment the cytoplasm. A success rate of

image segmentation on multispectral remote sensor 87.6~o in extracting the nucleus and a success rate of

imagery. In Schachter et al., (.3) they used the gray 88.1~ in isolating cytoplasm based on 233 scenes

level values of several channels as features in the were achieved.

feature space. In Schachter et al., (*4) they tried instead Cahn e t a / . (97) separated the cytoplasm from back-

to use just one monochromatic image, using features ground in cervical cell images by thresholding the im-

such as mean gray level, median filtered minimum ages based on the stability of the perimeter of the cell

total variation, and mean typicality computed over a as the threshold was varied. Once the cytoplasm

3 x 3 local neighbourhood to do clustering. They threshold was determined, cytoplasm and nucleus

A survey on image segmentation 9

were segmented by clustering into three classes, a relaxation scheme in which the probability of a

namely cytoplasm, folded cytoplasm and nucleus. pixel belonging to a number of classes iterated using a

Evaluation of the proposed technique was based on compatibility relation. No results were published. The

the results of classifications using the automated seg- computation time is exorbitant because it takes a

mentation technique described above vs manual seg- number of iterations for the relaxation scheme to

mentation. Manually thresholded cells were classified converge.

correctly 66.0% of the time for the 13-class problem

1.3 C o m m e n t s on characteristic f e a t u r e thresholding or

and 95.2% of the time on the two-class (normal-

clustering approaches to image segmentation

abnormal) problem. The automated technique was

52.9% and 90.0% correct, respectively based on 1500 The philosophy of this approach is basically a glo-

cervical cells that belong to one of eight normal bal one because some aggregate properties of the

classes and five abnormal classes. features are used. The similarity of feature values of

G'oldberg and Shlein ~45~ proposed the idea of clus- each class of a segmented region form a 'mode' in the

tering on the histogram of 4 bands of multispectral feature space. This technique is more immune to noise

images. The scheme initially identified the most separ- than, for example, edge detection techniques. Also,

able clusters in the data. It then ran on an interactive this technique gives closed boundaries although

basis allowing the user to split specific clusters into sometimes it is necessary to smooth out some of the

subclusters at the expense of less separability. noisy boundaries. ~3a' so~ Since this approach is based

Coleman 1'~9~ proposed a bottom up procedure for on the assumption that different classes of segments of

image segmentation using clustering. A number of an image are represented by distinct "modes" in the

features such as gray level values through the red, distribution of suitably chosen features extracted from

green and blue filters, texture features and nonlinearly the image, the technique will fail if this assumption is

filtered features were used. The features were decorre- not true. Another drawback is that because, in gen-

lated using Karhunen-Loeve rotation. The basic pro- eral, the number of segments is not known, an un-

cedure was a K-means clustering algorithm which supervised clustering scheme may not produce the

converged to a local minimum in the average squared right number of segments. Besides gray level values,

inter-cluster distance for a specified number of clus- other features are generally image dependent and it is

ters. The algorithm iterated on the number of clusters, not clear how these other features should be defined

evaluating the clustering based on a parameter of in such a way as to produce good segmentation

clustering quality. results. Furthermore. most researchers who used this

Recently Yoo and Huang ¢5°1 proposed an image approach generally did not use the spatial informa-

segmentation algorithm based on graph theoretic tion inherent in a image. Although attempts have

clustering. They used the gray level histogram and been made to utilize such information t5~'53~ the

three different feature pairs which were mean-stan- results so far are no better than those that do not use

dard deviation, local minimum-local maximum and spatial information, t5°,52~

an eigenvalue pair of the local characteristic matrix.

These feature pairs were extracted from gray levels

2. EDGE DETECTION

within a 3 x 3 local window. An unsupervised, non-

iterative and non-parametric clustering technique Edge detection is a picture segmentation technique

based on graph theory ~92~was employed to group the based on the detection of discontinuity. An edge or

features into clusters. The results of clustering were boundary is the place where there is a more or less

mapped back to the original spatial domain. Segmen- abrupt change in gray level. Some of the motivating

tation results based on feature pairs were more homo- factors of this approach are: (1) most of the informa,

geneous than those based on histograms. A number of tion of an image lies on the boundaries between dif-

examples were given such as 'the girl', forward look- ferent regions, tt~ and (2) biological visual systems

ing infrared images of tank and armored personnel appear to make use of edge detection, but not of

carriers, a military testing site, etc. The results pro- thresholding. ~11 Davis, ~421 Riseman et al., ~54~ Rosen-

duced by this technique were better than Carlton and feld et al. ~) and Pavlidis~5~ surveyed a number of

Mitchell's~.6~ on the image of a military testing site. edge detection techniques. Davis ~42~ categorized edge

There are a number of questions still unanswered: not detection techniques into two categories, parallel and

all feature pairs would work properly in segmenting a sequential. By a parallel solution to the edge detection

given image and no automatic technique is available problem, it is meant that the decision of whether or

to determine which feature pairs should be used. The not a set of points is on an edge is made on the basis

choice of clustering parameters also poses a problem. of the gray level of the set and some set of its neigh-

Since one of the shortcomings of using character- bouts; but the decision is not dependent on first

istic feature clustering as an approach to image seg- deciding if other sets of points lie on an edge~ So the

mentation is that no spatial information is used in edge detection operator in principle can be applied

performing the cluster analysis, sometimes the extent simultaneously everywhere in the picture. By a

of clusters in feature space may be ambiguous. To sequential solution to the edge detection problem, it is

correct these shortcomings, Nagin et al. ~53~ proposed meant that the result at a point is contingent upon the

10 K.S. Fu and J. K. Mut

results of the operator at previously examined points. and the direction of Vf(x, y) is

It should be noted that these definitions are with re-

spect to edge element extraction. To produce a closed

edge or boundary, the edge elements extracted have

(dOfx) (6)

to be connected together to form closed curves. Al-

though the method of generating edge elements is

parallel in nature (e.g. gradient operator), the method where f is the original gray level function; i and j are

of connecting these extracted edge elements could be unit vectors in the positive x and y directions respect-

sequential in nature (e.g. heuristic search tree) depend- ively.

ing on the method used; this method will be referred Quite a few proposed edge detection techni-

to as a parallel scheme. Parallel edge detection ques~55-ss. 93-95) are based on the digital approxi-

schemes can be broken down generally in two steps

mations on variations of equation (4) which will pro-

(A) edge element extraction and (B) edge element duce a high magnitude where there is an abrupt

combination (or called "streak" boundary formation). change in gray level and a low magnitude where there

Edge element extraction methods can be categorized is little change in gray level. Roberts' cross opera-

as (A.I) high-emphasis spatial frequency filtering, (.4,.2) tor ~93~is based on a 2 × 2 window

gradient operators, and (A.3),functional approxi-

mations. Edge element combination consists of elim- g(i,j) = [(f(i,j) - f ( i + 1,j + 1))2

inating false edge elements and merging the edge ele- + (f(i + l,j)

ments into longer edge segments called streaks, elim- --f(i,j + 1))2] (7)

inating false streaks, combining the streaks into boun- wheref(i,j) and g(i,j) are the gray level function and

daries and eliminating false boundaries. Some tech- magnitude of gradient of point (i,j) respectively.

niques (e.g.4°~) require the thinning or skeletonizing of The operator requires that there is a distinct change

the edge elements before they are combined together. in intensity between two adjacent points in the gray

Edge element combination is generally carried out by value function, so only very sharp edges with high

three classes of techniques (B.1) heuristic search and contrast between the surfaces which form the edges

dynamic programming, (B.2) relaxation, and (B.3) line will be detected. This method cannot detect ill defined

and curve fitting. Most sequential techniques inc0r- edges (edges which are formed by a gradual change in

porate edge element extraction as part of the process intensity across the edge). Since the computation is

of boundary detection ~67-'69~so there is no need for a based on a small window, the result is quite suscep-

separate edge element extraction process. However, tible to noise. Kirsch's, ~561Sobel's,~57~and Prewitt's ~s~

sequential techniques such as heuristic se.archt67,6s) operators are based on a 3 x 3 neighborhood. The

may also be used for boundary formation. main difference between these operators are the

weights assigned to each element of the 3 x 3 tem-

2.1 Parallel techniques plate.

An adaptive local operator was proposed by

(A) Edge element extraction Rosenfeld et al. ~94'95~ The procedure involved taking

(A. l ) High-emphasis spatial frequency filterino. Since averages over neighbourhoods of sizes 2kx 2k at

high spatial frequencies are associated with sharp every point (x, y) in the image. For each size neigh-

changes in intensity, so one can enhance or extract bourhood, at each point (x,y), differences between

edges by performing high-pass filtering: i.e. take the pairs of averages corresponding to pairs of nonover-

Fourier transform of the picture, say FOC(x,y))= lapping neighbourhoods just on opposite sides of the

F(u, o) where f(x, y) and F(u, v) are the original gray point in 4 directions (horizonal, vertical and the left

level function and its Fourier transform respectively, and right diagonals) were computed. Of the 4 differ-

F is the Fourier operator. Multiply F by the linear ences corresponding to the 4 directions, the one that

spatial filter H: E(u, o) = F(u, v). H(u, v) and take the gave the highest absolute difference was selected. At

inverse transform e(x, y) = F- z(E(u, o)) where e(x, y), each point, a best size neighbourhood which was

is the filtered picture off(x, y) and E(u, v) its Fourier defined to be the largest size neighbourhood for

transform and F - t is the inverse Fourier transform which the next smaller size did not give a significantly

operator. The problem here is filter design. higher absolute difference was chosen. Specifically, if

(A.2) Gradient operators. The gradient operator is E,(x, y) was the best of the E's of size 2 ~ x 2k neigh-

defined as bourhood in four directions at the point (x, y), and the

sizes used were 1 x 1, 2 x 2.... 2L x 2L, the "best

size" was the largest K such that

Vf(x, y) = ~x ' + J (4)

EL < 2EL-~ < 22EL-2 < ... < ;tt'-rEx

where but E~/> 2E,_1 (8)

IVf(x, yll = +

/ q2h'" (5)

where 2 = ¼.

The value at a point was erased if there was a

higher value at any point within a distance of half the

A survey on image segmentation 11

best size in a direction perpendicular to the best schemes quantitatively. They found Hueckel's opera-

orientation at that point. This approach has the tor performed the poorest. Operators due to Mac-

advantage of being able to detect a large variety of leodc66~ and Rosenfeld et al. ~94'95~ had similar per-

edges and also may be able to detect edges of texture formances. However only two sets of test pictures

regions if the average characteristic feature values (e.g. were used. The first set consisted of five pictures artifi-

gray value) over the neighborhoods are different. cially generated with various amounts of nominal

However, the choices of the different sizes of neigh- contrast, The second set consisted of four pictures of a

borhood and ). are critical to the success of the slanted edge taken from an ERTS photograph with

algorithm. various amounts of artificially generated random

Wechsler and Kidode ~Sa~ proposed an edge detec- noise added to it.

tion algorithm based on finite differences. For each of Persoon'sc63) operator was defined over a window

the four quadrants about the pixel in question, they of size 5 x 5 pixels and the two columns to the left

computed finite differences up to the 3rd order and and to the right of the central one were approximated

the central difference. Then the best "'edge" element of by linear functions. Deviations from the actual gray

pixel Ix, y) was the one that gave the minimum finite levels for the left and right linear function were com-

difference. The results were reported to be compar- puted and the right gradient (0°) was defined as a

able to those obtained by Sakai t59~ and by Kasvand.~6°~ function of the two deviations and the average gray

(A.3t Functional approximations. Edge detection can values corresponding to the left and right two col-

be considered as an approximation problem. For umns. The picture was then rotated 7 times through

every point (x',y') in an image, HueckeP 6~ used a 45: and seven additional gradients were computed.

circular neighbourhood D about (x', y') and asked the The maximum value of the 8 gradients was taken as

question 'Are the intensities (x, y) in D the noisy form an indication of the goodness of the edge which was

of an ideal edge which is characterized by a step func- perpendicular to the direction of the gradient. The

tion?" Let technique was applied to rib outlining in chest X-rays.

It was reported that this technique gave significantly

Flx, v.c, sp, b , d ) = S b if c x + s y < p better results than gradient type operators. This edge

" )b+d if c x + s y > p "

O)

detector solves some of the problems related to edge

direction and noise but takes more computation time

where the x - y co-ordinate system has its origin at the than some simpler edge operators/55-58~

center of the circular region; F is the step function.

The task of the operator is to best approximate a (B) Edge element combination (streak or boundary for-

given empirical edge element whose gray values are marion)

,C(x.y) by an ideal edge element characterized by a

(B.1) Heuristic search and dynamic programming.

step function F. As a measure of closeness, E tthe

Heuristic search is a technique using state space

square of the Hilbert distances between f and F) was

search methods where heuristic information is used to

chosen.

limit the space to be searched. Martelli ~67'6a) formu-

lated the edge detection problem as a heuristic search

E =fo[y(x v) - F(x,y.c.s,p,b,d)]2dxdy. (10) for the shortest path on a graph. The graph nodes (or

states) were edge elements defined by two neighbour-

Hueckel's operator is an efficient solution to the ing pixels, e.g. the points A = (i,j), B = ( i , j + 1)

minimization of E. The minimization procedure was defined the directed edge element AB. The direction

facilitated by choosing orthonormal functions (e.g. of the edge was obtained with the convention of mov-

Fourier functions) over D. The results of the minimi- ing clockwise around the first pixel. He then stated

zation were the best edge and a measure of the good- that an edge was a sequence of adjacent edge elements

ness of the edge. This technique was later extended to that started in the top row (his arbitrary starting

detect lines?62~ Bullock~°4~ qualitatively evaluated six point), ended in the bottom row (his arbitrary ending

edge detection techniques applied to the detection of point), contained no loops and had no element whose

textured edges of outdoor scenes. These six edge direction was "'up". So an edge was a path in the

detection operators were (1) Robert's cross, ~93~ (2) graph that represented the state space and the prob-

high pass filter. ~ (3) Laplacian,I1~ (4) Sobel,~5~> (5) lem of finding the best edge in a picture reduced to

Kirsch ~6~ and (6) Hueckel. ~61'6z~ He ranked Hueckel the problem of finding an optimal path in the graph.

operator first although the complexity of this opera- He then embedded properties of edges into an evalu-

tor was the highest of these operators. He justified ation function and the edge which minimized this

using Hueckel operator in~64~ because it performed function was sought. Only two examples which were

better than the other five operators particularly on artifically generated with various amount of random

low contrast edges. He ranked the other operators in noise were reported. Some of the drawbacks of this

the following order: second Kirsch: third, Sobel; approach are that the algorithm is sequential in

fourth. Robert's cross, high pass filter, and Laplacian nature and the proposed approach does not provide

lthe last three operators shared the same rank). Fram for backtracking, so that once a mistake is made in

and Deutsch ~°~ evaluated three edge detection the midst of the edge the detected edge could be far

12 K.S. Fu and J. K. MuI

off from the desired edge. The construction of a connecting edge elements together is to fit lines (Tt) or

proper evaluation function is another problem. curves (72) through the edge elements. Duda and

Lester et a/. (96) applied heuristic search technique Hart (7t) proposed an efficient solution to the Hough

and a simpler scheme, the least maximum cost tech- transform which is an ingenious way of detecting coli-

nique, to white blood cell image segmentation. They near points. Suppose we have a set of n points

incorporated both threshold and gradient information {(xl,yt), (xZ,y2). . . . . (Xn, y,)} and we want to find a set

in the cost function which guided the search. Both of straight lines that fit them. We transform the points

heuristic search and the least maximum cost tech- (xi,yl) into the sinusoidal curves in the 0-p plane

nique were applied to 50 examples of touching white defined by

cells. They reported that heuristic search technique p = x~cos0 + y~sin0.

produced more acceptable boundaries than the least

maximum cost technique.

Montanari (69) proposed using dynamic program- It is obvious that curves corresponding to colinear

ming techniques to perform edge detection. A figure points have a common point of intersection. This

of merit representing the heuristic information was point in the 0--p space, say (00,Po), defines the line

ued to determine the relative value of different paths passing through the colinear points. The implementa-

but was not used to guide the search as in the heuris- tion is to quantize the 0-# space into an array of cells

tic search case mentioned above. This figure of merit and plot these sinusoidal curves on this array of cells.

determined the best path once they had all been enu- The number of curves that pass through every cell in

merated. Montanari discussed finding a smooth, dark the array is recorded. If the count in a given cell (O,pi)

curve of fixed length. The curve was embedded in a is k, then precisely k figure points lie (to within quan-

noisy background, but since the merit function did tization error) along the line whose normal par-

not guide the search, the computation time was inde- ameters are (O,p3. The Hough transform concept can

pendent of the noise level (which would not be the be extended to curves. (72'7a) Some of the limitations

case if the merit function guided the search as in heur- are that the results are sensitive to the quantization of

istic search). both 0 and p, and the technique finds colinear points

The figure of merit of a path zt,.., zn was defined without regard to contiguity. Thus the position of a

as best-fit line can be distorted by the presence of unre-

n-i lated points in another part of the picture.

hlzt . . . . . z.) = f(zi)-q F. (d(zt+,,zi) There are other techniques of edge detection such

i=I i=2

as template matching °) which can be applied not only

- d(z~, z~_ t)) mod 8 (11) in edge detection but in other areas as well, e.g. object

extraction. ") Template matching works well in a very

wheref(z3 is the gray level at z~ = (xl,y3, and d(z,z~) is constrained environment but fails where there is great

the slope between adjacent points z~ and z~, so the variation of the patterns to be matched.

second term is proportional to curvature. The follow-

ing constraints were placed on the solution

2.2 Sequential techniques

max(lx,+t - x,l,lY,+l - y,]) -- 1 (12)

In sequential edge detection, the result at a point is

(d(z~+ l,zi) - d(z,z~_ 1)) mod 8 ~< 1. (13)

contingent upon the results of the operator at pre-

Montanari then used dynamic programming viously examined points. The major components of a

techniques to arrive at an optimum solution. An arti- sequential edge detection procedure are:

ficially generated picture with various amounts of

(l) The picking of a good initial point: the perform-

randomly generated noise was processed. Some of the

ance of the entire procedure will depend upon the

criticisms of heuristic 'search can also be applied here.

choice of a good starting point.

The procedure also requires high execution time and

(2) The dependence structure: how do the results

large memory.

obtained at previously examined points affect both

(B.2) Relaxation. Rosenfeld(7°) and Riseman et

the choice of the next point to be examined and the

al. (s4) used a relaxation technique to connect edge

result at the next point?

elements. The technique is an iterative process where

(3) A termination criterion: there must be a way for

the probability that a canditate edge element is a true

the procedure to determine that it is finished.

edge element is re-estimated at each iteration. Some of

the advantages of this approach are that it is a There are a number of sequential techniques such

parallel process and it utilizes spatial information. as using heuristic search and dynamic programming

Some of the disadvantages are that the construction (both are discussed in B.l of Section 2.1). A guided

of the compatibility function which updates the prob- search technique was used by Kelly. (75) Chien and

abilities of edge elements is not trivial and the conver- Fu (74) used guided search with an evaluation function

gence rate of the process is often slow. to detect cardiac and lung boundaries in chest X-ray

(B.3) Line and curve fittino. Another technique of images.

A survey on image segmentation 13

2.3 Comments on the edge detection merged based on their class membership. Jarvis c91~

approach to image segmentation. used a shared near neighbour clustering technique to

do region merging. Tsuji and Fujiwara ~a3~ used

The problems with edge detection techniques are that

linguistic techniques to perform region merging.

sometimes edges are detected which are not the tran-

sition from one region to another and detected edges 3.2 Region dividinq

often have gaps in them at places where the tran-

One way of doing image segmentation by region

sitions between regions are not abrupt enough. So

extraction is the region dividing approach. Robertson

detected edges may not necessarily form a set of

et al, ~sS~ used a mean vector of gray levels of multi-

closed connected curves that surround connected

spectral image to perform region dividing.

regions. As far as the applicability of edge detection

Klinger ~a6'87~ proposed to use regular decomposition

techniques to cell image segmentation is concerned,

for image segmentation.

for example, there are more than six types of white

blood cell and each type has its own characteristic 3.3 Region merging and dividing

color and texture of the nucleus and cytoplasm. For

Horowitz and Pavlidis ~al's2J approached the prob-

neutrophils, the shape of the nucleus varies widely.

lem using a "split and merge" principle. Regions were

For basophils, there are heavy cytoplasm granules

described in terms of an approximating function.

that are on top of the nucleus. So it is very difficult to

They merged adjacent regions having similar approxi-

connect detected edge elements to form closed curves

mations and split those regions that had large ap-

because the information used to connect these edge

proximating errors.

elements may vary for different cell types. Besides, it is

computationally very expensive. Prewitt ~55~ applied 3.4 Comments on the region extraction approach to

an edge detection technique to neutrophil segmen- image segmentation

tation. However, her technique has not been proven

One of the disadvantages of the region merging

to be robust.

processes is their inherently sequential nature. The

regions produced depend on the order in which

3. REGION EXTRACTION

regions are merged together. Almost all region extrac-

Another way of doing image segmentation instead tion algorithms use local information heavily. There is

of finding boundaries of regions, is to divide the im- no simple way to incorporate global information into

age into regions. Zucker "61 wrote an excellent survey the model unless we severely restrict the class of pic-

on region extraction methods. Region extraction tech- tures we are dealing with. All of the region extraction

niques can be broken down into three categories, (1) techniques process the pictures in an iterative manner

region merging, (2) region dividing, and (3) a combi- and usually involve a great expenditure in computa-

nation of region merging and dividing. tion time and memory. Thus, they are not suitable for

application in cell image segmentation. Up to the

3.1 Region merging present moment, there is no published information on

M u e r l e and Allen ~6~ used regional neighbour successfully applying region extraction techniques to

search method to merge regions of similar properties. a practical cytology pattern recognition system.

Brice and Fennema c77) formed connected components

of equal intensity, refined with phagocyte and weak-

ness heuristics. Pavlidis ~9°~ partitioned the image into CONCLUSIONS

a collection of one-dimensional strips, divided the

This paper surveys various existing approaches to

strips into segments and merged the segments with image segmentation. So far, image segmentation tech-

similar approximation coefficients. Feldman and Yaki- niques are strongly application dependent, For

movsky~s's4~ used semantics to do region merging.

example, edge detection techniques are favoured by

They tried to maximize the probability that all

most researchers in chest X-ray image segmentation

regions and boarders were correctly interpreted.

whereas thresholding and clustering techniques are

Rosenfeld et al.~sa~ used a relaxation approach, also

widely used by researchers in cell image segmentation.

called iterative probabilistic process to do scene label-

Semantic and a priori information about the type of

ling.

images are critical to the solution of the segmentation

Tenenbaum and Barrow ~ag~ proposed IGS (Inter-

problem. One of the fruitful areas of reaearch is to

pretation Guided Segmentation) as an approach to

combine spatial and semantic information with edge

region merging. The program iteratively processed the

detection and thresholding or clustering techniques to

scene until its components were semantically consist- perform image segmentation.

ent. For example: a picture hung on a wall, a tele-

phone on top of a desk. Gupta and Wintz 179's°~ used

a mimmum distance classifier which interpreted each

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About ~ AUdlor--K[NG-SUN Fu received the Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering from the University

of Illinois, Urbana, in 1959. He is presently Goss Distinguished Professor of Engineering and Professor

of Electrical Engineering at Purdue University.

He is a Fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, a member of the National

Academy of Engineering and Academia Sinica, and a Guggenheim Fellow. He received the Herbert N.

McCoy Award for contributions to Science in 1976 and the Outstanding Paper Award of the IEEE

Computer Society in 1977. He is the Senior Editor of IEEE Transactions on Pattern Aitalysis and

Machine Intelligence, and an Associate Editor of IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics,

Pattern Recognition, Journal of Cybernetics, and Information Sciences, a member of the editorial board of

the International Journal of Computer and Information Sciences, and a member of the editorial advisory

committee of the Journal of Information Processing. He is presently the chairman of the Executive

Committee of International Association for Pattern Recognition (IAPR). He is the author of the books,

Sequential Methods in Pattern Recognition and Syntactic Methods in Pattern Recognition, published by

Academic Press in 1968 and 1974, respectively.

Abool the Author--JAcK KIN YEE MUx was born in Toyshan, Kwangtung, China on February 1, 1952.

He r~,~ived the B.S. degree with highest distinction and M.S. degree, both in electrical engineering from

Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois in 1972 and 1974 respectively.

During 1972-1973, he was the recipient of Walter J. Murphy Fellowship. During 1973-1974, he was a

teaching assistant at the department of electrical engineering and computer science at Northwestern

University. Since August 1974, he has been a graduate research assistant in the Advanced Automation

Research Laboratory at Purdue University. From May 1975 to April 1977, he was on leave to perform

research on automated blood cell classification at the Medical Automation Research Unit of Rush

Presbyterian St. Luke's Medical Center in Chicago, Illinois. His research interests include image process-

ing, pattern recognition, computer graphics and software engineering. Since December 1978 he has been

with Bell Telephone Laboratories, Naperville, Illinois.

Mr. Mui is a member of Eta Kappa Nu, Phi Kappa Phi, Tau Beta Pi, IEEE, ACM and the Pattern

Recognition Society,

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