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Basic Principle of Massive MIMO


Background

50years ago,Shanon give the capacity formula:


 PT 
C  log2 
1  N 
 bit s/Hz/s
 0 

System capacity is near to the maximum limitation through Turbo and LDPC

code used.

In future, capacity improving depends on MIMO which spatial multiplexing will


be used

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Multi Input Multi Output (MIMO)
MIMO:improve system performance by using multiple antennas.

Multi Antennas development driven MIMO using spreadly.

2T2R 4T4R 8T8R


1T1R

Multiple antennas: obtains gain of diversity, array, spatial multiplexing and interference control

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Gain from Multi-Antenna
Diversity Interference
Gain Rejection

Array Multiplexing
Gain Gain
 Array Gain——Improve SINR
 Spatial diversity——decrease the fluctuation
of SINR
 Spatial multiplexing——improve capacity
Multi-
 Interference cancelling——improve SIR Antenna
Gain

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LTE TDD Transmission Mode
Transmission 2Tx 4Tx
Transmission Scheme Comments
Mode Support Support
TM1 Single-antenna port, port 0 Y Y TDD or FDD, Port 0

TM2 Transmit Diversity SFBC SFBC+FSTD TDD or FDD, Ports 0-3

TM3 Open-Loop Spatial Multiplexing 2 Layer 4 Layer TDD or FDD, Ports 0-3

TM4 Closed-Loop Spatial Multiplexing(SM) 2 Layer 4 Layer TDD or FDD, Ports 0-3

TM5 Multi-user MIMO Y Y TDD or FDD, Ports 0-3

TM6 Closed-loop Rank = 1 Precoding Y Y TDD or FDD, Ports 0-3

TM7 Single Layer Beamfoming( port 5 ) N Y TDD preferred, Ports 5

TDD preferred, Ports 7-8


TM8 (R9) Dual Layer Beamfoming( port 7,8 ) N Y
SU & MU MIMO

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LTE TDD MIMO and Beam-forming

SISO, SIMO Beam-forming SDMA = Space Division Multiple Access


R8(TM7),R9(TM8)

TM1 TM7/8
For Up-link vMIMO and DL MU-BF

Open-Loop-MIMO Closed-Loop-MIMO MU-MIMO = Multi-user MIMO

Null of the
beam

TM2 TM3 TM4 TM6 TM5

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Beam-forming principle(1)

2 antennas,a beam can be obtained but fat.


Single Antenna,cannot beam forming

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Beam-forming principle(2)

4 antennas, a main beam can be obtained 4 antennas, a main beam direction can be
3 antennas,a main beam can be obtained. and direct to 0 deg. changed to 30 deg.

Beam forming:by weighted on Tx channel,beam with direction can be obtained, and direction can be
changed by different weighted value.
• More antenna,beam will be more narrow,the energy will more focus on UE.

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Massive MIMO

Physical

Logical

8T8R: H8V1 16T16R: H16V1 32T32R: H16V2 64T64R: H16V4 64T64R: H16V4 128T128R: H16V8

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Key technology Capacity improving by Massive MIMO
MU BF 3D MIMO

 More antenna brings more capacity by MU BF


 More antenna bring better SINR by BF
 More antenna bring less interference by narrow beam
 Maximum 5x capacity improved by Massive MIMO

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Massive MIMO Average Capacity Gain Impact Factors

User Distributions User Locations

Traffic Patterns

Mobility

Distributed at different places (lower correlation) or Cell center (high SINR) or


Large packets & constant data
Gathered at same spot (higher correlation) cell edge (low SINR)
(downloading, video)

Multipath UE Types Stationary, low speed or


high speed mobility

Small packets & burst data


(SNS, web pages…)
Smartphone (no antenna gain) or
CPE (higher antenna gain)
Rich scattered multipath scenario or not
MU-BF pairing prefers:
constant larger packets, lower correlation, rich multipath, higher SINR and low mobility
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Factors to effect Performance - Traffic Load & Signal Quality

Traffic Load Link Quality

 Low traffic load: only BF link gain  In low SINR region, the link-level BF gain is the main
factor to improve the throughput
 Heavy traffic load: both MU-BF gain and BF link
gain  In middle and high SINR region, the MUBF layer is
the main factor to improve the throughput

High Capacity
Region

Coverage
Region

Capacity gain size of Massive MIMO grows with load Cell throughput of Massive MIMO grows with the SINR
increasing increasing

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Factors to effect Performance - User Distribution

 Pairing number depends on the usage of Massive MIMO beams.


 The number of Massive MIMO valid beams is based on User Dispersion.

Higher user dispersion brings more valid


Lower user dispersion causes fewer valid beams
beams

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Factors to effect Performance - Antenna Height & UE Distance

Antenna Height UE Distance

If the antenna height isn’t enough, it will be mainly covered by If the coverage target is far from site, users distribute in fewer
one vertical beam, which isn’t good for MM capacity horizontal beams, which isn’t good for MM capacity.

High Antenna √

Distance
UE in different beams

Low Antenna X

Short distance Long distance


√ X
UE in same beam More beams Fewer beams

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Vertical Parameter Design
Antenna Pattern Introduction Parameter Design

Antenna pattern setting is flexible and suitable for different


scenarios:

 Pattern: 13 Types
 Electrical Down tilt: -15°~15° Horizontal HPBW:
S

Covh
β
𝐶𝑜𝑣ℎ
Antenna Gain(dBi) (±1) 𝛽 = 2 × tan−1 ( )
No.
Horizontal Vertical
l HPBW HPBW Tilt 0° (+-)3° (+-)6° (+-)9° (+-)12° (+-)15°
2×𝑆
1 90 8 14.08 14.04 13.91 13.69 13.32 12.81
2 65 8 15.97 15.94 15.82 15.58 15.18 14.62
3 45 8 17.62 17.4 17.2 16.88 16.42 15.75
4 25 8 19.74 19.61 19.36 18.98 18.47 17.71
5 90 17 11.07 11.03 10.92 10.69 10.33 9.82
6 65 17 12.96 12.89 12.74 12.46 12.1 11.66
Tilt:
7 45 17 14.5 14.41 14.45 14.23 13.88 13.38
8 25 17 16.73 16.62 16.42 16.42 15.71 15.14
ℎ𝐵𝑇𝑆 − 𝐶𝑜𝑣𝑣 2
9 15 17 19.74 19.63 19.4 19.1 18.67 18.1
𝛼 = tan−1 ( )
10 65 35 9.95 - - - - - 𝑆

Covv
11 45 35 11.52 - - - - - β
12 25 35 13.76 - - - - - α Vertical HPBW:
13 15 35 16.77 - - - - -
S

hBTS
β
No.10~No.13’s vertical beam is wide and antenna gain is not much different
ℎ𝐵𝑇𝑆 𝐶𝑜𝑣𝑣 − ℎ𝐵𝑇𝑆
= tan−1( ) + tan−1 ( )
𝑆 𝑆

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Massive MIMO DL Coverage Analysis
Downlink Coverage Uplink Coverage

TxAntennaGain RxAntennaGain
• Flexible broadcast beam • Flexible broadcast beam
• Beamforming boosted service beam
TxPower RxPower

PropagationLoss PropagationLoss

CableLoss CableLoss
AAU Design AAU Design
No Cable Loss ShadowFadingMargin No Cable Loss ShadowFadingMargin

InterferenceMargin InterferenceMargin
RxPower TxPower
PenetrationLoss PenetrationLoss
RxAntennaGain TxAntennaGain

Massive MIMO Antenna Gain is the Most Distinguished Difference compared with Normal Macro.

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Huawei is Key Contributors of Massive MIMO Standard & Patent
Leading 3GPP Study & Work in Massive MIMO
Acquired 50+ key patents in Massive MIMO
related AAS/Channel modeling/Scenario/Pilot improvement etc…

Engineering Channel
BF Architecture
Pilot Design CPRI
Antenna Array
L2 Schedule
› AAS:
» Leading 3GPP RAN4 R11(RP-111349) AAS initialization: performance and Essential Patent Example
system impact study;
Architecture:Modular AAS Design
» R11 SI, R12 WI,R13 WI reporter, leading standard definition, convener of
RAN4 AAS AdHoc meeting. Algorithm:L2 Adaptive Traversal pairing
› 3D channel modeling: provide field test channel & Ray tracing simulation result as CPRI:Massive MIMO Compression
major input of standard;
› 3D MIMO SI: proposed proactive cell shaping concept, leading SRS/DMRS Others:Panel Base station Heat Radiating
improvement study items.

About 90% Standard proposals and Patents for Massive MIMO were proposed by Huawei .
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Thank you