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Torsion

Torque

Torque

• Torsion refers to the twisting of a

straight member (bar shaped in

particular) when it is loaded by

moments (or torques) that tend

to produce rotation about the

longitudinal axis of the bar.

• For instance, when you turn a

screwdriver, your hand applies a

torque T to the handle and twists

the shank of the screwdriver.

• Other examples of bars in torsion

are drive shafts in automobiles,

axles, propeller shafts, steering

rods and drill bits.

Torque

• An idealized case of torsional loading is

pictured in the figure, which shows a

straight bar supported at one end and

loaded by two pairs of equal and

opposite forces.

• The first pair consists of the forces P1

acting near the midpoint of the bar and

the second pair consists of the forces P2

acting at the end.

• Each pair of forces forms a couple that

tends to twist the bar about its

longitudinal axis.

• The first couple has a moment T1 = P1d1

and the second has a moment T2 = P2d2.

Torque

• The moment of a couple may be represented

by a vector in the form of a double-headed

arrow.

• The arrow is perpendicular to the plane

containing the couple, and therefore in this

case both arrows are parallel to the axis of the

bar.

• The direction (or sense) of the moment is

indicated by the right-hand rule for moment

vectors namely, using your right hand, let your

fingers curl in the direction of the moment,

and then your thumb will point in the

direction of the vector.

• An alternative representation of a moment is

a curved arrow acting in the direction of

rotation.

• Both the curved arrow and vector

representations are in common use.

Torque

• Moments that produce twisting of a bar about its

longitudinal axis, such as the moments T1 and T2 in

the figure, are called torques or twisting moments.

• Cylindrical members that are subjected to torques

and transmit power through rotation are called

shafts; for instance, the drive shaft of an automobile

or the propeller shaft of a ship.

• Most shafts have circular cross sections, either solid

or tubular.

Torsional Deformation of

Circular Bars / Shafts

Torsional Deformation

• When the torque is applied, the circles and

longitudinal grid lines originally marked on

the shaft tend to distort into the pattern

shown in the figure.

• Twisting causes the circles to remain

circles and each longitudinal grid line

deforms into a helix that intersects the

circles at equal angles.

• Also, the cross sections from the ends

along the shaft will remain flat, that is,

they do not warp or bulge in or out, and

radial lines remain straight during the

deformation.

• The angle of twist is considerably small,

thus the length of the shaft and its radius

remain unchanged.

• Considering a prismatic bar of circular cross section twisted

by torques T acting at the ends.

• Since every cross section of the bar is identical and since

every cross section is subjected to the same internal torque T,

the bar is said in pure torsion.

• If the left-hand end of the bar is fixed in position, under the

action of the torque T, the right-hand end will rotate (with

respect to the left-hand end) through a small angle 𝜙, known

as the angle of twist (or angle of rotation).

• Because of this rotation, a straight longitudinal line pq on the

surface of the bar will become a helical curve pq, where q is the

position of point q after the end cross section has rotated through

the angle 𝜙.

• The angle of twist changes along the axis of the bar, and at

intermediate cross sections it will have a value 𝜙(x) that is between

zero at the left-hand end and 𝜙 at the right-hand end.

• If every cross section of the bar has the same radius and is

subjected to the same torque (pure torsion), the angle 𝜙(x) will

vary linearly between the ends.

Shear Strains

• Consider an element of the bar between two cross sections

distance dx apart.

• On its outer surface we identify a small element abcd, with sides ab

and cd that initially are parallel to the longitudinal axis.

• During twisting of the bar, the right-hand cross section rotates with

respect to the left-hand cross section through a small angle of twist

d𝜙, so that points b and c move to b’ and c’ respectively.

• The lengths of the sides of the element, which is now element

ab’c’d, do not change during this small rotation.

• However, the angles at the corners of the element are no

longer equal to 900.

• The magnitude of the shear strain at the outer surface of

the bar, denoted 𝛾max , is equal to the decrease in the

angle at point a, that is, the decrease in angle b-a-d.

• The decrease in this angle is :

• 𝛾max is measured in radians, bb’ is the distance through

which point b moves, and ab is the length of the element

(equal to dx).

• With r denoting the radius of the bar, we can express the

distance bb as rd𝜙, where d𝜙 also is measured in

radians.

• Thus, the preceding equation becomes :

• The equation relates the shear strain at the outer

surface of the bar to the angle of twist.

• The quantity d𝜙/dx is the rate of change of the angle of

twist 𝜙 with respect to the distance x measured along

the axis of the bar.

• We will denote d𝜙/dx by the symbol 𝜃 and refer to it as

the rate of twist, or the angle of twist per unit length :

𝜃 = d𝜙/dx …(3)

• Therefore :

𝛾max = r𝜃 …(4)

• Or,

𝛾max = r𝜙 / L …(5)

bar.

• The shear strains within the interior of the bar can be found

by the same method used to find the shear strain 𝛾max at the

surface.

• Because radii in the cross sections of a bar remain straight

and undistorted during twisting, we see that the preceding

discussion for an element abcd at the outer surface will also

hold for a similar element situated on the surface of an

interior cylinder of radius 𝜌.

• Thus,

𝛾 = 𝜌𝜃 = 𝜌𝛾max / r …(6)

Shear Stress

Shear Stress

• The torque T tends to rotate the right-hand end of

the bar counterclockwise when viewed from the

right.

• Therefore, the shear stresses 𝜏 acting on a stress

element located on the surface of the bar will have

the directions shown in the figure.

• From Hooke’s law,

𝜏 = G𝛾 …(7)

Shear Stress

• And,

𝜏max = Gr𝜃 …(8)

• Eqs. (8) and (9) show that the shear stresses vary linearly

with the distance from the centre of the bar, as illustrated by

the triangular stress diagram in the figure.

• This linear variation of stress is a consequence of Hooke’s law.

• If the stress-strain relation is nonlinear, the stresses will vary

nonlinearly and other methods of analysis will be needed.

The Torsion Formula

The Torsion Formula

• Eq. (9) expresses the shear-

stress distribution over the

cross section in terms of the

radial position of the

element.

• Using it, we can now apply

the condition that requires

the torque produced by the

stress distribution over the

entire cross section to be

equivalent to the resultant

internal torque T at the

section, which holds the bar

in equilibrium.

The Torsion Formula

• Specifically, each element of area dA, located at 𝜌 is

subjected to a force of dF = 𝜏dA. The torque

produced by this force is dT = 𝜌(𝜏dA).

• We therefore have for the entire cross section,

T (dA) max dA …(10)

A A

r

The Torsion Formula

• Since 𝜏max / r is constant,

max

T

r

A

2 dA …(11)

of the bar’s cross sectional area about the

longitudinal axis; symbolized as J.

The Torsion Formula

• Rearranging Eq. (11) gives,

Tr

max …(12)

J

and,

T

…(13)

J

The Torsion Formula

• For solid bar / shaft,

J r4 …(14)

2

J (r ri )

0

4 4

…(15)

2

Examples

Example 5.2

• The shaft is supported by two bearings and is subjected to three

torques. Determine the shear stress developed at points A and B,

located at section a–a of the shaft.

Example 5.2

Example 5.2

Example 5.3

• The pipe has an inner diameter of 80 mm and an outer diameter of

100 mm. If its end is tightened against the support at A using a

torque wrench at B, determine the shear stress developed in the

material at the inner and outer walls along the central portion of

the pipe when the 80 N forces are applied to the wrench.

Example 5.3

Example 5.3

Angle of Twist

Angle of Twist

Angle of Twist

• The angle of twist of a bar 𝜙 can now be related to

the applied torque T.

• Combining Eq. (8) with Eq. (12) gives,

T

…(16)

JG

• This equation shows that the rate of twist 𝜃 is

directly proportional to the torque T and inversely

proportional to the product JG, known as the

torsional rigidity of the bar.

Angle of Twist

• For a bar in pure torsion, the total angle of twist 𝜙

equal to the rate of twist 𝜃 times the length of the

bar L, that is,

L

• Therefore,

TL

…(17)

JG

Angle of Twist

• For multiple torques, or if the cross-sectional area or shear

modulus changes abruptly from one region of the shaft to

the next,

TL

…(18)

JG

Sign Convention

Example

Sign Convention

Example

Examples

Example 5.5

• The gears attached to the fixed-end steel shaft are subjected to the

torques. If the shear modulus of elasticity is 80 GPa and the shaft

has a diameter of 14 mm, determine the displacement of the tooth

P on gear A. The shaft turns freely within the bearing at B.

Example 5.5

Example 5.5

Example 5.5

Example 5.7

• The 2-inch diameter solid cast-

iron post is buried 24 inch in

soil. If a torque is applied to its

top using a rigid wrench,

determine the maximum shear

stress in the post and the angle

of twist at its top. Assume that

the torque is about to turn the

post, and the soil exerts a

uniform torsional resistance of

along its 24-inch buried length.

Take G = 5.5 x 103 ksi.

Example 5.7

Example 5.7

Example 5.7

• The largest shear stress occurs in region AB, since

the torque is largest there and J is constant for the

post.

• Applying the torsion formula, we have maximum

shear stress as,

Example 5.7

• The angle of twist at the top can be determined relative to the

bottom of the post, since it is fixed and yet is about to turn.

• Both segments AB and BC twist, and so in this case we have

Statically Indeterminate

Torque-Loaded Members

Statically Indeterminate

• A torsionally loaded shaft may be classified as statically

indeterminate if the moment equation of equilibrium,

applied about the axis of the shaft, is not adequate to

determine the unknown torques acting on the shaft.

Statically Indeterminate

• As shown on the free-body

diagram, the reactive

torques at the supports A

and B are unknown.

• We require that,

𝛴Mx = 0;

T – TA – TB = 0 …(1)

Statically Indeterminate

• The necessary condition of compatibility, or the

kinematic condition, requires the angle of twist of one

end of the shaft with respect to the other end to be

equal to zero, since the end supports are fixed.

• Therefore,

𝜙A/B = 0

load–displacement relation 𝜙 = TL/JG to express the

compatibility condition in terms of the unknown

torques.

Statically Indeterminate

• Realizing that the internal torque in segment AC is

+TA and in segment CB it is –TB , we have

TA LAC TB LBC

0 …(2)

JG JG

• Solving Eqs. (1) and (2) gives,

LBC LAC

TA T TB T

L L

Examples

Example 5.8

• The solid steel shaft has a diameter of 20 mm. If it is

subjected to the two torques, determine the

reactions at the fixed supports A and B.

Example 5.8

• By inspection of the free-

body diagram, it is seen that

the problem is statically

indeterminate since there is

only one available equation

of equilibrium and there are

two unknowns.

• We require

Example 5.8

• Since the ends of the shaft are fixed, the angle of twist

of one end of the shaft with respect to the other must

be zero.

• Hence, the compatibility equation becomes

𝜙A/B = 0

torques by using 𝜙 = TL/JG.

• Here there are three regions of the shaft where the

internal torque is constant.

Example 5.8

• On the free-body diagrams we have shown the

internal torques acting on the left segments of the

shaft which are sectioned in each of these regions.

• This way the internal torque is only a function of TB .

• Therefore,

Example 5.8

• Hence,

TB = 645 N.m

TA = – 345 N.m

Example 5.9

• The shaft is made from

a steel tube, which is

bonded to a brass core.

If a torque of T = 250

lb.ft is applied at its

end, plot the shear-

stress distribution

along a radial line of its

cross-sectional area.

Take Gst = 11.4 x 103 ksi

and Gbr = 5.20 x 103 ksi.

Example 5.9

• A free-body diagram

of the shaft is shown

in the figure. The

reaction at the wall

has been represented

by the unknown

amount of torque

resisted by the steel,

Tst and by the brass,

Tbr . Working in units

of pounds and inches,

equilibrium requires

Example 5.9

• We require the angle of twist of end A to be the same for

both the steel and brass since they are bonded together.

Thus,

𝜙 = 𝜙st = 𝜙br

Example 5.9

• Solving Eqs. (1) and (2),

its center to a maximum at the interface where it

contacts the steel tube. Using the torsion formula,

Example 5.9

• For the steel, the minimum and maximum shear

stresses are

Example 5.9

• Note the discontinuity of

shear stress at the brass and

steel interface. This is to be

expected, since the materials

have different moduli of

rigidity; i.e., steel is stiffer

than brass (Gst > Gbr) and thus

it carries more shear stress at

the interface. Although the

shear stress is discontinuous

here, the shear strain is not.

Rather, the shear strain is the

same for both the brass and

the steel.

Stress Concentration

Stress Concentration

• Stress concentrations in

shafts occur at points of

sudden cross-sectional

change, such as

couplings, keyways, and

at shoulder fillets.

• The more severe the

change in geometry, the

larger the stress

concentration.

Stress Concentration

• For design or analysis, it is

not necessary to know

the exact shear-stress

distribution on the cross

section.

• Instead, it is possible to

obtain the maximum

shear stress using a stress

concentration factor K,

that has been determined

through experiment, and

is only a function of the

geometry of the shaft.

Stress Concentration

• The maximum shear stress is then determined from

𝜏max = K T r / J

subjected to a static torque will not have to be

considered in design; however, if the material is

brittle, or subjected to fatigue loadings, then stress

concentrations become important.

Exercises

Exercise 1

• The solid circular shaft is subjected to an internal

torque of T = 5 kNm. Determine the shear stress

developed at points A and B. Represent each state of

stress on a volume element.

Exercise 2

• The hollow circular shaft is subjected to an internal

torque of T = 10 kNm. Determine the shear stress

developed at points A and B. Represent each state of

stress on a volume element.

Exercise 3

• Determine the maximum shear stress developed in

the 40-mm diameter shaft.

Exercise 4

• Determine the maximum shear stress developed in

the shaft at section a–a.

Exercise 5

• The solid shaft has a diameter of 0.75 inch. If it is

subjected to the torques shown, determine the

maximum shear stress developed in regions CD and EF of

the shaft. The bearings at A and F allow free rotation of

the shaft.

Exercise 6

• The coupling is used to connect the two shafts together.

Assuming that the shear stress in the bolts is uniform,

determine the number of bolts necessary to make the

maximum shear stress in the shaft equal to the shear

stress in the bolts. Each bolt has a diameter d.

Exercise 7

• The solid 50-mm-

diameter shaft is used

to transmit the

torques applied to the

gears. Determine the

absolute maximum

shear stress in the

shaft.

Exercise 8

• The 60-mm-diameter A-36 steel shaft is subjected to

the torques shown. Determine the angle of twist of

end A with respect to C.

Exercise 9

• Determine the angle of twist of wheel B with respect to

wheel A. The shaft has a diameter of 40 mm and is made

of A-36 steel.

Exercise 10

• A series of gears are mounted on the 40-mm diameter A-

36 steel shaft. Determine the angle of twist of gear B

relative to gear A.

Exercise 11

• The 80-mm-diameter shaft is made of A-36 steel. If it is

subjected to the uniform distributed torque, determine

the angle of twist of end A with respect to B.

Exercise 12

• The 60-mm diameter shaft ABC is supported by two journal bearings,

while the 80-mm diameter shaft EH is fixed at E and supported by a

journal bearing at H. If T1 = 2 kNm and T2 = 4 kNm, determine the angle of

twist of gears A and C. The shafts are made of A-36 steel.

Exercise 13

• The shafts are made

of A-36 steel and

each has a diameter

of 80 mm. Determine

the angles of twist at

end E and gear D.

Exercise 14

• The A-36 steel shaft has a diameter of 50 mm and is fixed

at its ends A and B. If it is subjected to the torque,

determine the maximum shear stress in regions AC and

CB of the shaft.

Exercise 15

• The shaft is made from a

solid steel section AB and a

tubular portion made of

steel and having a brass

core. If it is fixed to a rigid

support at A, and a torque

of T = 50 lb.ft is applied to it

at C, determine the angle of

twist that occurs at C and

compute the maximum

shear stress and maximum

shear strain in the brass and

steel. Take Gst = 11.5 x 103 ksi,

Gbr = 5.6 x 103 ksi.

Exercise 16

• The shaft is made of A-36 steel, has a diameter of 80 mm, and is

fixed at B while A is loose and can rotate 0.005 rad before

becoming fixed. When the torques are applied to C and D,

determine the maximum shear stress in regions AC and CD of the

shaft.

Exercise 17

• The A-36 steel shaft has a diameter of 60 mm and is fixed

at its ends A and B. If it is subjected to the torques

shown, determine the absolute maximum shear stress in

the shaft.

Exercise 18

• The steel shaft is made from two segments: AC has a diameter of 0.5 inch,

and CB has a diameter of 1 inch. If it is fixed at its ends A and B and

subjected to a torque of 500 lb.ft, determine the maximum shear stress in

the shaft. Take Gst = 10.8 x 103 ksi.

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