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56 Aufrufe12 SeitenMy Personal Notes on Network Theory.

Jan 13, 2018

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My Personal Notes on Network Theory.

© All Rights Reserved

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56 Aufrufe

My Personal Notes on Network Theory.

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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Eric Peña

December 19, 2017

Adjacency Matrix

Graphs may be represented in the form of a matrix. Main types of graphs

that may be represented are:

• Simple Graph

• Multigraph

• Directed Graph

• Weighted Graph

• Bipartite Graph

Directed Graph

Directed graphs are graphs that contain edges with direction. Vertices may

have inward and outward edges.

Unlike adjacency matricies for simped graphs, adjacency matricies for

directed graphs are non-symmetric. Elements of an adjacency matrix for a

directed graph may be denoted as:

Aij

1

Figure 1.0 Directed Graph with four vertices

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

A= 1 1

0 0

1 1 0 0

Cocitation

The cocitation of two vertices i and j in a directed network is the number of

vertices that have outgoing edges pointing to both i and j. We can see that:

Aik Ajk = 1

if i and j are both cited by k. If we sum over all these elements we get the

following relation:

n

X n

X

Cij = Aik Ajk = Aik ATkj = AAT

k=1 k=1

Cij > 0, for i 6= j.

2

The diagonal elements of the cocitation matrix are given by:

n

X n

X

Cii = A2ik = Aik

k=1 k=1

meaning that the network’s adjacency matrix is equal to the cocitation matrix

but with all the diagonal elements set to zero.

Bibliographic Coupling

Cocitation and Bibliographic coupling are similar mathematically but give

different results. They’re both affected by the number of in and out edges.

Bibliographic Coupling of two vertices are the number of other vertices to

which both i and j point to. Bibliographic Coupling is general more stable

since the number of citations can vary with time. Bibliographic Coupling is

known at time of publishing and doesn’t change at all. This may or may

not be a good thing depending on the situation. Mathematically, it can be

described by the following:

n

X n

X

Bij = Aki Akj = ATik Akj = AT A

k=1 k=1

n

X n

X

Bii = A2ki = Aki

k=1 k=1

Bii is equal to the number of other vertices that vertex i points to - the

number of papers i cites.

3

Figure 1.1 Shows cocitation and bibliographic coupling network comparison

Hypergraphs

Networks with link that join more than two vertices are called hypergraphs.

These types of graphs are useful when representing family relations for ex-

ample. Edges that relate more than two vertices are called hyperedges. In

sociology, these networks may be called affiliation networks.

Bipartite Networks

Hypergraphs may be difficult to deal with and represent mathematically but

a tool that can help are bipartite graphs - a way of conveniently represent-

ing the hypergraph structure. In sociology, this may be called: two-mode

networks. Edges only exist between two vertices of unlike-types.

The adjacency matrix for a bipartite graph is a rectangular matrix called

an incidence matrix which is a g by n matrix where g is the number of groups

and n are the number of members in the groups.

(

1, if vertex j belongs to group i

Bij =

0, otherwise

4

Figure 1.2 Bipartite Graph

The adjancency matrix for the bipartite graph above can be written as a

4 by 5 matrix:

1 0 0 1 0

1 1 1 1 0

B= 0 1 1 0 1

0 0 1 1 1

This is a much easier way of representing the hypergraph of actors to

movies for example. For much info, read section 6.6 (p.125) of Networks -

An Introduction (Newman).

The bipartite graph can be broken down even further by making two

one-mode projections. One projection can be made with the groups side and

another can be made with members side. These projects have the benefit

of being simpler to study but are less powerful because information is lost

through these projections.

5

• The number of groups for which members i and j are both a part of.

This is an n x n matrix:

P = BT B

matrix:

P 0 = BB T

Quick Thought

Naturally you want to relate this to cociation and bibliographic coupling

networks but it may be confusing to do so. The main difference between

cocitation and bibliographic coupling is the direction of the arrows. This

bipartite network consists of two different types of nodes and un-directed

edges. Therefore, you may have some cyclic thinking if you try to relate

them too much. Although The first projection (the one on the members) is

similar to the cocitation network in that the diagonals should be ignored and

forced to be zero.

Information Loss

Although these projections make life a little easier, it does come at a cost:

loss of information. Some of the things we loose are the number of groups

in the network and the exact membership of each group. If we make the

projection weighted graphs, we can at least get information as to how many

commons groups a pair of vertices share for example.

Trees

A tree is a connected, undirected network that contains no closed loops. Con-

nected means that every vertex in the network is reachable from every other

via some path through the network. A network can also consists of two or

more parts. If the individual parts of the network are trees, the then network

as a whole is considered a forest. There are leaves on a tree - vertices with

one edge on them but topologically, there isn’t really a root.

The most important property of a tree is that, since there are no closed

loops, there is only one path between any pair of vertices. In a forest, there

6

is at most one path but there may be none.

Another very useful property of trees is that a tree of n vertices always has

n − 1 edges. The reverse is also true: any connected network with n vertices

and n − 1 edges is a tree. If such a network were not a tree then there must

be a loop in the network somewhere, implying that we could remove an edge

without disconnecting any part of the network.

Planar Network

Simply put, a planar network is a network that can be drawn on a plane

without having any edges cross. All trees are planar but most of the time,

network are not planar (e.g., citation networks, metabolic networks, inter-

net, etc.). Some networks are forced to be planar because of physics space

constraints such as rivers or road networks.

These types of networks play an important role in the four-color theorem

which state that the number of colors required to color a graph in this way

is called the chromatic number of the graph and many mathematical results

are known about chromatic numbers.

An important to point out is that there is a method of determining if

a network is planar. It’s fairly easy to tell by observation if the network is

small but when the network is very large, a general method is required.

Kuratowski’s Theorem: Every non-planar network contains a least one

subgraph that is an expansion of K5 and U G. (Read more about this on p.

132 of Networks - an Introduction (Newman)).

Degree

Mean Degree

We will denote the degree of vertex i by ki . For an undirected graph of n

vertices the degree can be written in terms of the adjacency matrix as:

n

X

ki = Aij

j=1

7

Every edge in an undirected graph has two ends and if there are m edges

in total then there are 2m ends of edges. But the number of ends of edges is

also equal to the sum of the degrees of all the vertices, so

n

X

2m = ki

i=1

n n

1X 1X

m= ki = Aij

2 i=1 2 ij

n

1X

c= ki

n i=1

2m

c=

n

Density

The maximum possible number of edges in a simple graph is n2 = 12 n(n−1).

are actually present:

m 2m c

ρ= n =

=

2

n(n − 1) n−1

A network in which ρ → 0 as n → ∞ is said to be sparse.

Vertex degrees in a directed network are more complicated. They are broken

up into in-degree and out-degree. If Aij is the adjacency matrix of a directed

8

network, the in and out degree can be written as:

n

X n

X

kiin = Aij , kjout = Aij

j=1 i=1

n

X n

X X

m= kiin = kjout = Aij

i=1 j=1 ij

n n

1 X in 1 X out

cin = ki = k = cout

n i=1 n j=1 j

Combining these two relations, the mean degree can concisely be written

as:

m

c=

n

Paths

A path along a network is a route across the network moving from vertex

to vertex along the edges. In a directed network, the path can on go in the

direction of the edge but can go either way for an undirected network. A

path may reach a vertex or go along an edge it has seen before. A path that

does not intersect itself is considered a self-avoiding path. Geodesic paths

and Hamiltonian paths are two special cases of self-avoiding paths.

The number of paths of length r may be important to study and can be

calculated for directed and undirected networks. We will use the fact that

for directed and undirected networks, Aij is 1 if there is an edge from vertex

j to vertex i, and 0 otherwise. We can start by asking how many paths of

length 2 are there in a network. Imagine we want to study all paths of length

2 from j to i via k. The product Aik Akj is 1 where there is a path of length

2 from j to i via k, and 0 otherwise.

n

X

(2)

Aik Akj = A2 ij

Nij =

k=1

9

We can study the path of length 3 as well. The product Aik Akl Alj is 1

where there exists a path of length 3, and 0 otherwise.

n

X

(3)

Aik Akl Alj = A3 ij

Nij =

k,l=1

Nijr = [Ar ]ij

There is a proof of induction on page 137 of Network - An Introduction

(Newman).

loops may be calculated as well.

n

X

Lr = [Ar ]ii = T rAr

i=1

There ’Tr’ is the trace of a matrix. The number of loops can be written

in terms of the eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix as well. The adjacency

matrix can be written as A = U KU T where U is the orthogonal matrix of

eigenvectors and K is the orthogonal matrix of eigenvalues:

Ar = (U KU T )r = U K r U T

X

Lr = T r(U K r U T ) = T r(U T U K r ) = T r(k r ) = kir

i

directed and undirected graphs. There is one important thing to note when

learning about counting the number of loops on length r. For each consid-

eration below, the calculation for determining the number of loops uses the

following criteria for counting distinct loops.

• Although there are loop paths that have the same vertices and same

order, if there are different starting points, then they are considered

separate loops.

1 → 2 → 3 → 1 and 2 → 3 → 2 → 1

10

• If loops are in the opposite direction, they are counted as distinct loops.

1 → 2 → 3 → 1 and 1 → 3 → 2 → 1

Geodesic Paths

A geodesic path is shortest network distance between vertices in question.

This is also called geodesic distance or shortest distance. Mathematically,

a geodesic distance is the smallest value of r such that [Ar ]ij > 0 between

vertices i and j.

It may be the case that no shortest distance exists (for example: for

separate components of the network where the distance may be said to be

infinity). Another interesting fact - If a path intesects itself, it has a loop and

therefore cannot be a geodesic path since it can be shortened by removing

this loop.

The diameter of a graph is the length of the longest geodesic path between

any pair of vertices in the network for which a path actually exists.

• Eulerian Path: a path that traverses each edge in the network exactly

once

If there are any vertex degree greater than 2, then the Eulerian path is not

self-avoiding since it has to visit vertices more than once in order to traverse

tall their edges.

Kronigsberg Bridges

This problem becomes finding an Eulerian path on this network of bridges

and the name is in honor of Euler who presented this problem. Euler observed

that since any Eulerian path must both enter and leave every vertex it passes

(except for the first and last), there can at most be two vertices with odd

degree. All four of the vertices in the Kronigsberg Problem has odd degree.

More precisely, there can only be 2 or 0 vertices of odd degree for an Eulerian

11

condition to be possible. With this logic, Euler proved the Kronigsberg

problem has no solution.

12

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