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UDC 665.511:001.3

The discovery and

exploitation of gas-condensate deposits in the Soviet Union make the rational utilization

of eondensates an important problem.

In this connection it is interesting to consider how condensates are utilized in foreign countries, in particular

in the USA and Canada, which have vast stores of condensates at their disposal.

The first gas-condensate deposits were discovered in the USA between 1930 and 1935,


of the oil reserves [1].

In 1961 the proven The total amount of gas-

reserves of condensate amounted to 952 million tons, i. e.,

condensate liquids (condensates, volatile gasoline and liquified gases) produced in 1962 [2] equaled 81,9 million m a, i. e., 20 volume % of the total amount of crude oil produced in that year.

The largest number of gas-condensate wells are located in Texas, Louisiana, and New Mexico.

More than


of the total amount of gas-condensates produced in the USA comes from these states and from California,

Kansas, and Oklahoma.

A relative large amount of condensates is produced in Canada.

In 1961 the proven reserves of condensates in

Canada equaled 73 million tons, i. e., 14.7%

condensate liquids amounted to 4.3 million m a [2], i. e., 10.7% sates are produced mainly in the state of Alberta.

of total reserves of crude oil [1],

and in 1963 the production of gas-


of the total production of crude oil.

A typical composition of a stabilized condensate as produced by gasoline plants in the USA and Canada [3],

is given below

Density p~0


ASTM distillation, ~ lowest b, p













b. p


Sulfur content, wt. %.


The condensate fraction boiling at 79~ C has a relatively high octane number ( ~

70 without TEL and ~ 88

when 0.8 ml of TEL is admixed per liter), hydrocarbon composition (votume %):

The ligroin fraction boiling between 79 and 196~ C has the following





aromatic hydrocarbons


The main trend in the exploitation of condensate is refining into commercial oil products such as car gasoline and diesel fuel, which is done in oil refineries or in plants specially designed for the refining of crude gas-condensates.


the USA, gas-condensates are refined in plants of the "El Paso Natural Gas Product' Company.


1957 this company started a refinery in Siniz (New Mexico) and in 1958 one in Odessa (Texas); tn these two

plants large amounts of gas-condensate liquids can be refined together with crude oil.

The plant in 8iniz produces [4] liquefied gas,

car gasoline, kerosene, and boiler fuel in amounts of 1400 ma/day.

Translated from Khimiya i Tekhnologiya Topliv i Masel, No. 1, pp. 61-63, January, 1966.












Fig. 1. Scheme of the Oil Refinery in Siuiz (USA): 1)distillation unit; 2) catalytic reforming; 3) catalytic cracking; 4) compounding; 5) alkyla- tion; I) condensate + crude oil; II)straight-run gasoline; III)kerosene;

IV) diesel fuel; V)reformed gasoline; VI) gasoline produced by catalytic

cracking; VII) alkylate; VIII) light gas oil; IX) isobutane from another

source; X)boiler (plant) fuel; XI)commercial gasoline; XII)commercial butane.







-V/ ~


Fig. 2.

1) distillation unit; 2) purification hydropurification; 4) platforming;

Scheme of the Canadian plant (Alberta) that refines condensates:

of straight-run gasoline from sulfur; 3) I) condensate; II) straight- run gasoline;


residue; IV) kerosene- gas oil fraction; V) gasoline of high octane number;




Fig. 3. Scheme of the plant for the refining of condensate: 1)distillation

unit; 2) purification of straight-run gasoline;

section for preliminary hydropurification); 4)compounding; I)condensate;

II) light crude oil; III) straight-run gasoline; IV) reforming gasoline; V) diesel

fuel; VI) boiler (plant) fuel; VII) commercial gasoline; VIII) butane.

3) catalytic reforming (with a

The mixture of crude oil and condensate is fractionated, the straight-run gasoline (lowest b. p. equal to 93~ C)

thus produced is sent m the compounding unit, ligroin (93-204~ C) is exposed to platforming at 485~ C, and

is used as starting material for catalytic cracking.

The technological scheme of the oil refinery in Odessa [5] permits the manufacture of gasoline of high octane number and an extensive assortment of other oil products. The plant produces not only motor fuels but also benzene. In a preliminary column the C6-C7 fraction is separated from the crude oil and gas-condensate liquids (318 mS/day); this fraction is catalytically reformed into benzene and toluene. Toluene is later dealkylized to benzene. Pentanes and the fraction containing Cs- and higher hydrocarbons are used as components of commercial gasolines.

In Oakville, Canada, a new plant [6] was built for refining crude Canadian oil and Condensate into an extensive assortment of oil products, ranging from aviation gasolines to diesel fuel.

gas oil

The plant scheme is shown in Fig. 1.




Fig. 4. Scheme of the block used in the refining of condensate in the Oil Refinery in Billings (USA); 1) catalytic removal of sulfur; 2) distillation unit; 8)alkylation with HF; 4)catalytic reforming; I) condensate; II) hydrogen; III) fuel gas; IV) alkylate; V)straight-run gasoline; VI) reformed

gasoline; VII)intermediate

distillates; VIII) Ca-C 4 hydrocarbons.




Fig. 5. Scheme of the block for the production of aromatic hydrocarbons in the petrochemical plant combination of the "Soci~t~ National de Pfitrole d' d'Aquitania" (France): 1)distillation unit; 2)removal of sulfur by hydrogena- tion; 8)catalytic reforming; 4)unit for the extraction of aromatic hydro- carbons; 5)dealkylation unit; I) condensate; II)C 5 fraction; III)residue; IV)ben- zene; V) heavy aromatic compounds; VI) aromatic hydrocarbons; VII) refined paraffins; VIII) aromatic gasoline component; IX) gasoline vapor; X) hydrogen.

In Canada the "Canadian Oil" Company,

Bowden (Alberta), separately refines condensates.

The plant has an

output of 800 m s of condensate per day, and consists of the following units:

sulfur from straight-run benzine ("merox"

The plant can refine a mixture of condensate and crude oil.

a distillation unit for the removal of

process), a hydropurification unit ("unifining"

type) and a platforming unit.

The plant scheme is shown in Fig. 2.

Straight-run gasoline, ligroin, a kerosene-gas oil fraction, and heavy residue, which is used as are produced from the condensate in the main 20-meter column of the distillation unit.

a piant fuel,

The straight-run gasoline passes through a butane column, where n-butane and light gases are distilled off, and

enters the "merox"

enters the

unit for purification from sulfur.

Ligroin passes through the hydropurification unit, and, then,

platforming unit (520~ C, 88.5 atm

pressure) which turns out high-octane gasoline.

Paper [3] reported on plans of building a plant in which 740 m a of crude gas-condensate,

or 682 m a of con-

densate and 184 m a of crude light oil a day will be refined for the USA and Canada.

60 % gasoline with an octane number equal to 92.7, 40% method), and diesel fuel boiling in the range from 169

The product will consists of

gasoline with an octane number equal to 99.8 (research

to 329~ C

(ASTM) and having a cetane number of 50.

The plant scheme is shown in Fig. 8.


m s of gas,

888 m s of gasoline, 158 m s of diesel fuel,


8 m s of

boiler fuel (b. p. above 320 ~ C) a day. will be produced from 740 m s of gas-condensate and 11.2 m a of butane.

It is shown by the authors that at the existing price levels in the USA and Canada the capital invested in the plant refining gas-condensate liquids wiII be completely earned back in three to five years.

Combined refining of crude gas-condensate and oil is done by the Continental Oil Company (USA) in a single

plant [8].

hydrogenation, fractionation,

In its oil refinery in Billings (Montana) this company erected four new units-for the removal of sulfur by

catalytic reforming, and alkylation with hydrogen fluoride-forming

blocks in which


3180 m3/day of gas-condensate liquids are refined, which means that the initial plant capacity is more than doubled. The plant scheme is shown in Fig. 4.

Although the ways in which the condensates are refined in the various plants show some special features and differences, the general scheme is mainly identical, and consists in removal of sulfur from the condensate or the fractions, fractionation into light gasoline, ligroin, and diesel fuel, catalytic reforming of the ligroin fraction, and mixing (compounding) of the reformed and straight-run gasolines. The main products are gasoline and diesel fuel.

Because the condensates from some wells have a high content of aromatic hydrocarbons and naphthenes which are easily converted into aromatic hydrocarbons by reforming, raw gas-condensates may find extensive utilization in petrochemical plants.

The procedure indicated for the utilization of gas-condensate is now practiced in the petrochemical plant

combination of the

densate from the Lacq field together with natural gas.

"Socigte National de P~trole d'Aquitania" in France [9].

The plant combination refines con-

The condensate has a high content of aromatic hydrocarbons:



xylenes and 7.7% C9 and higher hydrocarbons.






The plant scheme is shown in Fig. 8.

The ligroin fraction is separated from the condensate, sulfur is removed,

and the ligroin fraction is reformed catalytically at low pressure and space velocity to produce the maximum field of aromatic hydrocarbons. Part of the reformed gasoline is used as a component of commercial gasoline, and

aromatic hydrocarbons are extracted from the rest. The refined paraffins are used as a gasoline components, and the concentrated aromatic hydrocarbons are fractionated into benzene, toluene, xylenes and heavy aromatic hydro- carbons. The toluene and xylene fractions are dealkylized with hydrogen into benzene. The total output of benzene amounts to 70,000 tons/day.




The Institute of Petroleum Review,

16, No. 188, August (1962), p. 289.


Oil a. Gas J., 62, No. 9a (1964).




a. Oas J.,

60, No. gl (1962),

pp. 90,

91, 94.



Farrar, Oil. a.

Gas J.,

60, No. 26 (1962), pp. 188-189.




Oil a.

Gas J.

60, No.

25 (1962), pp. 108-107.


Oil Canada, 18, No. 27 (1963), p.




Chem. Eng., 68, No. 21 (1961), p. 160.


Oil a. Gas J., 62, No. 11 (1964), p. 159.



Farrar, Oil a. Gas. J., 61, No. 49 (1963), pp. 66-71.