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Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1

Comprehensive Notes for Chapter 5 – 9

Chapter V: Gastrointestinal  Peptic ulcer has a


Agents correlation between the
emotional makeup of an
Inorganic agents used to treat GI individual and the
Disorders: incidence of peptic ulcer.
1. Products for altering gastric pH  The tenser the person is,
 Antacids the higher the chances
 Betaine HCl the person will get the
 Glutamic acid HCl ulcer.
2. Protectives for intestinal  Types of Ulcer (peptic
inflammation ulcer)
a. Esophageal Ulcer
 Drugs to reduce inflammation
(esophagus)
3. Adsorbents for intestinal toxins
 Heartburn
 Protects the stomach
- This is due to
4. Cathartics/Laxatives for
the gastric acid
constipation
entering the
esophagus
Keep in mind: These drugs are mostly
either during a
OTC (Over the counter).
belch or upon
lying in bed.
Responsibilities of a Pharmacist
1. To help the patient and give more  Remedy is to lie
information about the drug. down with the
head elevated
 The reason is that the
- This is to
indications are symptoms of a
reduce the flow
more serious condition
of gastric fluid
2. Advising the patient about the
from the
utilization of the drug/s.
stomach to the
esophagus
Types of GI Drugs
b. Gastric Ulcer
I. Antacids
(stomach)
- Alkaline bases
- Neutralizes excess HCl  Malignancy and
- Inactivates the proteolytic hemorrhage
enzyme, pepsin.  Remedy:
- Hyperacidity anticholinergic
 Low acid pH is due to the therapy or drugs
presence of endogenous c. Duodenal ulcer
HCl (duodenum)
 Gastritis to ulceration  Perforation
 Gastritis – a general  Remedy:
inflammation of the shortening of the
gastric mucosa intestines through
 Ulcer – a specified surgery.
circumscribed erosion

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
Comprehensive Notes for Chapter 5 – 9
 People who drink dioxide. The result is the
a lot get this type sparkling flavor
of ulcer often. otherwise have a flat
 The general remedies of saline taste.
ulcer are: b. Aluminum hydroxide USP
a. Use a high pillow when 31
lying down - Al(OH)3
b. No stress - Synonym/s: amphogel
c. Good diet - Two forms of amphogel:
d. Antacids 1. Aluminum
e. Anticholinergic diet (to hydroxide gel USP
lower the production of 26
HCl) - White viscous
f. Surgery (if it gets worse suspension
already or it is the - Small amounts of
duodenal ulcer) clear liquid may
- Criteria for the ideal antacid: separate on
a. Not absorbable or cause standing
systemic alkalosis - Contains
b. Not a laxative or cause aromatics like
constipation peppermint oil and
c. Exert the effect rapidly and sweetening
over a long period of time substances like
d. Not cause a large sucrose, glycerin,
evolution of gas saccharin, among
e. Buffer in the pH 4-6 range others.
f. Inhibits pepsin - Not more than 0.5%
- Chemical Compounds preservatives are
a. Sodium bicarbonate allowed like
- Na2HCO3 sodium benzoate,
- The qualities that made benzoic acid,
this not an ideal antacid: methyl paraben,
1. Water soluble etc.
2. Short duration of - pH: 5.5-8.0
action - Dosage form:
3. Increases gastric pH Suspension
at above 7 2. Dried aluminum
4. Large evolution of hydroxide gel USP
gas 26
 Can cause - White, colorless,
belching and tasteless,
flatulence. amorphous
- Main function is to react powder
with an acid (citric, - Soluble in dilute
tartaric, etc) with the mineral acids and
evolution of carbon

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
Comprehensive Notes for Chapter 5 – 9
solutions of fixed - Poorly soluble salts will
alkali hydroxide. only go to the solution
- Insoluble in water if acid is present to
and alcohol. consume the
- Dosage form: solubilized salt in the
Tablet and Gel solution.
- Advantages of using - Raises up the pH to
amphogel: nearly 7.
1. Colloidal adsorptive - Tends to be
property constipating so it is
2. Amphoteric mixed with magnesium
property antacids.
3. Adsorbs pepsin i. Calcium carbonate USP
- Disadvantages of 31
amphogel: - CaCO3
1. Loss of antacid - Synonym/s:
property in time Precipitated chalk
2. Causes - Fine, white, odorless,
constipation tasteless,
(astringent property) microcrystalline
3. Causes nausea and powder
vomiting. - Stable in air
- Uses: gastric antacid - Insoluble in water but
(for the treatment of solubility is increased
hyperchlorohydria and by nay ammonium
peptic ulcer) and an salt or carbon dioxide.
intestinal toxemia. - Insoluble in alcohol
- Its mechanism of - Dissolves with
action is attributed to effervescence in
its capability in diluted acetic acid,
adsorbing HCl, toxins, diluted HCl and
gases and bacteria. diluted nitric acid.
- It can also interfere - Causes flatulence
with the adsorption of and constipation
other drugs and - Uses: antacid
caution should be because of its fast
exercised in the co- action
administration of the - Mixed with
gels and other drugs. Magnesium (laxative)
c. Calcium-containing ii. Tribasic Calcium
antacids phosphate USP 31
- Their action is - 10CaO•3P2O5•H2O
dependent upon their - Synonym/s:
basic properties and precipitated calcium
not on amphoteric phosphate, tertiary
effect.

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
Comprehensive Notes for Chapter 5 – 9
calcium phosphate, - Laxative effect, so it is
calcium phosphate. usually found in
- After ignition at 800 combination of
degrees Celsius for aluminum and calcium
30 minutes, it antacids.
contains the amount i. Magnesium carbonate
of phosphate USP 31
equivalent to n.l.t. 90% - Mg(CO3)4•Mg(OH)2•5
of tribasic calcium H2O
phosphate, Ca3(PO4)2. - Synonym/s:
- It is found abundantly carbonate of
in nature as Magnesia,
phosphorite or magnesium
phosphate rock and carbonate, heavy
apatite, magnesium
Ca3(PO4)2•CaF2. carbonate
- White, odorless and - White bulky odorless
tasteless powder powder
- Soluble in diluted HCl - Slightly earthly taste
and HNO3. - Occurs in friable
- Uses: antacid for the masses
treatment of - Insoluble in water
hyperacidity. - Insoluble in alcohol
- Advantage over but dissolves in
Sodium bicarbonate: effervescence in
1. No gas produced dilute acids.
2. Does not - Two kinds:
alkalinize the 1. Heavy Variety
system - Boiling water
3. Source of calcium - 25 mL
d. Magnesium-containing - 30 Minutes to
Antacids boil
- Poorly soluble salts - Air-dry
which only go into 2. Light Variety
solution as acid - Cold water
consumes the small - 125 mL
amount of anion - 15 minutes to
already in solution. boil
- As pH of the stomach - Not exceeding
approaches neutrality, 100 degrees
the rate of dissolution Celsius to dry.
of the magnesium salt - Uses: antacid
slows down and stops - Due to its limited
at neutrality. solubility, it only
- Anion confers the dissolves only as
antacid properties. carbonate and

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
Comprehensive Notes for Chapter 5 – 9
hydroxide are being - Compound of
consumed. magnesium oxide
ii. Magnesium hydroxide and silicon dioxide
USP 31 containing various
- Mg(OH)2 portions of water.
- White bulky powder - 20% is magnesium
- Soluble in acids oxide and 45% is
- Insoluble in water and silicon dioxide.
alcohol. - Fine, white, odorless,
- Use: efficient antacid. tasteless powder
In high doses, - Free from grittiness
laxative. - Insoluble in water and
- “salt action” in the alcohol
intestinal tract that - Readily decomposed
causes a mild by mineral acids.
laxative action. - Uses: gastric antacid
iii. Milk of Magnesia in peptic ulcer.
- Mg(OH)2 suspension vi. Magnesium phosphate
- A small amount of - Mg3(PO4)2•5H2O
citric acid is added to - Synonym/s: Tertiary
minimize interaction Magnesium
with glass. Phosphate
- Flavoring agents are - White, odorless and
added. tasteless powder
- Uses: antacid and - Soluble in diluted
laxative mineral acids
iv. Magnesium oxide - Insoluble in water
- MgO - Use: antacid
- Synonym/s: II. Protectives and Adsorbents
Magnesia - Used for treatment for mild
- White, odorless diarrhea
powder - Diarrhea
- Insoluble in water and  Symptom and not a
alcohol disease
- Soluble in dilute acids  Factors may impair
- Two types: digestion and/or adsorption
1. Light Variety  Increasing the bulk of the
- 5 grams can intestinal tract
occupy 40-50  Increased bulk stimulated
mL peristalsis
2. Heavy Variety  Serious condition for very
- 5 grams can young and elderly patients
occupy 10-20  Loss of fluids and
mL electrolytes quickly lead to
v. Magnesium trisilicate dehydration and electrolyte
- 2MgO•3SiO2•xH2O imbalances.

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
Comprehensive Notes for Chapter 5 – 9
 Types: administration of
 Acute Diarrhea bismuth-containing
 Causes: preparations.
- Bacterial toxins i. Bismuth subnitrate
- Chemical poisons - Bi(OH)2(NO3)4•
- Drugs BiO(OH)
- Allergy - Synonym/s:
- Disease Basic Bismuth
 Effects Nitrate, White
- Tissue damage Bismuth
- Irritation - White, slightly
- Causing hygroscopic
electrolytes to flow powder
from body fluids - Acid reaction to
into the intestinal litmus
tract - Soluble in HCl
 Chronic Diarrhea - Insoluble in
 Causes: water and
- Gastrointestinal alcohol
surgery - Assayed in
- Carcinomas terms of
- Chronic bismuth trioxide
inflammatory (Bi2O3)
conditions - It is
- Adsorptive defects incompatible
- The new products for the with taraganth
treatment of diarrhea will - The difficulty
consist of: maybe
 Adsorptive-protective overcomes by
 Antidiarrheal agent adding sodium
- Chemical Compunds biphosphate or
a. Bismuth-containing trisodium
products phosphate.
- Water insoluble but - Uses: non-
but a small amount go irritant intestinal
into solution antiseptic,
- Soluble bismuth cation treatment for
exerts a mild gastric ulcer
astringent and and
antiseptic action. inflammation,
- Intestinal hydrogen and remedy
sulfide acts upon the against
bismuth salt to form diarrhea.
bismuth sulfide - Bismuth salts
- Causes black stool lessens gastric
resulting from oral

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
Comprehensive Notes for Chapter 5 – 9
secretion and bismuth
reduce acidity. hydroxide and
ii. Bismuth subcarbonate
subcarbonate - Uses: antacid
- BiO2(CO3)2•H2 and astringent
O b. Kaolin
- Synonym/s: - Al2O3•2SiO2•2H2O
Basic Bismuth - Synonym/s: porcelain
Carbonate clay, china clay, bolus
- White or pale alba
yellowish white, - Native hydrated
odorless, aluminum silicate,
tasteless powdered and freed
powder from gritty particles by
- Stable in air elutriation.
- Slowly affected - Contains 20.9%
by light aluminum formed by
- Insoluble in the weathering of
water feldspar, which is
- Soluble in HCl KalSi3O8
with - Soft, yellowish white
effervescence or whitish powder or in
- Assayed in lumps
terms of its - Insoluble in water and
bismuth trioxide in cold dilute acids and
content. in solutions of alkali
iii. Milk of Bismuth hydroxides
- Bismuth - Earthly and clay-like
hydroxide and taste
bismuth - When moistened with
subcarbonate in water, it assumes a
suspension with darker color and
water. develops a marked
- Made by clay-like color
converting c. Activated Charcoal
bismuth - Adsorbent in the
subnitrate to treatment of diarrhea
bismuth nitrate - Antidote in certain
by the addition types of poisoning
of nitric acid. III. Saline Cathartics
- Treatment with - Also called purgatives
ammonium - Laxatives are mild cathartics
carbonate and - Most of these are over the
ammonia counter drugs (OTC).
solution, it is - But these are widely used,
converted to abused, and overpromoted.

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
Comprehensive Notes for Chapter 5 – 9
- Cathartics are properly used b. Phosphate
when: c. Sulfate
1. To ease defecation d. Tartrate
2. To avoid potentially - Soluble magnesium salts are
hazardous rises in blood cathartic because of the
pressure poorly absorbed magnesium
3. To relieve acute ion.
constipation - Saline cathartics are water
4. To remove solid material soluble
from the intestinal tract - Taken with large amount of
- Laxatives are used for short- water
term therapy because - Prevents excessive loss of
prolonged use may lead to body fluids and reduces
loss of spontaneous bowel nausea and vomiting if a too
rhythm. hypertonic solution should
- One can be dependent on reach the stomach.
laxatives, and it is called the - Chemical Compounds:
“laxative habit”. a. Monobasic Sodium
- Four types of laxatives phosphate
1. Stimulant Laxatives - NaH2PO4•H2O
 Act by local irritation on - Synonym/s: Sodium
the intestinal tract Dihydrogen Phosphate,
 Increases peristaltic Sodium Acid
activity Phosphate, Primary
2. Bulk-forming Laxative Sodium Phosphate,
 Made from cellulose Sodium Biphosphate
and other non-digestible - Colorless crystals or
polysaccharides white crystalline
 Swell when wet powder
 Increased bulk - Odorless and slightly
stimulates peristalsis deliquescent
3. Emollient Laxatives - Acid to litmus
 Neither as lubricants - Effervesce with sodium
facilitating the passage carbonate
of compacted fecal - Acidic because of acid
material or as stool dihydrogen phosphate
softeners. anion
 Example: Mineral Oil - Salt in anhydrous form
4. Saline Cathartics - With one or two moles
of hydration.
 Increases osmotic load
- Uses: Urinary acidifier
of the gastrointestinal
and cathartic
tract.
- Urine goes acidic in the
- Poorly adsorbed anions that
case of cystitis with
are used as saline cathartics
hemamethylenetetrami
are:
ne (Methenamine) as
a. Biphosphate

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
Comprehensive Notes for Chapter 5 – 9
this susbstance - Crystals are coated
decomposes into with white powder.
formaldehyde only in - Soluble in water
the presence of acid. - Insoluble in alcohol
b. Dibasic sodium phosphate - Uses: cathartic, mild
- Na2HPO4•7H2O laxative to hydragogue,
- Synonym/s: Dibasic an ingredient to Seidlitz
sodium phosphate, powder (Potassium
disodium hydrogen Sodium Tartrate as
phosphate, secondary cathartic)
sodium phosphate - Effervescent
- Colorless or white preparation
granular salt - Platable product
- Effervesces in warm, - One of the components
dry air of Fehling’s Solution
- Alkaline to litmus (Alkaline Cupric
- Phenolphthalein Tartrate)
- pH = 9.5 - Chelate complexation
- freely soluble in water (concentration of cupric
- very soluble in alcohol is very little and not
- official with 1, 2, 7 or precipitated by sodium
12 moles water of hydroxide)
hydration. d. Magnesium sulfate
- Uses: due to its poor - MgSO4•7H2O
intestinal permeability, - Synonym/s: Epsom salt,
it is used as a saline bitter salt
cathartic. - It can be prepared by:
- Caution: this should 1. Treating the mineral
never be confused with magnesite (MgCO3)
commercial tribasic with hot dilute
sodium phosphate sulfuric acid
(very alkaline and 2. Dissolving the
caustic and should be mineral kierserite
used in intestinal (MgSO4•H2O) in
purposes. water, heating and
c. Potassium sodium tartrate then concentrating
- KNaC4H4O6•4H2O the solution to
- Synonym/s: Rochelle crystallization
Salt, Seignette Salt 3. Heating by
- Colorless crystals or calcination dolomite
white crystalline (MgCO3•CaCO3)
powder then treating with
- Cooling saline taste HCl and
- Effloresces slightly in evaporating to
warm dry air dryness. The dried
mass is dissolved in

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
Comprehensive Notes for Chapter 5 – 9
sulfuric acid, boiled - Examples:
and filtered. The 1. Aluminum Hydroxide gel with
filtrate containing magnesium hydroxide
magnesium sulfate  Aludrox
is evaporated to  WinGel
crystallization.  Maalox
- Small, colorless  Cremalin
crystals, usually 2. Aluminum Hydroxide gel with
needle-like magnesium trisilicate
- Cooling saline bitter  Gelusil
taste  Tricremalate
- Effloresces in air  Triosgel
- Neutral to litmus 3. Megaldrate (mixture of
- Soluble in boiling water aluminum hydroxide and
- Sparingly soluble in magnesium hydroxide)
alcohol  Riopan
- Uses: active cathartic 4. Simethicone
- The bitter taste is  Di-Gel
disagreeable and it can  Mylanta
be lessened by 5. Alginic acid with sodium
administering it with bicarbonate
ice-cold solution.  Gaviscon
- Parenterally –  Foamtab
anticonvulsant
- Locally/Topically – Non-official Saline Cathartics:
Anesthetic 1. Sodium sulfate
action/Antiphlogistic - Glauber’s Salt
- Orally – Cathartic 2. Potassium phosphate
e. Magnesium citrate - Dibasic Potassium phosphate
- Mg2C5H7O6 - Dipotassium Hydrogen
- Synonym/s: Citrate of phosphate
Magnesia, Purgative - DKP
Lemonade 3. Potassium bitartrate
- Platable - Cream of tartar
- Carbonated - Potassium Acid Tartrate
- Lemon-flavored - Potassium Hydrogen Tartrate
solution 4. Calomel
- It must be sterilized - Mercurous Chloride
and pasteurized. - Mild Mercury Chloride

Combination Antacid Preparations Chapter VI: Topical Agent


- It is an attempt to balance the
constipative effect (aluminum and Topical Agents
calcium) with a laxative effect - “topical” means it is used on body
(magnesium) and to balance the surfaces
duration of action.

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
Comprehensive Notes for Chapter 5 – 9
- Applied on body cavities that open - Foliated talc has a
in the inside. These include: plate-like structure and
 Oral it is used for
 Nasal pharmaceutical
 Otic purposes.
 Vaginal - Odorless, tasteless
 Colonic powder
- Will exert local or surface activity - Insoluble in water,
- Route of systemic administration dilute acids and bases.
are buccal tablets and suppositories. - Low adsorptive
- Two types of Topical Agents: property
I. Protectives - Uses: filtering aid,
- Substances applied to the lubricating and
skin to protect certain areas protective dusting
from irritation powder and cosmetic
- Mechanical origin purposes.
- Desirable properties: b. Zinc oxide
1. Insolubility - ZnO
2. Chemically inert - Synonym/s: Zinc White,
- Efficient adsorbents Lana o Algodon
- It is maximized with particle Filisoficos, Flores de
size Zinc
- Smaller particles offer a larger - Preparation: Heating C
surface area with Zinc mineral
- Chemical Compunds:  Calamine –
a. Talc Zn2SiO4•H2O
- 3MgO•4SiO2•H2O  Smithsonite –
- Synonym/s: French ZnCO3
Chalk, Soapstone,  Willemite – ZnSiO4
Piedra Grassa, Creta  Franklinite – ZnO
Gallica with Fe and Mn
- Native anhydrous oxides
magnesium silicate that  Zincite – red
may have aluminum version of ZnO
silicate - Fine, odorless,
- Fine white or grayish- amorphous white or
white crystalline yellowish white powder
powder - Free from gritty
- Unctuous particles
- Adheres readily on skin - Gradually absorbs
- Free from grittiness carbon dioxide from the
- Layered silicate air to form basic zinc
- Softest mineral known carbonate
- Smooth, greasy feeling - Insoluble in water and
to touch alcohol
- Lump form (steatite)

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
Comprehensive Notes for Chapter 5 – 9
- Uses: topical protective, oily layer of stearic and
mild astringent, palmitic acid
antimicrobial - Uses: mild astringent,
compound, protective. antimicrobial, dusting
- Zinc Oxide is the powders and ointments
primary ingredient of as a protective.
Calamine USP. - Advantage of this over
c. Calamine other products:
- ZnO•xFe2O3 1. Not wetted by
- Red moisture
characteristic/”Pinkish” 2. Not form crusty
(Fe2O3) patches
- Uses: Topical e. Titanium dioxide
protective, dusting - TiO2
powders, ointments - White, amorphous,
and lotion (applied to odorless, tasteless,
skin for soothing, infusible powder
adsorbent, protective - 1:10 solution is neutral
properties). to litmus
- Calamine Lotion - Insoluble in HCl, nitric
 With ZnO, acid and dilute sulfuric
Bentonite magma acid
and Ca(OH)2 - Soluble in hydrofluoric
(solution) acid, and in hot
 Good drying effect concentrated sulfuric
and mild astringent acid.
- Phenolated Calamine - Fusion with potassium
 With 1% liquid bisulfate or with alkali
phenol carbonates or
 As a local hydroxides render it
anesthetic and soluble in water.
antipuritic - Official identification of
d. Zinc stearate this compound is dilute
- Fine, white bulky sulfurinc acid (which
powder turns the solution to
- Free from grittiness orange-red color)
- Faint characteristic - Uses: topical protective,
odor solar ray protective,
- Unctuous to touch white pigment in paints
- Readily adheres to skin and cosmetics.
- Insoluble in water, f. Silicon polymers
alcohol and ether - Silicon oils
- Hydrolyzed by heating - Primarily
in dilute mineral acids dimethylsilicone ethers
to form a soluble zinc - Simethicone/
salt and an insoluble Dimethicone

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
Comprehensive Notes for Chapter 5 – 9
 Gastric protective - Tastes sour
 antiflatulent - Produces a froth in the
- Uses: ointments and mouth
creams for application - Pure hydrogen peroxide
to the skin was water is colorless, syrupy
repellant and liquid with astringent
protectives against properties
contact irritants - Heated to 100 degrees
II. Antimicrobials Celsius can decompose
- Three mechanisms of action to water and hydrogen
of astringents and - Miscible in water,
antimicrobials: alcohol and either
1. Oxidation - How to render it more
2. Halogenation stable:
3. Protein precipitation 1. It should be kept in a
- Astringent cool place protected
- Control of from light and dust
Antimicrobial/Astringent 2. Amber colored
Action bottles are used as
1. Making solutions of containders
appropriate concentration 3. Preservatives such
for the desired use as actenilide is
2. Placing them in a vehicle added
which will slow their 4. It may be stabilized
release to the site of action with any organic and
3. Complexation of a ligand inorganic acids,
4. Synthesized into insoluble complexing agents
form and used in or adsorbents
suspensions, ointments - Use: mild oxidizing
and creams for their antiseptic
antimicrobial action b. Potassium permanganate
because of the slow c. Sodium hypochlorite
release of the active agent. solution
- Chemical Compounds: d. Other Chlorine-containing
a. Hydrogen peroxide substances:
solution i. Chlorinated Lime
- H2O2 ii. Chloramines
- Synonym/s: Hydrogen e. Iodine
Peroxide, Aqua f. Povidone-Iodine
Oxigenada g. Silver Nitrate
- Preservatives may be h. Ammoniated Mercury
added i. Sublimed sulfur
- Clear colorless liquid j. Precipitated Sulfur
- Odorless or with odor k. Sulfurated Potash
resembling Ozone l. Selenium Sulfide
- Acid to litmus

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
Comprehensive Notes for Chapter 5 – 9
m. Antimony Potassium darkening, giving a “mottled”
Tartrate appearance.
III. Astringent - Dental fluorosis happens when the
- Protein precipitants drinking water has fluoride
- Chemical Compounds: exceeding 2 pp.
a. Alum - Lethal dose: 2-5 grams
b. Aluminum Chloride - Two hypothesis on how fluoride
c. Other Aluminum- works in the teeth:
containing Astringents 1. Fluoride decreases solubility of
i. Aluminum Sulfate the enamel
ii. Aluminum Acetate 2. Enzyme inhibitory property of
solution fluoride.
d. Zinc Chloride - Routes of administration of fluoride:
e. Zinc Sulfate 1. Orally
 Allows the systemic
Chapter VII: Dental Products circulation of fluoride
2. Topically
Anticaries Agents - Daily intake: 2.2 mg or six 8-oz
- Lactic acid caused the formation of glasses of fluoridated water
dental caries.
 Lactic acid is taken from oral Examples of Anticaries agents:
bacterial metabolism of dietary 1. Sodium fluoride
carbohydrates. - NaF
- The build-up of plaque aids in the - Molecular weight: 41.99
decay process by forming pockets - White odorless powder
or crevices on the teeth surface. - Soluble in water
- Ways to prevent dental caries: - Insoluble in alcohol
1. Brushing and flossing with - Use: dental prophylactic agent
fluoride - Application: 2% applied at ages 3
 Taken internally or topically (initially on growing teeth), 7
 The fluoride is in solution or in (when the teeth are emerging),
rapidly soluble salts 11 and 13.
2. Intake of fluoride 2. Stannous fluoride
 From fluoridated drinking - SnF2
water - Molecular Weight: 156.69
 In fluoridated drinking water, it - Synonym/s: Tin Difluoride
contains 1 ppm fluoride. - White crystalline powder
- Too much fluoride can cause dental - Bitter salty taste
fluorosis (mottled enamel). - Melts at around 213 degrees
Celsius
 The enamel is chalky and soft.
- Soluble in water
 It indicates that the teeth have
- Insoluble in alcohol, ether and
loosely bound structure.
chloroform.
 The pigments in foods are - Uses: topical fluoride application
adsorbed on the modified and dental prophylactic agent
enamel causing patches of

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
Comprehensive Notes for Chapter 5 – 9
- Application: 8% solution at 6 to - Synonym/s: Aire Vital,
12 months intervals. Only Dehlogisticated Aire, Fire Air,
requires one application per Aire Puro
treatment and it is the advantage - Odorless, colorless gas
over Sodium fluoride. - Preparation
- Applied to cleaned, dry teeth. 1. Fractional distillation of
liquid aire
Dentifrices 2. Electrolysis of water
- A powder, paste or liquid for 3. Thermolysis of KClO3
cleaning the teeth. - Supports combustion
- Use: Inhalant
Example of Dentifrices: - Stored in green container
1. Pumice - Prolonged use can cause
- Synonym/s: pumice stone, piedra edema in the lungs
pomez 2. Carbon dioxide
- Volcanic origin - CO2
- Made of complex silicates of - Synonym/s: carbonic acid gas,
aluminum (Al+2), potassium (K+) carbonic anhydride
and sodium (Na+). - Odorless, colorless gas
- Very light - Acid to litmus
- Hard rough porous gray masses - Stored in gray metallic
or gritty gray powder containcer
- Grades of fineness: - 7% oxygen is added
1. Pumice Flour/Superfine (respiratory stimulant) and
Pumice stored in gray/green cylinders
2. Fine Pumice - Gaseous, liquid or solid state
3. Coarse Pumice - Dry ice
- Odorless  Caustic to remove
- Tasteless unwanted tissues
- Stable in air (angiomas, eczema,
- Insoluble in water moles, psoriasis, warts,
- Not attacked by acids corn and calluses)
- Use: dental abrasive - Soft drink industry uses
sodium bicarbonate mixed
Chapter VIII: Miscellaneous with citric acid
Inorganic Pharmaceutical - Air displacement in parenteral
Agents and topical preparation.
3. Helium
- He
Inhalants
- Colorless, odorless, tasteless
- That of which it is inhaled, either
gas
from the atmosphere or as a
- Does not support combustion
medicine.
- Stored in brown cylinders
- Examples:
- 20% or 40% oxygen mixed
1. Oxygen
and it is stored in brown/green
- O2
cylinders

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
Comprehensive Notes for Chapter 5 – 9
- Uses: treatment for Expectorants and Emetics
respiratory diseases, to - Administration: Orally
overcome difficulty in - Expectorants stimulate the flow of
respiration respiratory tract secretions
- Helium-oxygen mixture can - Examples:
prevent bend (bubbles in the 1. Ammonium Chloride USP 31
blood). 2. Potassium Iodide
4. Nitrous oxide
- N2O Antidotes
- Synonym/s: Laughing gas, - It is an agent that counteracts
nitrogen monoxide, dinitrogen poison.
monoxide - Examples:
- Coercible (condensable) gas, 1. Sodium nitrate
colorless 2. Sodium thiosulfate
- Slightly agreeable odor 3. Activated Charcoal
- Sweetish taste 4. Cupric sulfate
- Soluble in water at low 5. Calcium sulfate
temperatures 6. Colloidal silicon dioxide
- Maintains and revives
combustion Lubricants
- Decomposes easily - It makes the tablet eject cleanly
- Nitrous oxide will not have from the mold.
any reaction with nitric oxide - These are mostly insoluble soaps –
- In small doses, it causes heavy metals of fatty acids.
inebriation (that is why it is - Examples:
named “laughing gas”) 1. Calcium Stearate
- 2. Magnesium Stearate
5. Nitrogen
- N2 Suspending Agent
- Synonym/s: Azote - It acts by altering the surface
- Colorless, odorless, tasteless character of the solvents
gas (surfactants) and others are
- Non-flammable thickening agents.
- Does not support combustion - Example:
- Stored in black cylinders 1. Bentonite NF 26
- Uses: air displacement, - Al2O3•4SiO2•H2O
increases shelf life of a - Synonym/s: Soap clay,
product Mineral Soap, Wilkinite
- Displaces air in parenteral - Native, colloidal, hydrated
and topical preparations. aluminum silicate.
- Very fine, odorless, pale buff
Respiratory Stimulants or cream colored powder
- Examples: - Free from grittiness
1. Aromatic Ammonia Spirit - Lightly earthly taste
2. Ammonium Carbonate NF 26 - Hygroscopic

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
Comprehensive Notes for Chapter 5 – 9
- Insoluble in water, but swells - Uses: Diagnostic aid in the study
up to 12 times its size when of the function of the thyroid
added to water. gland for scanning the thyroid
- Its adsorbing large amounts of gland (size, position and tumor
water makes it form highly location).
viscous suspensions and gels - Uses for I-131: to determine the
- Insoluble and does not swell blood and plasma volumes and
in inorganic solvents. the cardiac output.
- Uses: suspending agent, 4. Sodium Rose Bengal I-131
stabilizer in many industrial Injection (Robengatope I-131)
emulsions, soaps and - Uses: radioactive tracer in the
cleansers (detergent effects) determination of liver function.
and clarifying agent 5. Sodium Iodohippurate I-131
(adsorptive powers for dyes Injection (Hippuran -131)
and other coloring matters) - Uses: diagnostic agent to
determine kidney function.
Chapter IX: 6. Chlormerodin Hg 197 Injection and
Radiopharmaceuticals and Hg 203 Injection
- Uses: Scintillation scanning of
Contrast Media
the kidneys and brain.
7. Sodium phosphate P 32 Solution
Element
(phosphotope)
- Every atom composes of a nucleus,
- Uses: Treatment of polycythemia
protons and electrons.
vera (increase in RBC),
- The number of protons is equal to
localization of intraocular tumors.
the number of neutrons (in an
8. Technetium Tc 99m Injection
electronically neutral atom).
(Sodium Pertechnetate)
- The number of protons in the
- Uses: brain scanning to
nucleus is the atomic number.
determine the presence and
location of neoplastic lesions.
Radiopharmaceutical preparations:
9. Cyanobalamin Co-57 and Co-60
1. Sodium Chromate Cr 51 Injection
Capsules and Solutions
(Chromitope Sodium Rachromate -
- Uses: diagnostic agent for
51)
pernicious anemia.
- Uses: Diagnostic determination
of red blood cell mass, volume
Radiopague Contrast Media
and survival time, and scanning
- Chemical compounds containing
of the spleen.
elements of high atomic number
2. Gold Au 198 Injection (Aurcoloid -
which will stop the passage of X-
198, Aureotope, Auroscan)
rays.
- Use: Diagnostic preparation for
- Example:
scintillation scanning of the liver.
1. Barium sulfate USP 31
3. Sodium Iodide I 123 Solution
- BaSO4
(Iodotope I 125) and Sodium Iodide
- Synonym/s:Barium Meal,
I 131 Capsules and Solution
Sulfato de Bario, Esophotrast
(Iodotope I-131)

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Pharmaceutical Chemistry 1
Comprehensive Notes for Chapter 5 – 9
- Caution: title should always
be written in full
 To avoid confusion with
barium sulfide and barium
sulfide (both are poisonous)
- Fine white odorless and bulky
powder
- Free from grittiness
- Insoluble in water, organic
solvents and aqueous
solutions of acids and alkalis
- Uses: opaque contrast
medium in the
roetgenographic examination
of the intestinal tract and the
stomach.

References:

Dean Manansala’s lectures

Mims.com

Merriam-Webster Dictionary

Lecture Notes in Phar. Chem 1 by Dean


Manansala

Laboratory Manual in Phar. Chem. 1 by


Dean Manansala

PharCare notes

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