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Running head: STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 1

Student Response to Literacy Among Diverse Cultures

Melody Doudna

Franciscan University of Steubenville

Introduction

In schools today, there are many different issues that challenge students and teachers in
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 2

the pursuit of forming educated youth. Many of these challenging difficulties deal with the

natural struggles associated with students making connections and absorbing new content as they

read and develop an appreciation for literacy. For a child to become a student, he must have the

disposition to learn. To become literate, he must take on the disposition of a reader. In this

disposition is contained the desire and the proper inquisitive attitude of the learner. Reading

fosters this curiosity, and builds off of the support for literacy that students are given at home and

in the context of their own cultures. Teachers must always give their best instruction to each of

their students, especially in the area of literacy development. But in order to do this, it is

important for teachers to know and understand the specific experiences of their students

regarding literacy. As students come into the classroom from widely varying home cultures, it is

crucial for the educators to anticipate and properly evaluate their response to the literacy

instruction that is offered so that any adaptations or modifications can be put into effect

seamlessly.

Purpose

Understanding the factors and influences surrounding children learning to read is

essential to effective literacy education. I believe that all children can and should have the

opportunity to learn how to read and appreciate literature, and it is my hope that this research

will further that end. It is important to research the way of life of many different types of

students to find tools for the future. How do students’ home cultures impact the way that they

respond to literature? Are there certain strategies that are beneficial for ethnically diverse

students?

To answer this research question, I plan to send ethnographic surveys to schools with a

diverse student body for elementary teachers to record their observation. This follows the
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 3

principle of subsidiarity to gain a realistic view of effective teaching practice under specific

familial and cultural factors. Teachers will have an opportunity to reflect on the teaching

practice in their literacy programs and give data that will reflect trends among ethnic groups.

Also, there have been many scholarly articles written concerning the integration of literacy

within diverse cultures, and students’ response to these efforts. Studies concerning these will be

of great benefit to broadening my research field and making my findings more balanced. The

goal of this research is to gain deeper insight into teaching students literacy skills effectively

despite their varied cultural environments.

It is hypothesized in this study that students who come from an ethnic, minority, or

cultural backgrounds have less home support for literacy than their peers within the majority of

society, and will need special strategies to become motivated and effective literacy learners. It is

predicted that when teachers are aware of these struggles, they will be able to provide

appropriate strategies and adaptations that will help the students thrive in their literacy skills

across the curriculum.

Review of Literature

Can exterior factors play a role in why some children seem to struggle with literacy even

from the beginning of school? Jane Waldfogel (2012) studied the influence of out-of-school

factors on children’s literacy, investigating the question of success based on exterior

environmental factors. In her study, she examined how specific out-of-school factors may

contribute to existing and continuing literacy gaps at school entry. The participants in this study

reflect a focus on early literacy students from white, black, and Hispanic racial groups, as well as

children of immigrants, and examines socioeconomic factors as well. Information to determine

the factors that had an influence on children’s literacy was taken from several relevant case-
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 4

studies and surveys including The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, which

followed the literacy levels of children born in 2001 to school entry, and also information from

the ECLS-K. She found that although many factors may contribute to the literacy gap at school

entry, teachers and policy makers need to realize their responsibility to do all they can to create

an effective learning environment and tailor their teaching to the children who can be predicted

to encounter problems in literacy development. In this way, after school entry, that achievement

gap can be closed as quickly as possible to maximize student achievement.

This article showed wide research on the various factors considered in this study, and

reliable sources which reflected slightly varying but overall steady results. These inspire the

reader with confidence in the overall integrity of the study. However, the author failed to show

much empirical evidence of the studies, stating only some scoring statistics from the The Early

Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort. Perhaps the author’s argument for advanced policy

decisions would need more empirical evidence to make the changes that she is pushing for.

Graphs are important to include in this study so readers of different learning styles can

understand the gravity of the situation. Despite this lack of visuals, the article is very relevant to

the overall topic of research, following as it does the different factors that affect children’s

literacy, especially from home cultures. Additional literacy programs as well as improved parent

education on the importance of early literacy could both be aids in the search for a decrease of

the literacy gap both in children prior to school entry as well as eliminating it after school entry.

How much of a part does immigration play in the average American elementary

classroom? Leventhal, Brooks-Gunn and Xue (2006) explore this idea in relation to immigrant

children. “The present study extends existing research by examining longitudinal differences in

children’s verbal ability as a function of immigrant and racial/ethnic status”(p. 1360). In other
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 5

words, the authors examine diverse groups of immigrant children compared to non-immigrant

children and determine how this affects their English verbal skills, which are crucial to academic

literary success. The authors also look at how socioeconomic backgrounds could affect verbal

skills and achievement. They take a sample of 2,136 children, ages 3-16 from four ethnic

backgrounds: White Americans, Black Americans, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans- in

various stages of immigration. These children were selected in 80 neighborhoods stratified by

socioeconomic status and race. The authors reviewed home-based interviews and assessments in

case-studies which provided the authors with empirical evidence for the verbal difficulties

experienced by immigrant children and the gap that lessens or widens within their group. The

authors found from their study that family and socioeconomic factors (income, maternal

education and age) affected children to some extent and in some circumstances, overall there was

a need for more research to determine whether these factors are the direct force behind the gap in

verbal skills or whether they come into play indirectly.

These researchers were very effective in using a large and varied sample of children to

gain a thorough understanding of particular factors that have the potential to influence children’s

verbal development. However, I agree with the authors that it is still somewhat unclear from

their results whether children’s home cultures play a direct or indirect role in their verbal

development once children are fully enrolled and working in the school systems of America. I

think that more research would be beneficial to further explore the moving factors in immigrant

children’s education, especially verbal skills which directly influence children’s literacy. In this

way, this article’s findings will be very useful to gaining a wider perspective of the types of

students who struggle with verbal skills and the various factors that teachers should consider

when modifying their practice. Perhaps an extension of this study could consider examining the
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 6

children in the school setting as well as the home visits already in place to see how children with

struggling verbal skills behave in schools where they are being assessed.

With a growing awareness of how a student’s culture has the potential to affect their

academics, Wahyudin (2015) wrote about the “Local Values Based” approach to education. This

approach originated as a response to the need for integration in schools, especially as a measure

to improve the quality of instruction and comprehension of learners. The purpose of this

research, according to the author, is to present a model of feasible literacy education that is

rooted in a culture’s values to support a society of learning that will enable all students to make

the necessary connections to succeed (Wahyudin, 2015). To investigate this proposition, the

author was sponsored by the Indonesia University of Education Administration, and used

participants in the Subang regency, drawing information from the Office of Education which is

instigating a monumental push for an eradication of illiteracy. The author used both qualitative

and quantitative research in compiling and presenting the data gathered. His methods to gather

the data were focused in such a way to create a standardized model to generate results on literacy

in a culture. This was a seven step model which, according to the author, included: “conducting

pilot study, organizing conceptual model, validating conceptual model, revising conceptual

model, testing the model, completing the model, and disseminating the final product” (p. 3). In

his research, the author discovered that literacy is recognized as an important part of functioning

in the society, and is highly supported by the culture there. The ‘cooperative principle’ is a main

characteristic of society in Subang, and was reflected in the different efforts that the author

discovered which were working for greater literacy. These included the participants in the

empirical study, tutors who were trained for functional literacy development, and the

development of new programs with universities and other entities that promoted reducing
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 7

illiteracy as urged by the government. The curriculum and the implementation of it in schools

reflected the desire and push for literacy in this society such that children were able to learn in a

way that their school literacy was knit seamlessly with their cultural literacy. By presenting

literacy in a familiar and cultural context, Wahyudin (2015) has found that: “It is an appropriate

approach to: the strengthening of human development and also a cheapest and fastest way to

decrease the number of illiterates; improvement of a country’s literacy rate in regard to public

health, nutrition, maternal and child health care, welfare, and life expectancy; and facilitate broad

based awareness on human rights and the country’s legal system, whereas illiteracy is closely

related to ignorance, backwardness, unemployment, and poverty that eventually causes low

productivity among individuals.” That is, by educating students in a localized way, they will

know the information much more thoroughly and will be able to then apply a solid knowledge

base to begin to think globally.

In this article, there was much hope for the future of literacy, as well as some points of

caution. I really liked the sampling and model for education research that the author drew from.

It was especially clear when he used the seven-step model for clarifying his research. Also, it

was very interesting to see just how many correlative factors the author identified that were

described above as resulting from appropriate functional literacy instruction within a society.

The only caution I would use in regard to this article is the author’s underlying assumption of the

end of an individual in society. With the definition of the human person that the Western school

of education holds, the role of the human in being educated is to fulfil himself and reach an end

that is reflected in his moral life. The attitude of communal use of people, especially with an

over-focus on globalization, has the potential to reduce the value and dignity of each individual

whose main end and only requirement for their personhood is to get to heaven. When the
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 8

individual is well-formed, this will include raising the society in which he lives, but this must not

be overlooked as backward or unprogressive. To do this would undermine the very goal of

literacy, which is to promote intrinsic human rights. Overall, this article was very relevant to

what my research question is hoping to identify within cultures. Future research could look at

testing the model for research that was outlined, with the goal of testing its’ feasibility within

other cultures and educational societies. Although it looks viable, this model still needs to be

tested. Overall, Wahyudin (2015) did an excellent job introducing and providing findings which

support the case for a local values based literacy approach.

Nieto (2013) studied how language, literacy, and culture all intertwine in a child’s

experience of learning and can be the difference between marginalization or success for each

student. In her research, she was investigating the connection between language, literacy, and

culture which contribute to an overall richer view of learning, especially regarding students

whose identities are deeply related to language, race, ethnicity, and immigration and have

traditionally received less attention to their growth in literacy. As the main participant in this

study, the author drew from her own experience as a second-generation Puerto Rican immigrant

who had experienced many factors concerning this lack of inclusion in the literacy of an

emerging child. Her own experience, although recognizably not broad enough to apply across the

spectrum, prompted her to make this deeper commitment to researching the question for the

benefit of others, which she has done throughout her life and shares the results of her search in

this research article. The author provided valuable insights into life as a child who many would

label as “at risk” and “limited English proficiency,” while she prefered to understand her position

and other individuals in her position as emergent bilinguals. The fact that her first language was

not English does not make her subpar, but opens her up to the great advantage of becoming
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 9

bilingual. In the author’s words, “My conclusion is that there is no need to erase part of one’s

identity in order to be successful” (p.9). She raises major questions concerning the illusion that

there must be a wall between home and school when there is such a divisive view between the

uses and value of English and a child’s home language. As the author states: “ I learned that

although Spanish was the language of family and love and nurturing, it was also a language of

low status... Most of all, I learned that to get ahead, you must speak, read, and write only

English. The result was a tremendous wall between home and school. It was only after I became

a teacher myself that I began to question why this should be so” (p.11). The proper integration

between culture and literacy in the school setting must be recognized as a major component in

each child’s success.

This article provides a very valuable resource for research on culture and literacy, as my

research is. The author’s first-person approach is appropriate since she is a primary source and

expert on the subject. This lends credibility to her experiences and findings. To improve the

strength of her article even more, however, I would recommend providing more secondary

sources that show empirical research on the topic of literacy and culture. She does include her

conversations with other experts, and references to their works, but there is a definite lack of

outside confirmation. Despite this, the author’s testimony and primary experience gives valuable

insight into a child who has experienced the different ways that literacy is taught in America to

those of different home cultures. This makes her paper a wonderful and relevant resource for my

research question. For future research, I would extend the circle of participants in the survey to

include the experiences of others likewise impacted by the lack of a sociocultural understanding

of literacy.

Methodology
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 10

The research methodology that was used in this report is both in the nature of surveys

distributed among participating teachers in relevant school districts as well as research taken

from experts in the field who have recorded their findings in research review articles. So this

study contains both the distributive survey approach as well as the content analysis approach.

The net of participating teachers was originally designed to include teachers from schools on the

border of America and Mexico. Unfortunately, these schools were unable to finish the survey

despite their prior commitment to do so because of unforeseen delays. If the data from these

schools had been present, the author was hoping they would strongly support her hypothesis and

provide rich data on the different cultural attitudes toward literacy. However, while this data was

unavailable, three schools within the Midwest area of the United States were more willing and

available to participate in the sample of multiethnic students and students with diverse needs.

The informal survey for teachers which focused on identifying cultural influences

regarding literacy was distributed to three teachers in three distinct schools in the Midwest region

of the United States. Participants in the sample included students from a variety of ethnicity

groups including Caucasian, Black/African American, and Multiracial. In the respective schools

there was a majority of Caucasian students, and total surveyed were a ratio of 35:8 with

Caucasian to other races. This was a smaller ethnic pool than the author desired, but it has still

given valuable findings. The average classroom gender ratio was 20 boy: 23 girl. Out of all of

the students surveyed, none of them were recorded as ELLs or had IEPs specifically for their

language difficulties. While their targeted behavior did not directly correlate to literacy, IEPs are

given for any disability that seriously interferes with a student’s learning. These students with

IEPs were diagnosed with ADHD (i.e. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), ODD (i.e.

Oppositional Defiance Disorder), ID (i.e. Intellectual Disability), MD (i.e. Mental Disability) and
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 11

the Autism spectrum disorders. Literacy is a significant part of all student learning, so even

these students are impacted by literacy strategies. These teachers and classrooms were chosen

for study because they too have a population of diverse students and were more accessible to the

author. To support her hypothesis, the author believes that by studying classrooms that are

ethnically and culturally diverse, one can reach accurate conclusions regarding the pedagogy of

teaching literacy effectively to all students.

Findings

The findings presented in this document are a compilation of research done on secondary

research from related studies and actual research conducted by the author in surveys sent out to

teachers. The knowledge gained from experts in the field is presented in the literature reviews.

Results to the surveys are also presented. This research indicated that students are impacted by

instruction which targets a cultural approach to literacy which will more effectively foster a love

of reading. Based on these findings, it is clear that when teachers are aware of the need for

literacy development and integration in the classroom, they are able and more willing to find

ways that reach students across the cultural, gender, and disability gap that may exist.

Figure 1. Shows that all teachers surveyed considered literacy necessary for student success.
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 12
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 13

Figure 2. Shows different literacy strategies teachers strive to implement.

Based on these responses from the teachers surveyed, it is clear that they are aware of the

challenges of teaching literacy to a diverse group of learners. However, the second two

participants provided insightful suggestions for strategies they are currently using or hope to

implement in their classrooms to address literacy concerns more effectively. Their emphasis of

student choice that is implicit in their responses is very important. It shows that teachers need to

include cultural texts that are relevant to the students, as well as books that the students’ cultural
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 14

upbringing has led them to value. One of the biggest obstacles to understand when dealing with

different cultures is the difference in the value-based system of learning. For example, in a

child’s home culture one thing may be most desired and valued, while at school a different set of

values are presented. To bridge this, teachers must begin to understand the different cultures of

their students so they can then bring the values that the child’s family is teaching him or her to

the classroom too so the child can experience a continuum of learning across his experience.

Once these teachers who were surveyed were able to do this, they experienced greater student

response. To quote the first teacher participant: “The students seem to be more engaged and

attentive when the readings are relatable to their own personal experiences.”

This survey response shows how the teachers in the survey were aware of the great

impact of a student’s own experiences in his or her particular culture or even in his or her own

family culture. Although the pool of participants were not as culturally diverse as the author

originally anticipated, it was enlightening to see how their learning styles were still affected by

the individual home cultures as well. A strong family culture seemed to point to strong readers,

while the lack of this contributed to decreased literacy understanding. This is seen very well in

Figure 3, which illustrates the survey question that was the final one on the survey and focused

on the main question the author was researching. (See Fig. 3)

Figure 3. Teachers’ observations concerning the effects of students’ culture on their literacy.
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 15

Overall, the pool of participants had varied classrooms in regard to their students. Some

had more students with IEPs, there were different ratios of girls to boys, and there were different

ethnicities in each. Still, each teacher reiterated the importance of being sensitive to where

students come from and their past experiences in choosing literacy for the classroom. The

teachers individually place emphasis on certain effective strategies to a greater or lesser extent

than to others, but they all saw the importance of diversity in choosing them, and indeed their
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 16

very differences in selection illustrate this quite well. Some of the strategies mentioned by the

participants are: read-alouds, manipulative/sensory/accommodated books, and using pictures to

help students with vocabulary. One of the teachers noted that using visuals with the words was

especially effective with ESL students. This strategy could also be used with any literacy

challenged student to help them make connections with their experiences. The method of

surveying used in this research brought findings which point to the importance of integrating

literacy and culture for each student.

Recommendations

Research was in agreement on the efficacy of literacy instruction when teachers

accomodated their diverse students. Various strategies were promoted, with the overall finding

showing that there is a large variety of strategies that could be applicable to students from

different cultures. It might be most effective to try to understand the child’s individual culture,

and then differentiate instruction to reflect the diversity. It could be interesting to see which

specific strategies scored the highest for using with students of different ethnic backgrounds. Are

these stereotypical strategies that teachers use for multiracial students, or do teachers really

consider the unique needs of each student’s situation? To best understand a student’s culture, a

recommendation would be to move away from stereotypes and maintain at least a working

relationship with the parents so the teachers can begin to understand the actual home culture that

their student is coming from. It should be noted though that just because a strategy is

stereotypical does not mean that it should be discarded outright, but should be considered along

with others.

To extend this research, this survey could be distributed to a wider pool of participants. It

could be especially enlightening to distribute it along the border of America and Mexico, and
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 17

among the different regions of the United States with a very strong cultural identity from

immigrants who have brought their culture with them. The comparison of these statistics would

potentially lead to the use of more appropriate literacy strategies with various ethnicities and

minorities. Furthermore, it would make the database more credible to have a larger pool to be

able to draw more accurate conclusions from. With the current research, there are good

indicators that teachers are aware of the need for literacy differentiation to meet all needs.

However, if this research was extended, it would be interesting to see if all teachers see the

importance of and know how to differentiate instruction with various strategies.

The research articles also provided strong support for cultural approach to literacy for

students. This was especially true with ELLs. They also bring the reader to a deep

understanding of just how important English instruction is. A crucial part of literacy instruction

is the initial comprehension of English, and then a developing comprehension that enables the

students to become competitors in the global economy. Literacy instruction is most effective

when it builds upon itself and upon a student’s experiences. Once a teacher understands this, the

possibilities are endless for differentiation of instruction among students. This study was very

informative concerning how to positively impact a student’s approach to literacy.

The implications of the research gathered in this study are that a teacher has a great

potential to positively impact student literacy instruction. While students come from many

different cultures, they all deserve access to effective literacy programs.

References

Leventhal, T., Brooks-Gunn, J., & Xue, Y. (2006). Immigrant differences in school-age

children's verbal trajectories: A look at four racial/ethnic groups. Child

Development,77(5), 1359-1374.
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 18

Nieto, S. (2013). Language, literacy, and culture: Aha! moments in personal and sociopolitical

understanding. Journal Of Language And Literacy Education, 9(1), 8-20.

Ngaka, W., Graham, R., Masaazi, F. M., & Anyandru, E. M. (2016). Generational, cultural, and

linguistic integration for literacy learning and teaching in uganda: Pedagogical

possibilities, challenges, and lessons from one NGO. Journal Of Language And Literacy

Education, 12(1), 79-103.

Rodriguez, E., & Tamis-LeMonda, C. (2011). Trajectories of the home learning environment

across the first 5 years: Associations with children's vocabulary and literacy skills at

prekindergarten. Child Development, 82(4), 1058-1075.

Wahyudin, U. (2015). The quality of a "local values based" functional literacy program: Its

contribution to the improvement of the learner's basic competencies. International

Education Studies, 8(2), 121-127.

Waldfogel, J. (2012). The role of out-of-school factors in the literacy problem. The Future of

Children, 22(2), 39-54.

Appendix

Appendix A- Culture and Literacy Survey

Student Cultural Response to Literature Survey

1. On a scale of 1-6, with 6 as the highest, how necessary is literacy for student success?
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 19

1 2 3 4 5 6

2. If you view it as very necessary, what strategies do you usually administer to the broad

band of your students in Tier 1 tactics to help them learn this?

3. On a scale of 1-6, with 6 as the highest, how effective do you think these usually are?

Please also explain why.

1 2 3 4 5 6

Please Specify:

4. How many of your students have IEPs?

5. What are the disabilities of these children?

Please Specify:

6. What are the demographics in regard to race, gender, and ethnicity of your classroom?
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 20

7. On a scale of 1-6, with 6 as the highest, how effective are your usual literacy strategies

with the IEP students?

1 2 3 4 5 6

8. Please list additional literacy strategies you use to supplement your culturally diverse

students and the impact of these on literacy development.

9. If you could do anything differently to help your students develop an appreciation of

literacy that will also benefit their reading skills, what would these be? And what

restrictions do you experience that prevent you from implementing them?

10. Can you describe student responses to literature which you have observed in your

classroom, which you believe reflect a home or ethnic cultural effect?


STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 21

Raw Data

Student Cultural Response to Literature

PAGE 1

Q1

On a scale of 1-6, with 6 as the highest, how necessary is

literacy for student success?

· Answered: 3

· Skipped: 0

123456

0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 22

Answer Choices– Responses–

– 0.00%

1 0

– 0.00%

2 0

– 0.00%

3 0

– 0.00%

4 0

– 0.00%

5 0

– 100.00%

6 3

Total 3

Q2

Export

If you view it as very necessary, what strategies do you

usually administer to the broad band of your students in


STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 23

Tier 1 tactics to help them learn this?

· Answered: 3

· Skipped: 0

Showing 3 responses

The biggest strategy I use is while group read-alouds and think-alouds.

4/21/2017 2:22 AM View respondent's answers

N/A

4/20/2017 11:41 PM View respondent's answers

At my grade level we practice letter recognition, phonemic awareness, sound blending

4/20/2017 9:18 PM View respondent's answers

Q3

Export

Customize

On a scale of 1-6, with 6 as the highest, how effective do

you think these usually are? Please also explain why.

· Answered: 3

· Skipped: 0

123456

Other (please

specify)

0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 24

Answer Choices– Responses–

– 0.00%

1 0

– 0.00%

2 0

– 0.00%

3 0

– 0.00%

4 0

– 0.00%

5 0

– 0.00%

6 0

– 100.00%

Responses 3

Other (please specify)


STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 25

Showing 3 responses

As long as students are engaged and focused with the reading material than the think aloud she'll students

understand and comprehend the story better.

4/21/2017 2:22 AM View respondent's answers

N/A

4/20/2017 11:41 PM View respondent's answers

These are important skills for students before they learn to read

4/20/2017 9:18 PM HYPERLINK

"https://www.surveymonkey.com/analyze/browse/yjKfKgjCj88pvImyMr_2FhHIEsszzXo9Doj

RZhjKvEp2M_3D?respondent_id=6162591237" View respondent's answers

Total 3

Q4

Export

How many of your students have IEPs?

· Answered: 3

· Skipped: 0

Showing 3 responses

13

4/21/2017 2:22 AM View respondent's answers

All my students have IEPs


STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 26

4/20/2017 11:41 PM View respondent's answers

07

4/20/2017 9:18 PM View respondent's answers

Q5

Export

Customize

What are the disabilities of these children?

· Answered: 3

· Skipped: 0

Not Applicable

Other (please

specify)

0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%

Answer Choices– Responses–

– 33.33%

Not Applicable 1

– 66.67%

Responses 2

Other (please specify)


STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 27

Showing 2 responses

Autism, ADHD, ODD, ID, MD

4/21/2017 2:22 AM View respondent's answers

Autism Spectrum Disorders

4/20/2017 11:41 PM HYPERLINK

"https://www.surveymonkey.com/analyze/browse/yjKfKgjCj88pvImyMr_2FhHIEsszzXo9Doj

RZhjKvEp2M_3D?respondent_id=6162701577" View respondent's answers

Total 3

Q6

Export

What are the demographics in regard to race, gender, and

ethnicity of your classroom?

· Answered: 3

· Skipped: 0

Showing 3 responses

All students are white 8:6 boy to girl

4/21/2017 2:22 AM View respondent's answers

Female: 3 Male: 5 Caucasian: 6 Black/African American: 1 Multicultural: 1

4/20/2017 11:41 PM View respondent's answers

7 boys, 14 girls, 3 African American, 2 multiracial, and 16 Caucasian

4/20/2017 9:18 PM View respondent's answers


STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 28

Q7

Export

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On a scale of 1-6, with 6 as the highest, how effective are

your usual literacy strategies with the IEP students?

· Answered: 3

· Skipped: 0

123456

0%10%20%30%40%50%60%70%80%90%100%

Answer Choices– Responses–

– 0.00%

1 0

– 0.00%

2 0

– 0.00%

3 0

– 33.33%

4 1

– 33.33%
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 29

5 1

– 33.33%

6 1

Total 3

Q8

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Please list additional literacy strategies you use to

supplement your culturally diverse students and the

impact of these on literacy development.

· Answered: 3

· Skipped: 0

Showing 3 responses

Not a culturally diverse room

4/21/2017 2:22 AM View respondent's answers

Read Alouds, manipulative/sensory/accommodated books

4/20/2017 11:41 PM View respondent's answers

Using pictures to help students with vocabulary words allows ESL students to understand English words

that they might not be familiar with.

4/20/2017 9:18 PM View respondent's answers

Q9
STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 30

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If you could do anything differently to help your students

develop an appreciation of literacy that will also benefit

their reading skills, what would these be? And what

restrictions do you experience that prevent you from

implementing them?

· Answered: 3

· Skipped: 0

Showing 3 responses

Working in a multiple handicaps room is tricky because all of the behaviors and lack of attention and

focus can impede literacy growth at times.

4/21/2017 2:22 AM View respondent's answers

I would choose a wide variety of books that expose the students to to various cultures, ethnicities, and

walks of life. I would choose books with characters that my students with special needs could identify

with. Literacy and reading would be taught primarily with trade books. The most restrictive aspect in trying

to implement this in the classroom would be finding the time to devote to these books and topics when

the scripted Basal reading program takes presidence in literacy and reading instruction.

4/20/2017 11:41 PM View respondent's answers

I would like my students to read stories for a variety of purposes such as researching a topic, fun and

entertainment. I think that reading books by choice outside of the classroom builds their love of reading.

4/20/2017 9:18 PM View respondent's answers

Q10

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STUDENT RESPONSE TO LITERACY AMONG DIVERSE CULTURES 31

Can you describe student responses to literature which

you have observed in your classroom, which you believe

reflect a home or ethnic cultural effect?

· Answered: 3

· Skipped: 0

Showing 3 responses

Most readings have been socially relevant versus culturally relavant. The students seem to be more

engaged and attentive when the readings are relatable to their own personal experiences.

4/21/2017 2:22 AM View respondent's answers

Some students are more willing/interested to engage in reading than other students. It is evident which

students are read to in the home and whose parents make literacy and literature a priority.

4/20/2017 11:41 PM View respondent's answers

Students who read at home with parents are more excited about reading and learning to read.