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Human Resource SECTION 3

Training and
Management Developing
Human
Resources
TENTH EDITON

Robert L. Mathis  John H. Jackson

Chapter 9

Training Human Resources

PowerPoint Presentation
© 2003 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved.
by Charlie Cook
Learning Objectives

After you have read this chapter, you should be


able to:
– Define training and discuss why a strategic
approach is important.
– Discuss the four phases of the training process.
– Identify three types of analyses used to determine
training needs.
– Describe internal, external, and e-learning as
training delivery approaches.
– Give an example for each of the four levels of
training evaluation.

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–2


The Nature of Training

 Training
– A process whereby people acquire capabilities to
aid in the achievement of organizational goals.
– Employers spend $60 billion on training annually.
 The Context of Training
– Organization Competitiveness and Training
• Training make organizations more competitive
• Training helps retain valuable employees
• Training is no longer the first casualty of a business
downturn.

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–3


The Context of Training

 Organization Competitiveness and Training


– Training makes organizations more competitive
– Training helps retain valuable employees
– Training is no longer the first casualty of a business
downturn.
 Training as a Revenue Source
– Marketing training with or alongside products can
contribute significantly to a firm’s revenues.

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–4


The Context of Training (cont’d)

 Integration of Job Performance, Training, and


Learning
– Training is moving “closer to the job” to achieve
“real time” learning.
– Training is using more real-world problems to
increase employee learning.

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–5


Performance Consulting

Figure 9–1
© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–6
Typical Division of HR Responsibilities: Training

Figure 9–2
© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–7
Linking Business and Training Strategies

Source: Based on ideas from Lisa A. Burke and Joseph V. Wilson III. Figure 9–3
© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–8
Basic Business Strategy Concepts

 Low-cost leader
– Attempting to increase market share by focusing on
the low cost of the firm’s products or services,
compared to competitors.
 Differentiation
– Trying to make the firm’s products or services
competitively different from others in the industry in
terms of quality, service, technology, or perceived
distinctiveness.

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–9


Training Process

Figure 9–4
© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–10
Sources of
Training Needs
Assessment

Figure 9–5
© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–11
Establishing Training Objectives

 Gap Analysis
– The distance between where an organization is with
its employee capabilities and where it needs to be.
 Types of Training Objectives
– Knowledge: Impart cognitive information and
details to trainees.
– Skill: Develop behavior changes in how job and
tasks are performed.
– Attitude: Create interest and awareness of the
training importance.

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–12


Elements of Training Design

Figure 9–6
© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–13
Learning: The Focus of Training

 Learner Readiness
– Ability to learn
• Learners must possess basic skills (3Rs)
– Motivation to learn
• Learners must desire and value training
– Self-efficacy
• Learners must believe that
they can successfully learn
the training content

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–14


Learning Styles

Adult Learning Principles

Have need to know why they are learning something.

Have need to be self-directed.

Bring more work-related experiences into the process.

Employ a problem-solving approach in the experience.

Are motivated by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors.

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–15


Learning Practices

 Active Practice
– The performance of job-related tasks and duties by
trainees during training
 Spaced Practice
– Several practice sessions spaced over a period of
hours or days
 Massed practice
– Performance of all the practice at once.

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–16


Learning: Behaviors

 Behavior Modeling
– Copying someone else’s behavior by observing how
another person deals with a problem.
 Reinforcement
– Law of effect states that people tend to repeat
behaviors that are rewarded and avoid behaviors
that are punished.
 Immediate Confirmation
– Reinforcement and feedback are most effective
when given as soon as possible after training.

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–17


Learning: Types of Training

Required and Job/Technical


Regular Training Training

Types of
Training
Interpersonal and
Developmental and
Problem-Solving
Innovative Training
Training

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–18


Course Types and Training Expenditures

Source: Mark E. Van Buren, ASTD State of the Industry Report,


2001 (Alexandria, VA: ASTD, 2001), 13. Used with permission. Figure 9–7
© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–19
Orientation: Training for New Employees

Achievements of
Effective Orientation

Socialization Performance
Favorable Provides Co-Worker
and and
Impression Information Acceptance
Integration Productivity

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–20


Effective New Employee Orientation

Prepare New Employee

Consider “buddy” mentors

Use an orientation checklist

Cover needed information

Present information effectively

Avoid information overload

Evaluation and follow-up

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–21


Training Delivery: Considerations

 Nature of training
 Subject matter
 Number of trainees
 Individual vs. team
 Self-paced vs. guided
 Training resources
 Costs
 Geographic locations
 Time allotted
 Completion timeline

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–22


Internal Training

 Informal Training
– Training that occurs through interactions and
feedback among employees.
 On-the-Job Training (OJT)
– Problems with OJT
• Poorly-qualified or indifferent trainers
• Disruption of regular work
• Bad or incorrect habits are passed on

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–23


Stages of On-the-Job Training

Figure 9–8
© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–24
External Training

 Reasons for External Training


– May be less expensive to outsource training
– Insufficient time to develop training
– Lack of expertise
– Advantages of interacting with outsiders
 E-Learning: Training Online

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–25


External Training: E-Learning

 E-Learning: Training Online


– The using the Internet or an organizational intranet
to conduct training online.
 Criteria for adopting e-learning:
– Sufficient top management support and funding
– Accepting the idea of decentralized and
individualized training
– Current training methods not meeting needs
– Computer literacy and access to computers
– Time and travel cost concerns for trainees
– The number and self-motivation of trainees

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–26


Developing E-Learning

Figure 9–9
© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–27
Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning

Source: Developed by Lisa A. Burke. May not be reproduced without permission. Figure 9–10
© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–28
Training Methods

Cooperative
Training

Instructor-Led
Distance Training Classroom and
Training/Learning Methods Conference
Training

Technology and
Training

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–29


Levels of Training Evaluation

Figure 9–11
© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–30
Balancing Costs and Benefits of Training

Figure 9–12
© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–31
Training Evaluation (cont’d)

 Cost-Benefit Analyses
– Comparison of costs and benefits associated with
training
 Return on Investment
 Benchmarking Training

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–32


Evaluation Designs

Post-Measure

Pre-/Post- Evaluation
Measure Design

Pre-/Post-
Measure with
Control Group

© 2002 Southwestern College Publishing. All rights reserved. 9–33