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A l Cl

Arlo Clark-Foos

kF

Using Samples to Estimate

Population Parameters

y Acknowledgeg error

y Smaller samples, less spread

Σ( X − M ) 2

s=

N −1

The t Statistic

y Indicates the distance of a sample

p mean

from a population mean in terms of the

standard error s = s

M

N

Hypothesis Tests:

Single--Sample t Tests

Single

not need

d advertising

d as its quality

l willll sellll it,

and those who do not drink it are to be

sympathized with rather than advertised to. to”

Hypothesis Tests:

Single--Sample t Tests

Single

y Hypothesis test in which we compare data from

one sample to a population for which we know the

mean but not the standard deviation.

y Degrees of Freedom:

◦ The number of scores that are free to vary when

estimating a population parameter from a sample

◦ df = N – 1 (for a Single-Sample t Test)

One Tailed vs.

vs Two Tailed Tests

Six Steps for Hypothesis Testing

1. Identifyy

2. State the hypotheses

3 Characteristics of the comparison

3.

distribution

4 Critical values

4.

5. Calculate

6. Decide

Single--Sample t Test: Example

Single

y Participation

p in therapy

py sessions

y Contract to attend 10 sessions

y μ = 4.6

46

y Sample:

y 6, 6, 12, 7, 8

Single--Sample t Test: Example

Single

1. Identifyy

◦ Pop 1: All clients who sign contract

◦ Popp 2: All clients who do not sign

g contract

◦ Distribution of means

standard deviation Æ single-sample t test

x Assumptions

Single--Sample t Test: Example

Single

2. State the null and research hypotheses

yp

◦ H0: Clients who sign the contract will attend

the same number of sessions as those who

do not sign the contract.

x μ1 = μ2

◦ H1: Clients who sign the contact will attend

a different number of sessions than those

who do not sign the contract.

contract

x μ1 ≠ μ2

Single--Sample t Test: Example

Single

3. Determine characteristics of

comparison distribution

μM = μ = 4.6, Σ( X − M ) 2

sM = 1.114 s= = 2.490

N −1

s 2.490

sM = = = 1.114

N 5

Single--Sample t Test: Example

Single

4. Determine critical values or cutoffs

◦ df = N-1 = 5-1 = 4, p = .05

◦ t = ± 2.776

Single--Sample t Test: Example

Single

5. Calculate the test statistic

( M − μ M ) (7.8 − 4.6)

t= = = 2.873

sM 1.114

6

6. M k a decision

Make d ii

◦ 2.873 > 2.776, we reject the null

◦ Clients who sign a contract will attend more

sessions than those who do not sign a

contract.

contract

Reporting Results in APA Format

1. Write the symbol for the test statistic (e.g., z

or t)

2. Write the degrees of freedom in parentheses

3. Write an equal sign and then the value of the

test statistic (2 decimal places)

4. Write a comma and then whether the p value

associated with the test statistic was less than

or greater than the cutoff p value of .05

05

t(4) = 22.87,

87 p < .05

05

Hypothesis tests for two samples

y Conditions must be equivalent

q

(controlled) for a fair test

groups

Paired--Samples t Test

Paired

y Used to comparep 2 means ffor a within-

groups design, a situation in which every

pparticipant

p is in both samples

p

(paired/dependent)

Paired--Samples t Test

Paired

1. Identifyy

2. State null & research hyp.

3 Determine characteristics of

3.

comparison distribution

H 0 : μ1 = μ2

Paired--Samples t Test

Paired

4. Determine cutoffs

5. Calculate test statistic

(M − μM )

t=

sM

6

6. M k a decision

Make d ii

Independent Samples t Test

y Used to comparep 2 means ffor a between-

groups design, a situation in which each

pparticipant

p is assigned

g to onlyy one condition.

Independent Samples t Test

y What p

percentage

g of cartoons do men and

woman consider funny?

y Women: 84 97 58 90

y Men: 88 90 52 97 86

Independent Samples t Test

1. Identifyy

◦ Population 1: Women exposed to humorous

cartoons

Population 2: Men exposed to humorous

cartoons

◦ Distribution: Differences between means

x Not mean differences

◦ Assumptions are the same

x We meet one here: DV is interval/scale

Independent Samples t Test

2. State null and research

hypotheses

◦ H 0 : μ1 = μ2

◦ Women will categorize the

same number of cartoons as

funny as will men.

men

◦ H 1 : μ1 ≠ μ2

◦ Women

Wo e will

w categorize

catego e a

different number of cartoons

funny as as will men.

Independent Samples t Test

3. Determine characteristics of

comparison distribution

◦ H0: μ1 = μ2

◦ Measure of spread:

a) Calculate variance for each sample

b) Pool variances,

variances accounting for sample size

c) Convert from squared standard deviation to

squared standard error

d) Add the two variances

e) Take square root to get estimated standard error

for distribution of differences between means.

Independent Samples t Test

a) Calculate variance for each sample

Σ ( X − M ) 2

868.752

s X2 = = = 289.584

N −1 4 −1

Σ (Y − M ) 2

1314 4

1314.4

sY2 = = = 328.6

N −1 5 −1

Independent Samples t Test

y Degrees

g of Freedom

dfX = N – 1 = 4 – 1 = 3

dfY = N – 1 = 5 – 1 = 4

Pooled Variance

b) Pool variances, accounting for sample size

y Weighted average of the two estimates of variance

– one from each sample – that are calculated when

conducting

d i an iindependent

d p d samples pl t test.

⎛ df X ⎞ 2 ⎛ dfY ⎞ 2

s 2

Pooled =⎜ ⎟ sX + ⎜ ⎟ sY

⎝ dfTotal ⎠ ⎝ dfTotal ⎠

⎛3⎞ ⎛4⎞

s 2

Pooled = ⎜ ⎟ 289.584 + ⎜ ⎟ 328.6

⎝7⎠ ⎝7⎠

2

sPooled = 124.107 + 187.771 = 311.878

Independent Samples t Test

c)) Convert from squared

q standard deviation to

squared standard error

2

sPooled = 311.878

2 2

sPooled 311 878

311.878 sPooled 311 878

311.878

s 2

MX = = = 77.970 s 2

MY = = = 62.376

N 4 N 5

2

sDifference = sM2 X + sM2 Y = 77.970 + 62.376 = 140.346

distribution of differences between means.

sDifference = sDifference

2

= 140.346 = 11.847

Independent Samples t Test

4. Determine critical values

◦ dfTotal = 7 p = .05 t = ± 2.365

⎡⎣( M X − M Y ) − ( μ X − μY ) ⎤⎦ ( M X − M Y )

t= =

sDifference sDifference

t=

( 82.25 − 82.6 )

= −.03

11 847

11.847

Independent Samples t Test

6. Make a decision

◦ Men and women find cartoons equally

humorous

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