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A Thesis Presented to the Senior Hig School

San Jose del Monte National High School

City of San Jose del Monte, Bulacan


In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement

for theSubject Inquiries, Investigation

and Immersion


Cabangon, John lester

Prudenciado, Joeric
Subradil, Rhendyll
Alamag, Marian
Cariño, Lorie Joy
Dela Cruz, Daniela Jane
Herrera, Hezel
Approval Sheet


IT'S RELATION TO ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE" prepared and submitted by

GROUP 4 GAS-A (Rafael Palma) in partial fulfillment for the requirements in subject

Inquires, Investigation and Immersion Practical Research 3 has been examined and is

recommended for approval and Acceptance.

Mr. Marion Arcenas

Inquiries, Investigation and Immersion Adviser

Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the subject

Inquiries, Investigation and Immersion.

Mrs. Purita J. Herrera


The researcher want to grant their profound gratitude to Mr. Marion Arceñas for

letting their to conduct this kind of research.

We thank also our Dear instructor for being understandable for our research

study and for his knowledge that he shared to us by making his kind of research. We

thank also all the respondent and to all participate who participate on the research study

that we made.

Also the researcher want to thank to Almighty God for giving the strengt,

knowledge, Perseverance and courage for collecting all the nended data's for research


We owe and dedicate our research study especially to Mr. Marion Arceñas for

giving and letting us to conduct this research study because through the research paper

we learn a lot about the Factors affecting student motivation and its relation to academic

performance and we also learn how to coordinate/cooperate as a group.

We also dedicate this research paper for the next generation who might be

conducting this kind of study for them to ease their job and collect more information and

above of Almighty God. Thank You!




Motivation is one of the factors affect the students academic performance and one

of the places where One of the places where motivation is manifested earliest is the

classroom. There you will find different types of students all motivated by different

combinations of factors. Some draw on the intrinsic- their inner strength and

determination- and remain focused even in what appears to be really adverse situations.

Others rely heavily on extrinsic factors and if those are not favourable, they become

demotivated and easily lose focus. Students bring to the classroom varying types of

extrinsic motivation such as a nurturing home environment or rewards promised by

parents and relatives. However, they also depend, to a large extent, on school factors such

as school and classroom environment, teacher personality, skill and ability of teacher,

rewards and commendations and relationship with peers for motivation not only to

succeed, but to excel.

Based on many research there has a lot of factors affecting students motivation

the example are Home Environment it says a child who comes from a home environment

which is caring, comfortable and supportive brings to the classroom, motivation arising

from his conducive home environment. On the other side of the coin, an unfavorable

home environment produces a pupil who arrives at school perhaps hungry, angry,

resentful, bitter, depressed, lethargic or just simply stressed out. Such a student would

require really strong school motivation to prod him out of his malaise and cause him to
perform. And the next one is Classroom Environment it says a positive school

environment will reinforce the student's motivation and cause him to achieve at even

higher levels or it will create motivation where there was none from the home. And the

next is the School System it says the school system itself can influence students either to

excel or to rebel. A school system which is extremely regimented can impact negatively

on students. The converse is true; one which is too lax will eventually have discipline

problems and lose reputation. Nobody wants to be associated with a school whose

reputation is poor, thus students who attend such schools feel that nothing good is

expected of them and so they are not motivated to do well. They are few examples of

factors affecting students motivation through their academic performance.

The studies about Factors in Student Motivation (by: Steven C. Howey 2008) says

Educators across the country are frustrated with the challenge of how to motivate the ever

increasing number of freshmen students entering college who are psychologically,

socially, and academically unprepared for the demands of college life. Such students

often exhibit maladaptive behavior such as tardiness, hostility towards authority, and

unrealistic aspirations.

The standard approach is to address the problem as an academic issue through

remedial or developmental instruction. Developmental education programs however do

not address the whole problem. Lack of motivation is not limited to the academically

weak student. Successful remedial and study strategies courses aimed at the

underprepared student have demonstrated that students who really want to improve their

skills can do so when motivated. However, even the best remedial instruction programs

have failed to positively impact the student who is both underprepared academically and
unmotivated. When students have both a lack of academic skills and lack motivation, the

greater problem is motivation (Kelly, 1988). Faculty often have neither the time or

inclination to address difficult motivational issues in the classroom, consequently, the

task of trying to effectively motivate such students often falls to academic advisors.

Opinions about the role of motivation in academic achievement and what can be

done about it vary widely among college faculty, administrators, and student services

professionals. Consideration about unmotivated students opens a Pandora’ s box of

questions: Can anything be done about these students? Can motivation be taught? What

kind of strategies can be used to influence motivation? Is this time wasted that might

better be used on those students who are already motivated?

The problem of devising effective strategies that influence motivation relies

initially on the identification of specific motivational factors. The histories of psychology

and education are abundant with research on motivation and its effect on behavior. The

study of motivation in education has undergone many changes over the years, moving

away from reinforcement contingencies to the more current social-cognitive perspective

emphasizing learners’ constructive interpretations of events and the role that their

beliefs, cognitions, affects, and values play in achievement (Pintrich and Schunk, 1996).

Based to (, working with educators, parents, and other caring adults

around the country to help young people REACH to become all that they can be in school

and in other areas of their lives. We are doing this by equipping adults with practical

ways to address five factors that studies have shown influence young people's will to

succeed, which we are calling the REACH Framework: Relationships: Connecting young

people to caring adults and to other young people who push them, support them,
empower them, and expand their views of what is possible in life. Effort: Helping

students understand that with hard work and the use of good learning strategies they can

succeed in school, regardless of how smart they think they are or how smart others think

they are. Aspirations: Grounding young people in the reality that the actions they take or

do not take each day will influence their ability to realize their dreams for the future.

Cognition: Teaching students practical ways to think about their own thinking, control

impulses, and stay on track to complete tasks and achieve goals. Heart: Giving students

the opportunity to discover and develop what they love to do what we call their sparks

and articulate a set of core values that they want to guide their lives. Our research

indicates that many young people today from both affluent and impoverished

backgrounds and from all cultural groups have gaps in the factors encompassed in the

REACH Framework. Fortunately, in our work with schools and families, we are finding

that it is possible to close those gaps when teachers, parents, and others are intentional

about building young people's character strengths through developmental relationships.

Statement of the problem

The general problem of the study is how may Factors affecting student

motivation and its relation to academic performance be evaluated the follwing question.

Speacifically, the study sought to answer the following question:

1.what is the profile of the respondents be describe in terms of the following;

1.1 age
1.2 gender

1.3 social economics status

1.4 average

2. How may factor affecting student motivation and its relation

to academic performance be described in terms of the following;

2.l Language of environment

2.2 Language of acceptance

2.3 expression of belongingness

3. What are the factor that the student being motivated?

4.what is the proposal intervention to the problem

Significance of the study

Studenty. This study will help the students to have more self-esteem and trust to

themselves that help them to improve and showed ther potentials. Its may help them to be

more productive and effcient in their specific strand.

Teacher. The study will help the teachers to on how to apply psychological science to

improve the learning process and promote educational success for all student because

knowing the appropriate teacher psychological approaches will help the teachers in

dealing with such behavior of their students seriously and not condoned access rather

than establishing proper controlled and organized learning environment and also because
a teacher must know the correct principles in teaching and learning, a different

approaches in teaching to the learning process.

Parents. The study will help the parents to know their value on school manager to curb

the menace of students. Also they will secured that their son or daugther are studying and

at school. This study will create the parents’ home involvement with their children


Future researchers. The study will help the future researchers to find it easier of others

‘researchers because it is useful to know how the original study was performed. This

proposal study will benefit and help the future researchers is their guide the study can

also open in development of the study. They would be able to use these data for them to

get the idea and references if they are planning to conduct the same study.

Community. The study will help the community to lessen the drop outs or

undergraduate students. Because of this research study, they are more likely to succeed.

They will realize the value of education that if they build on such existing strengths of

futuristic senses they can

Scope and Delimitation

This study is a qualitative specifically, a descriptive research design. It will focus

to different motivational that the teacher and how effective it is and how it will affect

the academic performance of the student we focus to the different major subject of the

senior high school students in grade 12. The researcher will interview teachers that

specialize on that major subject.


Relevant Theories

This part of the chapter contains the synoposis of the relevant theories to

present study. It serves as a guide for futher understanding of the functional delivery of

guidance services for as a basis. The following theories are helped in the development of

the research.

Frederick Herzberg Two-factor theory. Attitudes and their connection with

industrial mental health are related to Abraham Maslow's theory of motivation. His

findings have had a considerable theoretical, as well as a practical, influence on attitudes

toward administration. According to Herzberg, individuals are not content with the

satisfaction of lower-order needs at work; for example, those needs associated with

minimum salary levels or safe and pleasant working conditions. Rather, individuals look

for the gratification of higher-level psychological needs having to do with achievement,

recognition, responsibility, advancement, and the nature of the work itself. This appears

to parallel Maslow's theory of a need hierarchy. However, Herzberg added a new

dimension to this theory by proposing a two-factor model of motivation, based on the

notion that the presence of one set of job characteristics or incentives leads to

worker satisfaction at work, while another and separate set of job characteristics leads

to dissatisfaction at work. Thus, satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not on a continuum

with one increasing as the other diminishes, but are independent phenomena. This theory

suggests that to improve job attitudes and productivity, administrators must recognize and
attend to both sets of characteristics and not assume that an increase in satisfaction leads

to decrease in dissatisfaction.

The two-factor theory developed from data collected by Herzberg from interviews with

203 engineers and accountants in the Pittsburgh area, chosen because of their professions'

growing importance in the business world. Regarding the collection process:

From analyzing these interviews, he found that job characteristics related to what

an individual does that is, to the nature of the work one performs apparently have the

capacity to gratify such needs as achievement, competency, status, personal worth, and

self-realization, thus making him happy and satisfied. However, the absence of such

gratifying job characteristics does not appear to lead to unhappiness and dissatisfaction.

Instead, dissatisfaction results from unfavorable assessments of such job-related factors

as company policies, supervision, technical problems, salary, interpersonal relations on

the job, and working conditions. Thus, if management wishes to increase satisfaction on

the job, it should be concerned with the nature of the work itself the opportunities it

presents for gaining status, assuming responsibility, and for achieving self-realization. If,

on the other hand, management wishes to reduce dissatisfaction, then it must focus on the

job environment policies, procedures, supervision, and working conditions. If

management is equally concerned with both, then managers must give attention to both

sets of job factors.

Two-factor theory distinguishes between. Motivators (e.g. challenging work,

recognition for one's achievement, responsibility, opportunity to do something

meaningful, involvement in decision making, sense of importance to an organization) that

give positive satisfaction, arising from intrinsic conditions of the job itself, such as
recognition, achievement, or personal growth, and Hygiene factors (e.g. status, job

security, salary, fringe benefits, work conditions, good pay, paid insurance, vacations)

that do not give positive satisfaction or lead to higher motivation, though dissatisfaction

results from their absence. The term "hygiene" is used in the sense that these are

maintenance factors. These are extrinsic to the work itself, and include aspects such as

company policies, supervisory practices, or wages/salary. Herzberg often referred to

hygiene factors as "KITA" factors, which is an acronym for "kick in the ass", the process

of providing incentives or threat of punishment to make someone do something.

According to Herzberg, hygiene factors are what causes dissatisfaction among

employees in a workplace. In order to remove dissatisfaction in a work environment,

these hygiene factors must be eliminated. There are several ways that this can be done but

some of the most important ways to decrease dissatisfaction would be to pay reasonable

wages, ensure employees job security, and to create a positive culture in the workplace.

Herzberg considered the following hygiene factors from highest to lowest importance:

company policy, supervision, employee's relationship with their boss, work conditions,

salary, and relationships with peers. Eliminating dissatisfaction is only one half of the

task of the two factor theory. The other half would be to increase satisfaction in the

workplace. This can be done by improving on motivating factors. Motivation factors are

needed to motivate an employee to higher performance. Herzberg also further classified

our actions and how and why we do them, for example, if you perform a work related

action because you have to then that is classed as "movement", but if you perform a work

related action because you want to then that is classed as "motivation". Herzberg thought
it was important to eliminate job dissatisfaction before going onto creating conditions for

job satisfaction because it would work against each other.

Taylor Theory of Scientific management

Taylor put forward the idea that workers are motivated mainly by pay. His Theory

of Scientific Management argued the following. Workers do not naturally enjoy work and

so need close supervision and control.Therefore managers should break down production

into a series of small tasks. Workers should then be given appropriate training and tools

so they can work as efficiently as possible on one set task. Workers are then paid

according to the number of items they produce in a set period of time- piece-rate pay.

As a result workers are encouraged to work hard and maximise their productivity.

Taylor's methods were widely adopted as businesses saw the benefits of increased

productivity levels and lower unit costs.

Taylor's approach has close links with the concept of an autocratic management

style(managers take all the decisions and simply give orders to those below them) and

Macgregor's Theory X approach to workers (workers are viewed as lazy and avoid


However workers soon came to dislike Taylor's approach as they were only given

boring, repetitive tasks to carry out. Firms could also afford to lay off workers as

productivity levels increased. This led to an increase in strikes and other forms of

industrial action by dissatisfied workers

Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Maslow's hierarchy of needs is often portrayed in the shape of a pyramid with the

largest, most fundamental needs at the bottom and the need for self-actualization and self-

transcendence at the top. The most fundamental and basic four layers of the pyramid

contain what Maslow called "deficiency needs" or "d-needs": esteem, friendship and

love, security, and physical needs. If these "deficiency needs" are not met – with the

exception of the most fundamental (physiological) need – there may not be a physical

indication, but the individual will feel anxious and tense. Maslow's theory suggests that

the most basic level of needs must be met before the individual will strongly desire (or

focus motivation upon) the secondary or higher level needs. Maslow also coined the term

"metamotivation" to describe the motivation of people who go beyond the scope of the

basic needs and strive for constant betterment.

The human brain is a complex system and has parallel processes running at the

same time, thus many different motivations from various levels of Maslow's hierarchy

can occur at the same time. Maslow spoke clearly about these levels and their satisfaction

in terms such as "relative", "general", and "primarily". Instead of stating that the

individual focuses on a certain need at any given time, Maslow stated that a certain need

"dominates" the human organism. Thus Maslow acknowledged the likelihood that the

different levels of motivation could occur at any time in the human mind, but he focused

on identifying the basic types of motivation and the order in which they would tend to be


This is the meaning of the 5 needs based to Abraham Maslow. First is Physiological

needs.Physiological needs are the physical requirements for human survival. If these
requirements are not met, the human body cannot function properly and will ultimately

fail. Physiological needs are thought to be the most important; they should be met first.

Physiological Needs include Air (Breathing), Water, Food, Sleep, Clothing ,Shelter and

Sexual instinct.

Second is Safety needs. Once a person's physiological needs are relatively satisfied, their

safety needs take precedence and dominate behavior. In the absence of physical safety

due to war, natural disaster, family violence, childhood abuse, etc. people may (re-

)experience post-traumatic stress disorder or transgenerational trauma. In the absence of

economic safety – due to economic crisis and lack of work opportunities – these safety

needs manifest themselves in ways such as a preference for job security, grievance

procedures for protecting the individual from unilateral authority, savings accounts,

insurance policies, disability accommodations, etc. This level is more likely to

predominate in children as they generally have a greater need to feel safe. Safety and

Security needs include Personal security, Financial security, Health and well-being Safety

needs against accidents/illness and their adverse impacts.

Third is Social belonging. After physiological and safety needs are fulfilled, the third

level of human needs is interpersonal and involves feelings of belongingness. This need

is especially strong in childhood and it can override the need for safety as witnessed in

children who cling to abusive parents. Deficiencies within this level of Maslow's

hierarchy – due to hospitalism, neglect, shunning, ostracism, etc. – can adversely affect

the individual's ability to form and maintain emotionally significant relationships in

Social Belonging Needs include Friendships, Intimacy, and Family. According to

Maslow, humans need to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance among social groups,

regardless whether these groups are large or small. For example, some large social groups

may include clubs, co-workers, religious groups, professional organizations, sports teams,

gangs, and online communities. Some examples of small social connections include

family members, intimate partners, mentors, colleagues, and confidants. Humans need to

love and be loved – both sexually and non-sexually – by others. Many people become

susceptible to loneliness, social anxiety, and clinical depression in the absence of this

love or belonging element. This need for belonging may overcome the physiological and

security needs, depending on the strength of the peer pressure. Fourth is Esteem. All

humans have a need to feel respected; this includes the need to have self-esteem and self-

respect. Esteem presents the typical human desire to be accepted and valued by others.

People often engage in a profession or hobby to gain recognition. These activities give

the person a sense of contribution or value. Low self-esteem or an inferiority

complexmay result from imbalances during this level in the hierarchy. People with low

self-esteem often need respect from others; they may feel the need to seek fame or glory.

However, fame or glory will not help the person to build their self-esteem until they

accept who they are internally. Psychological imbalances such as depression can hinder

the person from obtaining a higher level of self-esteem or self-respect.

Most people have a need for stable self-respect and self-esteem. Maslow noted two

versions of esteem needs: a "lower" version and a "higher" version. The "lower" version

of esteem is the need for respect from others. This may include a need for status,

recognition, fame, prestige, and attention. The "higher" version manifests itself as the
need for self-respect. For example, the person may have a need for strength, competence,

mastery, self-confidence, independence, and freedom. This "higher" version takes

precedence over the "lower" version because it relies on an inner competence established

through experience. Deprivation of these needs may lead to an inferiority complex,

weakness, helplessness etc. Maslow states that while he originally thought the needs of

humans had strict guidelines, the "hierarchies are interrelated rather than sharply

separated".[4] This means that esteem and the subsequent levels are not strictly separated;

instead, the levels are closely related.

And the last is Self-actualization. "What a man can be, he must be”. This quotation forms

the basis of the perceived need for self-actualization. This level of need refers to what a

person's full potential is and the realization of that potential. Maslow describes this level

as the desire to accomplish everything that one can, to become the most that one can be.

Individuals may perceive or focus on this need very specifically. For example, one

individual may have the strong desire to become an ideal parent. In another, the desire

may be expressed athletically. For others, it may be expressed in paintings, pictures, or

inventions. As previously mentioned, Maslow believed that to understand this level of

need, the person must not only achieve the previous needs, but master them.

Related Literature

Student motivation is the element that leads students’ attitude towards

learning process. Number of studies has been conducted to probe the role of student

motivation toward academic performance and different definitions of students’

motivation have been used by various researches. For instance Lumsden, (1994) analyzed
students’ involvement towards education and sources of their motivation. Marshal (1987)

viewed students’ motivation as a force beneficial to the learner. Ames (1990) stated that

motivation to learning is dependant on long-term, quality attachment in learning and

pledge to the process of learning. Most motivation theorist believes that motivation is

involved in the performance of all learned responses and leaned behavior will not occur

unless it is energized. Bomia et al. (1997) has suggested student motivation as student

willingness, need, desire and obligation to participate and be booming in the learning


Brophy (1986) suggested motivation to learn as an ability acquired through

general experience but motivated most directly through modeling, communication of

expectations and direct instruction or socialization by other e.g. parents and teachers. So

teachers and parents are the main intermediaries who play an important role in

development of students’ motivation.

Condry and Chambers (1978) found that when students were confronted

with multifarious intellectual tasks, those with an intrinsic direction used more logical

information-gathering and decision-making strategies than did students who were

extrinsically motivated. Students with an intrinsic orientation also tend to prefer tasks that

are fairly challenging, whereas extrinsically oriented students incline toward tasks that

are low in degree of difficulty. Extrinsically oriented students are prone to put forth the

minimal amount of effort necessary to get the maximal reward (Lepper, 1988). Brooks et

al., (1998) states that to motivate students extrinsically, students should be publicly

recognized for their academic achievements; which may be done through giving out
stickers, candy, and other rewards; and taking away privileges, such as recess, on the

basis of students' poor academic performance.

Sometimes parents are so curious about their child’s education and career

that they keep reminding and injecting the minds of their child that education is the only

solution to future miseries. Even they threaten to punish their child for poor performance.

In such circumstances the child believes that education is compulsion for them and is

inevitable to survive. Large number of students could not get rid of their fears and often

fail to continue. School policies and goals in academic settings are also few factors that

influence in development of student motivation. Lastly unnecessary external rewards can

also attract students to achieve certain level of performance as suggested by Brooks et al.,


Related Studies

Luthans (1998) asserts that motivation should not be thought of as the only

explanation of behavior, since it interacts with and acts in conjunction with other

mediating processes and with the environment. Luthan stress that, like the other cognitive

process, motivation cannot be seen. All that can be seen is behavior, and this should not

be equated with causes of behavior. While recognizing the central role of motivation.

Evans (1998) states that many recent theories of organizational behavior find it

important for the field to re-emphasize behavior. Definitions of motivation abound. One

thing these definitions have in common is the inclusion of words such as "desire" ,

"want" , "wishes" , "aim" , "goals", "needs" , and "incentives".

Luthan (1998) defines motivation as, “aprocess that starts with a physiological deficiency

or need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal incentive”. Therefore,

the key to understanding the process of motivation lies in the meaning of, and

relationship between, needs, drives, and incentives

Emphasizes that motivation is the process that arouses, energizes, directs, and

sustains behavior and performance. That is, it is the process of stimulating people to

action and to achieve a desired task.

Bomia Said that motivation is a student’s willingness, need, desire and

compulsion to participate in, and be successful in the learning process. Keller said that

Motivation is an important factor in learning as argued earlier. Motivation is the

‘neglected heart’ of our understanding of how to design instruction. According to

Dornyei the meaning o the term motivation is concerning the direction and magnitude of

human behavior, that is: first the choice of a particular action, second the persistence with

it, third the effort expended on it.

Velki (2011) found high positive correlation between the degree of

students’autonomous motivation, the level of academic achievement and their mental

health. Reid pointed out that the ideal motivational factors for learning are the internal

desire to succeed and individual determination to achieve a proper aim (Reid, 2007).

These motivational factors contribute to a high quality learning process, a better memory

and the application of learning content, and students feel satisfaction but not pressure

while adopting learning content.21.

Marques (2010) motivation can be said to be what is required for people to

perform better in any activity .Every educator needs to be concerned about motivation. It
is a quality that students, teachers, parents and members of the community must have if

education system is to prepare young people adequately for the challenges and demands

of the coming century.

How these various categories of individuals generate and utilize motivation

differs to a great extent. For students motivation is necessary for learning to take place,

parents need to be motivated to follow up on the academic performance of their sons and

daughters, teachers need it to ensure all aspects of their schools continue to improve.

It is the role of the school administrator to initiate and nurture motivation among

the various categories of individuals that participate in the educational process.

Motivation must be rewarded, increased and sustained at all levels.22

However the school administration must not neglect their own, like other

participants of the educational process they have to find ways to stay motivated in the

midst of obstacles, distraction and what appears to be universal indifference. Academic

achievement/ performance is the outcome of education, the extent to which the student or

institution has achieved their educational goals.

Academic achievement is generally measured by examinations or continuous

assessment test. Individual variation in academic performance have been linked to

differences in intelligence and personality.

For the entire past century academic performance has become the gatekeeper to

higher learning institutions, defining career paths and individual life trajectories. Hence

large quantity of psychological research has concentrated on pinpointing predictors of

academic performance with intelligence and efforts coming out as major determinants.
Today academic performance continues to be understood as a precise proxy for aptitude

and is a core determinant of career paths and status achievement even though some doubt

its value ( chammore-premuzic & furnham, 2010)23

Conceptual Framework

Profile of the respondent in I. Collecting To know of their
terms of: Infromation motivation are really
 First quarter II. Creating Tittle affecting the studen’s
general average
 Strand III. Make statement of academic performance.
the problem
 Gender The study focuses on the
IV. Scope and
II. Factors affecting Delimitation factors affecting student
students motivation and
motivation influencing
academic performance in V. Assumption
terms of: their academic
VI. Hypothesis
 Time management
performace of the
 Time spent on VII. Collecting related
studying literature, studied, student. This research
 Family figure theory also create to know if
 Self study VIII. Collecting data there has some improved
 Financial problem
IX. Analyzing data on their academic
X. Interpretation performance if there have
a proper motivation.

Assumption of the study

This study formulated to know if the motivation can really affect the

student’s academic performace. So that this study will come up to give an advice to

friends, teachers and family member to motivate the students that has lack of motivation,

so that it can help to improve the academic performance of the students.