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ENGLISH FOR CHESMISTRY

Article

BY
NAME: NYOMAN NOVITA PURNAMI DEWI
IDN. 1213031011
SEMESTER/CLASS : II/A

CHEMISTRY EDUCATION OF DEPARTMENT


FACULTY OF MATHEMATIC AND NATURAL SCIENCES
UNIVERSITAS PENDIDIKAN GANESHA SINGARAJA
2013
Identify the Colloidal Properties
By:
Nyoman Novita Purnami Dewi
Email. purnami_novita@yahoo.co.id

ABSTRACT
Based on the particle size, mixture can be divided into three, namely solution, colloid,
and suspension. These three kinds of mixture have their own characteristic. The easiest way
to differentiate which one is belong to solution, colloid, or suspension is by using Tyndall
effect characteristics. Tyndall Effect occurs when light is scattered by the particles in a
colloidal system. In this article, an experiment is done to observe, determine, and differentiate
light beam scattering event by several kinds of particle that are the particles from solution,
colloid and suspension, where this experiment is done based on the light scattering event of
Tyndall effect. The method of this experiment is by shooting a light beam of laser into three
different kinds of mixture, then the light beam is observed. The trace of the light beam is
going through clearly in colloid system. But for either solution or suspension, this won't
happen.
Key words: solution, colloid, suspension, Tyndall effect, light beam.

INTRODUCTION
Colloidal systems associated with the processes in nature covering a variety of fields.
It can be noticed in the living body, the food we eat (in big size) before used by the body.
But, the first is must be processed so it can be in the colloids form. Also protoplasm in the
cells of living things is a colloid, so that the processes in the cell involve colloidal systems.
Air also contains colloidal systems, such as solid pollutants are dispersed in the air, like
smoke and dust. Also water is dispersed in the air which called as fog is colloidal systems.
Minerals that are dispersed in the soil needed by the plants are also colloidal system. There
are a lot of mixture in this nature are the colloidal system. But there are three kinds of
mixture based on particle size, namely solution, colloid and suspension. It needs an
understanding to determine the colloidal system and dfferentiate it from the solution and
suspension. The easiest way to differentiate which one is belong to solution, colloid, or
suspension is by using Tyndall Effect characteristics. Tyndall effect occurs when light is
scattered by particles in a colloid system. Tyndall effect can be proved by shooting a light
beam (from flash light, etc.) towards a colloid in a beaker. The trace of the light beam is
going through clearly. But for either solution or suspension, this won't happen. In this nature,
a lot of phenomenon that can be seen as the prove that Tyndall effect is occured, for example
the sky is blue because blue light has the shortest wavelength for visible light, and it is
reflected via scattering all over the place, so the sky has a blue color. In the forest, most of the
time we can see light beams coming from the sky because the dirt and other small particles in
the air form a colloid system, so light is scattered and form a light beam.

MATERIALS AND METHOD


In this article, an experiment is done to observe, determine, and differentiate light
beam scattering event by several kinds of particle that are the particles from solution, colloid
and suspension where this experiment is done based on the light scattering event of Tyndall
effect. In this experiment, the materials that used are 3.21 grams of sugar, 1.50 grams of
coffee, 1.86 grams of white milk powder, and 600 mL of water.
The method of this experiment, first by dissolving the sugar, coffee, and white milk
powder into the water. After that, a light beam of laser is shooted into these mixtures. Finally,
the light beam is observed in each mixture.

RESULT
The first experiment, where the sample is from the mixture of sugar and water
illuminated by the laser. The observation is the light beam was not visible and could not be
clearly distinguished. The light beam was not scattered in all directions, but the light of the
laser was passed, so it makes the light was focused on the screen. The result of observation
shows in this following picture.

Picture the
The second experiment, where 1. The light is
sample beam when
from thethe mixtureofof coffee and water
mixture
water and sugar
illuminated by the laser. The observation is the light beam was not visible. The light beam
illuminated by the laser
cannot be seen, and the light beam was not forwarded or scattered, but it was captured in the
mixture. The result of observation shows in this following picture.
Picture 2. The light beam when the mixture of
The third experiment, where
waterthe
andsample is from theby
coffee illuminated mixture of white milk powder and
the laser
water illuminated by the laser. The observation is the light beam could be seen and could be
distinguished from the mixture, but this light beam did not focus on the screen, it was
scattered, so the area around this mixture become lighter. The result of observation shows in
this following picture.

Picture 3. The light beam when the mixture of


DISCUSSION
water and white milk powder illuminated by the
From the result, in the first experiment, where the sample is from the mixture of sugar
laser
and water illuminated by the laser. The observation is the light beam was not visible and
could not be clearly distinguished, so in this case the sample mixture of sugar and water is
belongs to homogeneous mixture or solution. The light beam was not visible and could not be
clearly distinguished from the solution that was because the light beam was not scattered in
all directions but the light of the laser was passed through the solution, so it makes the light
was focused on the screen, it means this light beam was forwarded by the particles of the
solution. So, Tyndall effect did not occur in the solution. Solution is a dispersion system
where the size of particles are so small that it cannot be distinguished (observed) between the
dispersing particles and dispersed particles using microscope, that is less than 10-7 cm or 1
nm. The level of particle size of solution is molecules or ions, so the solution is a
homogenous mixture and difficult to separate by filtration and centrifuge. At the moment of
solution is illuminated by the light from the laser, the solution will not scatter that light, it is
happened because in the solution, the particles are relatively small so that the scattering that
occurs only a few and very difficult to observe.
The second experiment, where the sample is from the mixture of coffee and water
illuminated by the laser. The observation is the light beam was not visible, so in this case the
sample mixture of coffee and water is belongs to heterogeneous mixture or called as
suspension. The light beam was not visible from the mixture that was because the movement
of the particles did not scatter but form two phases, namely filtrate and precipitate. It makes
the light beam cannot be seen, and the light beam was not forwarded or scattered, but it will
be captured in the mixture. So Tyndall effect did not occur in the suspension. Suspension is a
dispersion system with relatively large-sized particles dispersed evenly in dispersing medium
that is more than 10-5 cm or 1 nm. In general dispersion system is a heterogeneous mixture.
An example is a deposition of a mixture of coffee and water. In the system dispersion,
dispersed particles can be observed with a microscope even with the naked eye. Suspension is
an unstable dispersion system, so if not stirred continuously will sink due to the force of
gravity. How quickly the suspension precipitate depending on the size of dispersed particle.
The bigger size of the suspended particles, the precipitation process occurs faster. Actually,
the light will be very effectively reflected in the particle who has the large size, but because
in the suspension has form two phases namely filtrate and precipitate, so the light cannot be
scattered by the particles of suspension.
The third experiment, where the sample is from the mixture of white milk powder and
water illuminated by the laser. The observation is the light beam could be seen and could be
distinguished from the mixture, but this light beam did not focus on the screen, it was
scattered, so in this case the sample mixture of white milk powder and water is belongs to
colloid. The observation was like that because the particles which are composed the mixture
had a large enough molecules to scatter light. So that the beam of light could be seen clearly
by the eyes and the way of the light beam was scattered in all directions. So Tyndall effect
occured in the colloid. Colloid is a mixture form (dispersion system) two or more substances
that are homogeneous macroscopically but has a dispersed particle size is quite large (1-100
nm), and thus subject to the Tyndall effect. Homogeneous means dispersed particles are not
affected by gravity or other forces imposed on it; thus it doesn’t encountered precipitation.
Tyndall effect occurs because the colloidal particles have relatively large in order to scatter
the light.

CONCLUSION
From this experiment, it can be conclude that, the sample mixture of water and sugar
is belong to homogeneous mixture or solution. Where the light beam was not visible and
cannot be clearly distinguished from the solution. Tyndall effect doesn’t occur in solution.
The sample mixture of water and coffee is belong to suspension. Where the light beam was
not visible, the light beam neither forwarded nor scattered, but it is captured in the mixture.
There is no Tyndall effect occurs in suspension. The sample mixture of water and white milk
powder is belong to colloid. Where the light beam can be seen and can be distinguished from
the mixture, but this light beam did not focus on the screen. So, Tyndall efffect occurs in
colloid.

REFERENCES
Haryanto, Tri. 2010. Kimia Untuk SMA Kelas XI. Jawa Tengah: Viva Pakarindo
Parning, and Horale. 2006. Kimia SMA Kelas XI Semester Kedua. Jakarta: Yudhistira.
Syukri. 1999. Kimia Dasar 2. Bandung: ITB.
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http://sistemkoloid.tripod.com/sifat.htm. Accessed on: April, 4th 2013

http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sistem_koloid. Accessed on: April, 4th 2013