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Fundamentals of Solar PV system


Solar Energy Basics and solar


Photovoltaic Cell:
Construction and working
Solar photovoltaic
Types of solar photovoltaic

Designing of a solar
photovoltaic system
Advantages and disadvantages
of solar energy and systems
Applications of solar energy
What is Solar Energy?
 Originates with the thermonuclear fusion reactions occurring in

the sun.

 Represents the entire electromagnetic radiation (visible light,

infrared, ultraviolet, x-rays, and radio waves).

 This energy consists of radiant light and heat energy from the sun.

 Out of all energy emitted by sun only a small fraction of energy is

absorbed by the earth.

Breakdown of incoming solar energy

The surface receives about

47% of the total solar energy
that reaches the Earth. Only
this amount is usable.
Air Mass

 Amount of air mass through which light pass

 Atmosphere can cut solar energy reaching earth by 50%
and more
Solar Energy Harvesting Using
Different Paths

 Solar Thermal Energy

 Solar Heating

 Solar Water Heating

 Solar Space Heating

 Solar Space Cooling

 Solar Photovoltaic

 Solar Concentrators
Electricity Generation From Solar
Solar Energy can be used to generate electricity in 2 ways:
 Solar Thermal Energy:
Using solar thermal technologies for heating fluids which can be
used as a heat source or to run turbines to generate electricity.
 Solar Photovoltaic Energy:
Using solar energy for the direct generation of electricity
using photovoltaic phenomenon.
Technology Options for Solar Power
Solar Power

Thermal PV

High Temp. Production
Temperature Med Temp Technology
>400°C Process
<100°C. <400°C

Parabolic Dish Mono

Solar Water
Crystalline Wafer

Solar Chimney Polycrystalline

Central Tower Thin Film

Solar Pond
Energy Band Diagram of a Conductor,
Semiconductor and Insulator

conductor semiconductor insulator

Semiconductors are interested because their conductivity can be readily modulated (by impurity
doping or electrical potential), offering a pathway to control electronic circuits.
Semiconductors used for solar

B C (6)
Al Si (14) P S

Zn Ga Ge (32) As Se

Cd In Sb Te

 Elementary – Si, Ge.
 Compound – GaAs, InP, CdTe.
 Ternary – AlGaAs, HgCdTe, CIS.
 Quaternary – CIGS, InGaAsP, InGaAIP.
Silicon Shared electrons

Si Si Si

Si Si Si

Si Si Si

 Silicon is group IV element – with 4 electrons in their valence shell.

 When silicon atoms are brought together, each atom forms covalent bond with
4 silicon atoms in a tetrahedron geometry.
Intrinsic Semiconductor
 At 0 ºK, each electron is in its lowest energy state so each covalent bond
position is filled. If a small electric field is applied to the material, no
electrons will move because they are bound to their individual atoms.
 At 0 ºK, silicon is an insulator.
 As temperature increases, the valence electrons gain thermal energy.
 If a valence electron gains enough energy (Eg), it may break its covalent bond
and move away from its original position. This electron is free to move within
the crystal.
 Conductor Eg <0.1eV, many electrons can be thermally excited at room
 Semiconductor Eg ~1eV, a few electrons can be excited (e.g. 1/billion)
 Insulator, Eg >3-5eV, essentially no electron can be thermally excited at
room temperature.

Energy of a photon,
Extrinsic Semiconductor, n-type
Conducting band, Ec
Si Si Si
Ed ~ 0.05 eV
Si As Si Eg = 1.1 eV

Si Si - Si
Valence band, Ev

 Doping silicon lattice with group V elements can creates extra electrons in the conduction
band — negative charge carriers (n-type), As- donor.
 Doping concentration #/cm3 (1016/cm3 ~ 1/million).
Extrinsic Semiconductor, p-type
Conducting band, Ec

Si Si Si
Eg = 1.1 eV
Si B Si

Ea ~ 0.05 eV
Si Si - Si
Valence band, Ev

 Doping silicon with group III elements can creates empty holes in the valence band
positive charge carriers (p-type), B-(acceptor).
p-n Junction diode
p n

i R O F
depletion layer
p n p n
V<0 - + V>0 V>0 V<0

Reverse bias Forward bias

 A p-n junction is a junction formed by combining p-type and n-type
semiconductors together in very close contact.
 In p-n junction, the current is only allowed to flow along one direction from
p-type to n-type materials.
Efficiency – The Band Gap Problem

 Get image from book

Photo+voltaic = convert
light to electricity
Photovoltaic Cell

 A PV cell is a light illuminated pn-

junction diode which directly converts
solar energy into electricity via the
photovoltaic effect.

 A typical silicon PV cell is composed of a

thin wafer consisting of an ultra-thin
layer of phosphorus-doped (n-type)
silicon on top of a thicker layer of boron-
doped (p-type) silicon.

 When sunlight strikes the surface of a

PV cell, photons with energy above the
semiconductor bandgap impart enough
energy to create electron-hole pairs.
Photovoltaic Cell: Operating Principle

 There are three basic steps for

generation of electricity using PV cells
which are following:
 First is absorption of solar
 Second is generation of free
charge carriers and
 Third is transport and then
collection of charge carriers at PV
cell terminals.
Structure of a Solar Cell
Standard PV cell Efficiency Losses

1) Non absorbed photons

2) Lattice thermalization

3) Junction voltage drop

4) Contact voltage drop

5) Recombination
Blocking Diodes
 During sun shine, as long as the voltage produced by the panels is greater
than that of the battery, charging will take place.
 In the dark, the voltage of the battery would cause a current flow in
reverse direction through the panels, which can lead to the discharging of
 A blocking diode is used in series with the panels and battery in reverse
biasing to prevent reverse flow of the current.
 Normal p-n junction diodes can be used as blocking diodes.
 To select a blocking diode, following parameters should be kept in mind:
 The maximum current provided by the panels.
 The voltage ratings of the diode.
 The reverse breakdown voltage of the diode.
Hot- Spot and Bypass Diodes

 Hot Spot phenomenon happens when one or more

cells of the panel is shaded while the others are
 The shaded cells/panels starts behaving as a diode
polarized in reverse direction and generates reverse
power. The other cells generate a current that flows
through the shaded cell and the load.
Hot- Spot and Bypass Diodes
 Any solar cell has its own critical power
dissipation Pc that must not be exceeded and
depends on its cooling and material structures, its
area, its maximum operating temperature and
ambient temperature.
 A shaded cell may be destroyed when its reverse
dissipation exceeds Pc. This is the hot spot.
 To eliminate the hot-spot phenomenon, a bypass
diode is connected parallel to the module or
group of cells in reverse polarity which provides
another path to the extra current.
Bypass Diodes working

 When part of a PV module is shaded,

the shaded cells will not be able to
produce as much current as the
unshaded cells.

 Since all cells are connected in series,

the same amount of current must flow
through every cell.

 The unshaded cells will force the

shaded cells to pass more current
through it.

Bypass diode working phases

Bypass Diodes working
 The only way the shaded cells can operate at a current higher than their short
circuit current is to operate in a region of negative voltage i.e. to cause a net
voltage loss to the system.
 The voltage across the shaded or low current solar cell becomes greater than the
forward bias voltage of the other series cells which share the same bypass diode
plus the voltage of the bypass diode thus making the diode to work in forward
bias and hence allowing extra current to pass through it, preventing hot-spot.
 For an efficient operation, there are two conditions to fulfill:
 Bypass diode has to conduct when one cell is shadowed.
 The shadowed cell voltage Vs must stay under its breakdown voltage (Vc).
 Ideally, a bypass diode should have a forward voltage (VF) and a leakage current
(IR) as low as possible.
Bypass Diodes
 Two types of diodes are available as bypass diodes in solar
panels and arrays:
 p-n junction silicon diode
 Schottky barrier diode
 To select a bypass diode, following parameters should be
 The forward voltage and current ratings of the diode.
 The reverse breakdown voltage of the diode.
 The reverse leakage current.
 Junction Temperature Range
Hierarchy of PV

Volt Ampere Watt Size

Cell 0.5V 5-6A 2-3W about 10cm
Module 20-30V 5-6A 100-200W about 1m
Array 200-300V 50A-200A 10-50kW about 30m Array
10 - 50 kW

100 - 200 W


6x9=54 (cells) 100-300 (modules)

Materials for Solar cell
Solar cells are composed of various semiconducting materials
 Crystalline silicon
 Cadmium telluride
 Copper indium diselenide
 Gallium arsenide
 Indium phosphide
 Zinc sulphide
Cell Technologies
Pure and
Mono- efficient
crystalline 15-19%
Crystalline efficiency
Multi- 12-15%
crystalline efficiency

Non Silicon
Thin film efficiency

Silicon 5-7%
based efficiency
Technology Differences
Optical Properties Electrical Properties

• Band gap (direct, indirect) • Carrier Lifetime

• Absorption Coefficient • Mobility
• Absorption length • Diffusion length

Manufacturing Performance

• Absorber material • Efficiency

• Cells • Current, Voltage and FF
• Modules • Effect of temperature and
Optical Properties:
Band Gaps

Fixed band gap of c-Si material (mono, multi).

Tunable gaps of thin film compound semiconductors.
Optical Properties:
Material absorption lengths
Absorption Length in Microns
(for approx. 73% incoming light absorption)

Wavelength (nm) c-Si a-Si CIGS GaAs

400 nm (3.1eV) 0.15 0.05 0.05 0.09
600 nm (2eV) 1.8 0.14 0.06 0.18
800 nm (1.55eV) 9.3 Not absorbed 0.14 1.1
1000nm(1.24eV) 180.9 Not absorbed 0.25 Not absorbed

 Absorption length is much higher for Si because of lower absorption

 Longer wavelength photons require more materials to get absorbed.
Electrical Properties
Ease with which carriers move in semiconductor.

Average time carriers spend in excited state.

Carrier movement due to concentration difference.

Diffusion Length
Average length travelled by carrier before recombining due to concentration difference.

Carrier movement due to electric field.

Drift length
Average length travelled by carrier before recombination under electric field.
Electrical Properties:
Drift and Diffusion lengths
High quality material Low quality material
scenario scenario

 Carrier are transported by diffusion  Diffusion length are small.

to the junction.
 Drift length is about 10 times
 Large diffusion length. greater than diffusion length.

 Junction is very thin.  Intrinsic layer is thicker.

Three generations of solar cells
1. First Generation
 First generation cells consist of high quality and single junction devices.
 First Generation technologies involve high energy and labour inputs which prevent any
significant progress in reducing production costs.
2. Second Generation

 Second generation materials have been developed to address energy requirements and
production costs of solar cells.
 Alternative manufacturing techniques such as vapour deposition and electroplating are
advantageous as they reduce high temperature processing significantly.
 Produced from cheaper polycrystalline materials and glass
 High optical absorption coefficients
 Bandgap suited to solar spectrum
3. Third Generation

 Third generation technologies aim to enhance poor electrical performance of second

generation (thin-film technologies) while maintaining very low production costs.

 Current research is targeting conversion efficiencies of 30-60% while retaining low

cost materials and manufacturing techniques.
 They can exceed the theoretical solar conversion efficiency limit for a single energy
threshold material, 31% under 1 sun illumination and 40.8% under the maximal
artificial concentration of sunlight (46,200 suns).

 Approaches to achieving these high efficiencies including the use of multijunction

photovoltaic cells, concentration of the incident spectrum, the use of thermal
generation by UV light to enhance voltage or carrier collection, or the use of the
infrared spectrum for night-time operation.
Monocrystalline Silicon Modules

 Most efficient commercially

available module (14% - 17%)

 Most expensive to produce

 Circular (square-round) cell

creates wasted space on
Polycrystalline Silicon Modules
• Aluminum Electrode
(Silver colored wire)
• To avoid shading,
electrode is very fine.

Anti reflection film

(Blue colored film)

Front Surface
(N-Type side)

• Back surface is P-type.

• All back surface is
aluminum electrode
with full reflection.
Poly Crystalline PV
Polycrystalline Silicon Modules

 Less expensive to make than

single crystalline modules

 Cells slightly less efficient than

a single crystalline (10% - 12%)

 Square shape cells fit into

module efficiently using the
entire space
PV Module (Single crystal, Poly crystalline Silicon)
Single crystal Poly crystalline

128W 120W
(26.5V ,4.8A) (25.7V, 4.7A)

(3.93ft) (3.93f)

800mm (2.62ft) Same size 800mm (2.62ft)

Efficiency is higher Efficiency is lower

Amorphous Thin Film

 Most inexpensive technology to produce

 Metal grid replaced with transparent


 Efficiency = 6 – 8 %

 Can be deposited on flexible substrates

 Less susceptible to shading problems

 Better performance in low light conditions

that with crystalline modules
Solar Panel Manufacturing Technologies
Mono-Si Solar Panels
 Mono-Si is manufactured by Czochralski Process.
Solar Panel Manufacturing Technologies
 Since they are cut from single crystal, they gives the module a uniform appearance.
 Highest efficient module till now with efficiency between 13 to 21%.
 Commonly available in the market.
 Greater heat resistance.
 Acquire small area where ever placed.
 More expensive to produce.
 High amount of Silicon.
Si boule for the
 High embodied energy (total energy required to produce). production of
Solar Panel Manufacturing Technologies
Poly-Si Solar Panels
 Polycrystalline (or multicrystalline) modules are composed of a number of different
crystals, fused together to make a single cell.
 Poly-Si solar panels have a non-uniform texture due to visible crystal grain present due
to manufacturing process.
 Good efficiency between 14 to 16%.
 Cost effective manufacture.
 Commonly Available in the market.

Visible crystal grain in poly-Si

Solar Panel Manufacturing

 Not as efficient as Mono-Si.
 Large amount of Si.
 High Embodied Energy.
Mono-Si Panel

Visible difference between Mono-Si and Poly-Si Panels

Mono-Si solar cells are of dark color and the corners of the cells
are usually missing whereas poly-Si panels are of dark or
light blue color. The difference between the structure is only
due to their manufacturing process. Poly-Si Panel
Solar Panel Manufacturing Technologies

Thin Film Solar Panels

 Made by depositing one or more thin layers (thin film) of
photovoltaic material on a substrate.
 Thin Film technology depend upon the type of material
used to dope the substrate.
 Cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium
selenide (CIGS) and amorphous silicon (A-Si) are three
thin-film technologies often used as outdoor photovoltaic
solar power production.
Solar Panel Manufacturing Technologies
Amorphous-Si Panels
 Non-crystalline allotrope of Si with no definite
arrangement of atoms.

 Partially shade tolerant
 More effective in hotter climate
 Uses less silicon - low embodied energy
 No aluminum frame - low embodied energy

 Less efficient with efficiency between 6 to 9% .
 Less popular - harder to replace.
 Takes up more space for same output .
 New technology - less proven reliability.
Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells
Cadmium Telluride Solar Cell
CdTe/CdS Solar Cell

 CdTe: Bandgap 1.5 eV; Absorption

coefficient 10 times that of Si  Toxicity of Cd is an issue.
 CdS: Bandgap 2.5 eV; Acts as window layer
 Best lab efficiency = 16.5%.
 Limitation: Poor contact quality with p-
CdTe (~ 0.1 Wcm2)
Copper-Indium-Gallium-Diselenide Cell

 NREL has demonstrated an efficiency of 19.9% for the CIGS solar cell.
 Typically requires relatively high temperature processing (> 500C).
Comparison of Si on the basis of crystallinity
Comparison of Mono-Si, Poly-Si and Thin film Panels
Mono-Si Panels Poly-Si Panels Thin Film Panels

1. Most efficient with max. 1. Less efficient with efficiency of 1. Least efficient with max.
efficiency of 21%. 16% (max.) efficiency of 12%.

2. Manufactured from single Si 2. Manufactured by fusing 2. Manufactured by depositing 1

crystal. different crystals of Si. or more layers of PV material on
3. Performance best at standard 3. Performance best at moderately 3. Performance best at high
temperature. high temperature. temperatures.
4. Requires least area for a given 4. Requires less area for a given 4. Requires large area for a given
power. power. power.
5. Large amount of Si hence, high 5. Large amount of Si hence, high 4. Low amount of Si used hence,
embodied energy. Embodied energy. low embodied energy.
6. Performance degrades in low- 6. Performance degrades in low- 5. Performance less affected by
sunlight conditions. sunlight conditions. low-sunlight conditions.
7. Cost/watt: 1.589 USD 7. 1.418 USD 7. 0.67 USD

8. Largest Manufacturer: 8. Suntech (China) 8. First Solar (USA)

Semiconductor Material Efficiencies: The Impact of
Band Gap on Efficiency

 Efficiency,  = (VocIscFF)/Pin hv > Eg

 Voc is proportional to Eg,

 Isc is proportional to # of absorbed
 Decrease Eg, absorb more of the
 But not without sacrificing output
 Direction of current inside PV cell
• Inside current of PV cell looks like
“Reverse direction.” Why?

P • By Solar Energy, current is pumped up from

N-pole to P-pole.
• In generation, current appears reverse. It is
the same as for battery.

Current appears Looks like

to be in the reverse
reverse direction ? N
Current-Voltage (I-V) Curve


Equivalent circuit of practical PV cell

  q V  IRS  
   V  IRS Pmax Vmp I mp VOC I SC FF
I  I ph  I 0  exp    1  en, PV   
 
 kTC A 
  RSh Pin APV G APV G
Open circuit voltage and short circuit current
•Voltage on normal operation point
0.5V (in case of Silicon PV)
•Current depend on
N - Intensity of insolation
Short Circuit - Size of cell

High insolation
Normal operation point

(Maximum Power point)

Low insolation P
Open Circuit
about 0.5V (Silicon)
(A) Depend on cell-size

5.55A Depend on
Solar insolation

Depend on

type of cell or
( Si = 0.5V )

0.49 V 0.62 V
P  To obtain maximum power, current
V control (or voltage control) is very
(A) N
I/V curve PMAX
P- Max control

IxV=W Power curve


Estimate obtained power by I / V curve

A If the load has 0.05 ohm resistance,

cross point of resistance character and
R  0.05()
PV-Character will be following point.
N Then power is 10x0.5=5 W
12 PV characteristics
( I/V curve )
10 R  0.05()

Ohm’s theory
4 I 
2 I  V / 0.05
0 (V)
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6
I / V curve vs. Insolation intensity
 Current is affected largely by change
of insolation intensity.
N Mismatch
 Partially shaded serial cell will P
produce current mismatch.
(A) N
High intensity insolation


Low intensity insolation
1A 5A Bypass
1A 4A
Voltage(V) N
Effects of Temperature

 As the PV cell temperature

increases above 25º C, the
module Vmp decreases by
approximately 0.5% per
degree C
Effects of Shading/Low Insolation

 As insolation decreases
amperage decreases
while voltage remains
roughly constant
Shading on Modules

 Depends on orientation of
internal module circuitry relative
to the orientation of the shading.

 Shading can half or even

completely eliminate the output
of a solar array
Series Connections

 Loads/sources wired in series


Parallel Connections

Loads/sources wired in parallel:

How much PV can we install in a given area?
1 kw PV need 10 m2 (108 feet2) remember

 Roughly size of PV System


Area = 200 m2
(2,178 feet2)



We can install about 20 kW PV

Solar Panel specifications
Mechanical Specifications
1. Solar Cell Type: Defines the type of module or cell used in the module.
e.g.- Mono-Si, Poly-Si or Thin Film.
Design Implication: This determines the class of conversion efficiency of the module.

2. Cell Dimension (in inches/mm.): Defines the size of cell used in the module.
e.g.- 125(l) × 125 mm(b) (5 inches).
Design Implication: This determines the output power of a single solar cell.

3. Module Dimension (in inches/mm.): Defines the size of the panel.

e.g.- 1580 (l)× 808 (b) × 35 (h) mm.
Design Implication: Determines the number of cells accommodated
in the module.
Across length: 1580/125 = 12.64 ~ 12 [least integer].
Across breadth: 808/125 = 6.4 ~ 6.
This means number of cell be 72 (6*12).
Solar Panel specifications
Mechanical Specifications
4. Module Weight (in kgs./lbs.): Defines the weight of the module.
e.g.- 15.5 kgs. (34.1 lbs.)
Design Implication: Determines the maximum number of panels which can be installed.

5. Glazing or front Glass: Defines the type and width of the front glass used.
e.g.- 3.2 mm (0.13 inches) tempered glass.

Design Implication: Width determines the strength of the covering. The type of glass
used depends upon thermal insulation requirements or strength requirement.

6. Frame: Defines the type of frame used in the module.

e.g.- Anodized aluminium alloy

Design Implication: Frame material is chosen so that it can

Withstand the environmental effects such as corrosion,
hard Impact etc.
Solar Panel specifications
Mechanical Specifications
7. Output Cables: Defines the type of cables and sometimes their dimensions provided at
output to connect with connector specifications.
e.g.- H+S RADOX® SMART cable 4.0 mm2 of length 1000 mm (39.4 inches) with RADOX®
SOLAR integrated twist locking connectors.

Design Implication: The rating of the cable is as per rating

of the PV module and of optimum length generally required
by the customers.

8. Junction Box: Defines the protection level of electrical

casing at the back of panel. Also includes the no. of bypass
diodes (if used).
e.g.- IP67 rated with 3 bypass diodes.
Solar Panel specifications
Electrical Specifications
1. Peak Power (W): Defines the maximum power of the panel.
e.g.- P: 195 Wp

2. Optimum operating Voltage: Defines the highest operating voltage of panel at the
maximum power at STC.
e.g.- Vmp: 36.6V
Design Implication: Determines the number of panels required in series.

3. Optimum operating current: Defines the highest operating current of panel at the
maximum power at STC.
e.g.- Imp: 5.33A
Design Implication: Determines the wire gauge.
Used to calculate the voltage drops across the modules or cells.
Solar Panel specifications
Electrical Specifications
4. Open Circuit Voltage: Defines the output voltage when no load is connected under STC.
e.g.- Voc : 45.4V
Design Implication: Determines the maximum possible voltage.
Determines the maximum number of modules in series.

5. Short Circuit Current: Defines the protection level of electrical casing at the back of
panel. Also includes the no. of bypass diodes (if used).
e.g.- Isc: 5.69A
Design Implication: Determines the current rating of fuse which is to be used for
Determines the conductor size.
Solar Panel specifications
Electrical Specifications
7. Module Efficiency: Defines the conversion efficiency given by a given module (which is
generally lesser than the single solar cell used in the module).
e.g.- 15.3%
Design Implication: This parameter helps in solving the problem of choosing a module.

8. Operating Temperature: Defines the range of temperature for which the module can
e.g.- -40°C to 85°C
Design Implication: Determines the temperature range for the environment in which the
panel can be kept.

9. Max. Series Fuse Rating: Defines the max. current which can be handled by the module
without damage.
e.g.- 15 A
Design Implication: This defines the rating of fuse to be used with the module.
Solar Panel specifications
Electrical Specifications
10. Power Tolerance: Defines the range of power deviation from its stated power ratings due
to change in its operating condition. It is defined in %.
e.g.- 0/+5 %
Design Implication: This parameter determines the upper limit for power of a module.

11. Parameters defined under NOCT: These parameters are same as defined under STC
conditions with different values.

Difference between STC and NOCT:

STC (Standard Test Conditions):
Irradiance 1000 W/m2, Module temperature 25 °C, Air Mass=1.5

NOCT(Nominal Operating Cell Temperature):

Irradiance 800 W/m2, Ambient temperature 20 °C, Wind speed 1 m/s
Solar Panel specifications

Electrical Specifications
12. Temperature Coefficients: These coefficients are defined to show the possible rate of
change of values under varying module temperature and irradiance.
Design Implication: These parameters can be used to calculate the power, current and
voltage of the module.
Temperature Coefficient of Voc can also be used to determine the maximum panel voltage
at the lowest expected temperature.
Comparison between Suntech, Trina and Sanyo 190W
Monocrystalline modules
Parameters at STC Sanyo (HIP-190DA3) Suntech (STP190S-24/Ad+) Trina (TSM-190DC01A)

Optimum Operating Voltage (Vmp) 55.3 V 36.5 V 36.8 V

Optimum Operating Current (Imp) 3.44 A 5.20 A 5.18 A

Open - Circuit Voltage (Voc) 68.1 V 45.2 V 45.1 V

Short - Circuit Current (Isc) 3.7 A 5.62 A 5.52 A

Maximum Power at STC (Pmax) 190 W 190 W 190 W

Module Efficiency 15.7% 14.9% 14.9%

Maximum Series Fuse Rating 15 A 15 A 10 A

Maximum System Voltage 600 VDC 1000 V DC 1000VDC

Power Tolerance +10/-0% 0/+5 % 0/+3

Temperature Coefficient of Pmax -0.34% / °C -0.48 %/°C - 0.45%/°C

Temperature Coefficient of Voc -0.191 V / °C -0.34 %/°C - 0.35%/°C

Temperature Coefficient of Isc 1.68 mA / °C 0.037 %/°C 0.05%/°C

Module Dimension 53.2 x 35.35 x 2.36 in. 62.2 × 31.8 × 1.4 inches 62.24 x 31.85 x 1.57in.
(1351 x 898 x 60 mm) (1580 × 808 × 35mm) (1581 x 809 x 40mm)
Warranty : 90% power output 20 Years 12 years 10 years
80% power output 20 Years 25 years 25 years

Cost: $570.00 $285.00 $459.00

Comparison between Mono-, Poly- and
Amorphous Si Solar Panels (5 W)
Parameters at STC Monocrystalline Polycrystalline Thin Film (a-si)
(S.C. Origin) (Moserbaer) (China Solar)
Optimum Operating Voltage (Vmp) 17.82V 17 V 18 V

Optimum Operating Current (Imp) 0.285A 0.29A 0.278 A

Open - Circuit Voltage (Voc) 21.396V 21V 26.7 V
Short - Circuit Current (Isc) 0.315A 0.35A 0.401 A
Maximum Power at STC (Pmax) 5W 5W 5W
Module Efficiency 16.2% 14% Not Available
Temperature Coefficient of Pmax -0.549% (°K) -0.43 (°K) -(0.19±0.03)%/°C

Temperature Coefficient of Voc -0.397% /°K -0.344 %/°K -(0.34±0.04)%/°C

Temperature Coefficient of Isc 0.06% /°K 0.11 %/ °K 0.08±0.02)%/°C

Maximum System Voltage 1000 VDC 600VDC 600 VDC

Module Dimension 350x176x34mm 359x197x26 mm 385 x322 x18 mm

Warranty: 90% power output 10 years 10 years 10 years

85% power output 25 years 15 years 15 years
How to choose a solar panel?
Critical parameters to be considered for solar panel evaluation

1. Selecting the right technology : The selection of solar panel

technology generally depends on space available for installation
and the overall cost of the system.
2. Selecting the right manufacturer for better warranty.
3. Check operating specifications beyond STC ratings
4. Negative Tolerance can lead to a lower system performance
and reduced capacity.
5. Solar Panel efficiency under different conditions and over time.
Types of Solar Photovoltaic System

 Stand-alone systems - those systems which use photovoltaics technology

only, and are not connected to a utility grid.

 Hybrid systems - those systems which use photovoltaics and some other
form of energy, such as diesel generation or wind.

 Grid-tied systems - those systems which are connected to a utility grid.

Stand Alone PV System
Stand Alone PV System
Water pumping system
Hybrid PV System
Hybrid PV System

Ranching the Sun project in

Hawaii generates 175 kW of PV
power and 50 kW of wind power
from the five 10 kW wind
Grid-Tied PV System
Balance of System (BOS)
The BOS typically contains
 Structures for mounting the PV arrays or modules
 Power conditioning equipment that massages and
converts the do electricity to the proper form and
magnitude required by an alternating current (ac)
 Sometimes also storage devices, such as batteries,
for storing PV generated electricity during cloudy
days and at night.
How to design a PV Off-grid system?
1. Collect some data viz. Latitude of the location, and solar
irradiance (one for every month).
2. Calculation of total solar energy.
3. Estimate the required electrical energy on a
monthly/weekly basis (in kwh):
Required Energy= Equipment Wattage X Usage Time.
4. Calculate the system size using the data from ‘worst
month’ which can be as follows:
a) The current requirement will decide the number of panels
b) The days of autonomy decides the storage capacity of the
system i.e. the number of batteries required.
Designing a PV System
1. Determine the load (energy, not power)

The load is being supplied by the stored energy device, usually the battery,

and of the photovoltaic system as a battery charger.

2. Calculating the battery size, if one is needed

3. Calculate the number of photovoltaic modules required

4. Assessing the need for any back-up energy of flexibility for load growth
Determining Load
 The appliances and devices (TV's, computers, lights, water pumps etc.) that
consume electrical power are called loads.

 Important : examine power consumption and reduce power needs as much as


 Make a list of the appliances and/or loads to be run from solar electric

 Find out how much power each item consumes while operating.

 Most appliances have a label on the back which lists the Wattage.

 Specification sheets, local appliance dealers, and the product

manufacturers are other sources of information.
Determining Loads II

 Calculate AC loads (and DC if necessary)

 List all AC loads, wattage and hours of use per week (Hrs/Wk).

 Multiply Watts by hrs/Wk to get Watt-hours per week (WH/Wk).

 Add all the watt hours per week to determine AC Watt Hours Per Week.

 Divide by 1000 to get kW-hrs/week

Determining the Batteries
 Decide how much storage is provided by battery bank as per requirement (0 if
grid tied)
 expressed as "days of autonomy" because it is based on the number of
days the system should provide power without receiving an input charge
from the solar panels or the grid.
 Also consider usage pattern and critical nature of application.
 Alternatively, if a solar panel array is added as a supplement to a generator
based system, the battery bank can be slightly undersized since the generator
can be operated in needed for recharging.
Determining the Batteries
 Once the storage capacity has been determined, consider the following key
 Amp hours, temperature multiplier, battery size and number
 To get Amp hours :
 daily Amp hours
 number of days of storage capacity ( typically 5 days no input )
 1 x 2 = A-hrs needed
 Note: For grid tied – inverter losses
Determining Battery Size

 Determine the discharge limit for the batteries ( between 0.2 - 0.8 )

 Deep-cycle lead acid batteries should never be completely discharged,

an acceptable discharge average is 50% or a discharge limit of 0.5

 Divide A-hrs/week by discharge limit

 Determine A-hrs of battery and # of batteries needed - Round off to the next
highest number.

 This is the number of batteries wired in parallel needed.

Total Number of Batteries Wired in Series

 Divide system voltage ( typically 12, 24 or 48 ) by battery voltage.

 This is the number of batteries wired in series needed.

 Multiply the number of batteries in parallel by the number in series.

 This is the total number of batteries needed.

Determining the Number of PV Modules

 First find the Solar Irradiance at the location.

 Irradiance is the amount of solar power striking a given area and is a measure of the
intensity of the sunshine.

 PV engineers use units of Watts (or kiloWatts) per square meter (W/m2) for

Peak Sun Hours
 Peak sun hours is defined as the equivalent number of
hours per day, with solar irradiance equaling 1,000 W/m2,
that gives the same energy received from sunrise to

 Peak sun hours only make sense because PV panel power

output is rated with a radiation level of 1,000W/m2.

 Many tables of solar data are often presented as an average

daily value of peak sun hours (kW-hrs/m2) for each month.
Calculating Energy Output of a PV Array
 Determine total A-hrs/day and increase by 20% for battery losses then
divide by “1 sun hours” to get total Amps needed for array

 Then divide your Amps by the Peak Amps produced by your solar module

 The peak amperage can be determined if the module's wattage is

dividedby the peak power point voltage

 Determine the number of modules in each series string needed to supply

necessary DC battery Voltage

 Then multiply the number (for A and for V) together to get the amount of
power you need

 P=IV [W]=[A]x[V]
Charge Controller
 Charge controllers are included in most PV systems to protect the batteries
from overcharge and/or excessive discharge.

 The minimum function of the controller is to disconnect the array when the
battery is fully charged and keep the battery fully charged without damage.

 The charging routine is not the same for all batteries: a charge controller
designed for lead-acid batteries should not be used to control NiCd

 Size by determining total Amp max for the array.


 Selecting the correct size and type of wire will enhance the
performance and reliability of the PV system.

 The size of the wire must be large enough to carry the maximum
current expected without undue voltage losses.

 All wire has a certain amount of resistance to the flow of current.

 This resistance causes a drop in the voltage from the source to the
load. Voltage drops cause inefficiencies, especially in low voltage
systems ( 12V or less ).

 See wire size charts here:

 For AC grid-tied systems you do not need a battery or
charge controller if the back up power is not needed–
just the inverter.

 The Inverter changes the DC current stored in the

batteries or directly from the PV into usable AC

 To size increase the Watts expected to be used by

AC loads running simultaneously by 20%
Off-Grid Design Example
Step 1: Determine the DC Load

DC Device Device Watts Hours of DC Watt-hrs per Day (Device

daily use Watts x Hours of daily use)

Refrigerator 60 24 1440
Lighting fixtures 150 4 600
Device A 12 8 96
Total DC Watt-hrs/Day = 2,136
Step 2: Determine the AC Load, Convert to DC

AC Device Device Watts Hours of AC Watt-hrs per Day (Device

daily use Watts x Hours of daily use)

Device B 6175 6 1050

Pump 80 0.5 40
Television 175 2 350
Total AC Watt-hrs/Day = 1440

Total AC Watt-hrs/Day = 1,440

Divided by 0.85 (Inverter, losses)
Total DC Whrs/Day = 1,694
Step 3: Determine the Total System Load
Total DC Loads [A] 2,136
Total DC Loads [B] 1,694
Total System Load 3,830 Whrs/Day

Step 4: Determine Total DC Amp-hours/Day

Total System Load / System Nominal Voltage =
(3,830 Whrs/Day) / 12 Volts = 319 Amp-hrs/Day

Step 5: Determine Total Amp-hr/Day with Batteries

Total Amp-hrs/Day X 1.2(Losses and safety factor)

319 Amp-hrs/Day X 1.2 = 382.8 or 383 Amp-hrs/Day
Step 6: Determine Total PV Array Current
Total Daily Amp-hr requirement / Design Insolation*
=383 Amp-hrs / 5.0 peak solar hrs = 76.6 Amps

* Insolation Based on Optimum Tilt for Season

Step 7: Select PV Module Type

Choose BP Solar-Solarex MSX-60 module:

Max Power = 60 W (STP)
Max Current = 3.56 Amps
Max Voltage = 16.8 Volts
Nominal Output Voltage 12 Volts
Step 8: Determine Number of Modules in Parallel

Total PV Array Current / (Module Operating Current) X (Module Derate Factor)

= 76.6 Amps / (3.56 Amps/Module)(0.90) = 23.90 modules
= (Use 24 Modules)

Step 9: Determine Number of Modules in Series

System Nominal Voltage / Module Nominal Voltage
12 Volts / (12 Volts/module) = 1 Module

Step 10: Determine Total Number of Modules

Number of modules in parallel X Number of modules in Series

= 24 X 1 = 24 modules
Step 11: Determine Minimum Battery Capacity

[Total Daily Amp-hr/Day with Batteries (Step 5)

X Desired Reserve Time (Days)] / Percent of Usable Battery Capacity
=(383 Amp-hrs/Day X 3 Days) / 0.80 = 1,436 Amp-hrs

Step 12: Choose a Battery

Use an Interstate U2S – 100 Flooded Lead Acid Battery

Nominal Voltage = 6 Volts
Rated Capacity = 220 Amp-hrs
Step 13: Determine Number of Batteries in Parallel
Required Battery Capacity (Step 11) / Capacity of Selected Battery
=1,436 Amp-hrs / (220 Amp-hrs/Battery)
= 6.5 (Use 6 Batteries)

Step 14: Determine Number of Batteries in Series

Nominal System Voltage / Nominal Battery Voltage

= 12 Volts / (6 Volts/Battery) = 2 Batteries

Step 15: Determine Total Number of Batteries

Number of Batteries in Parallel X Number of Batteries in Series
=6 X 2 = 12 Batteries
+ +
3A 3A
Series: Voltage is additive 12 V 12 V + 3A
- - - 24 V

+ +
+ 6A
3A 3A Parallel: Current is additive
12 V 12 V - 12 V
- -
Step 16: Determine the need for a Standby
Generator to reduce other Components (number of Modules and
Batteries). Several iterations may be necessary to optimize costs.
Step 17: Complete Balance of System
a. Complete the design by specifying the:
Charge Controller
Wire Sizes (Battery will have larger gage due to higher currents)
Fuses and Disconnects
Standby Generator, if needed
Battery Charger, if needed
Manual Transfer Switch, if needed.
b. Determine mounting method:
Roof mount
Ground mount with racks
Ground mount with pole.
c. Assure proper grounding for safety.
d. Obtain permits as required.

1.It is free, clean and non-polluting

2.It is a renewable and sustainable energy
3.Solar cells do not produce noise and they are totally silent.
4.Provide electricity to remote places
5.High power-to-weight ratio
6.They require very little maintenance
7.They are long lasting sources of energy which can be used almost anywhere
8.They have long life time
9.There are no fuel costs or fuel supply problems

1.Soar power can be obtained in night time

2.Soar cells (or) solar panels are Less efficient and very expensive
3.Energy has not be stored in batteries
4.Reliability Depends On Location
5.Environmental Impact of PV Cell Production
6.Air pollution and whether can affect the production of electricity
7.They need large are of land to produce more efficient power supply.
8. Solar energy is a diffuse source.

 Heaters Green houses

 Cars water pumps
 Lights Desalination
 Satellites Chilling
 Dryers Solar ponds
 Calculators Thermal

Commercial use

 On an office building , roof areas can be covered with solar panels .

 Remote buildings such as schools , communities can make use of solar
 In developing countries , this solar panels are very much useful.
 Even on the highways , for every five kilometres ,solar telephones are
Solar Map of India

About 5,000 trillion kWh

per year energy is incident
over India’s land area
with most parts receiving
4-7 kWh per square
meter per day.
Thank You!!
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