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Report on


2nd semester
Table of content t.sign
1 Introduction
2 Literature review
3 Data analysis and
4 Conclusion and
5 References’
The report objective is to assess the effectiveness of the government portals in Indian
states. Portals are very important today for rendering web based services. They form
the primary window which can provide guidance to users to utilize service offered by
any institution which can be e-business or e-government.

Substantial investments have been made and are being made on this technology to
improve the government activities in all countries throughout the world. Hence it is time
now to examine the capacity of the government departments to effectively harness this

Reports show lack of good portals and dearth of significant uses of the same. So in this
project i have made an attempt to discuss the various issues of government portal
usefulness in Indian context.

E-governance is more than just a government website on the Internet. But what is it
exactly? What are the benefits of e-governance? What can governments do to make it

Solutions to development issues often require changes to government processes, e.g.

by decentralization. Objectives are generally to improve efficiency and effectiveness
and to save costs. The driving force can also be public demand for online services and
information that increase democratic participation, accountability, transparency, and the
quality and speed of services. The implementation and use of ICT solutions can support
governance reforms.

E-governance will become more and more present around the world in the next few
years. Internationally most countries are in the early stages of e-governance. A good
start has been made in Europe, USA and in other Westernized countries such as
Australia and Singapore. Over the coming years also developing countries and their
citizens can also benefit from e-governance.

This report explains what is meant by e-governance. It starts with a definition of e-

governance, then presents a general e-governance model and several case studies and
examples. Technology aspects are discussed, followed by a SWOT analysis on e-
governance in developing countries. Finally, a description is given of what steps have to
be taken to set up a policy on e-governance and how implementation projects can be
Imagine a situation in which all interaction with the government can be done through
one counter 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, without waiting in lines at government

In the near future this is possible if governments are willing to decentralise

responsibilities and processes and they start to use electronic means such as the
Internet. Each citizen can then make contact with the government through a website
where all forms, legislation, news and other information will be available 24/7.

Of course, at first the front office will retain several communication channels, such as
physical counters, telephone, (e-)mail and Internet to serve everyone properly, but this
will change dramatically in the next few years.
In Europe and the USA, commercial banks already work according to this concept.
Only in a few very special situations one has to go to a physical counter. Most
transactions can be done at either an ATM, by mail or by the Internet, which has saved
banks an enormous amount of costs. In other words, they do more work, with less
people, in less time and with less and smaller offices: They use the Internet.

Government, as a collector and source of information, may also follow this trend, in
order to serve its customers (citizens, businesses, and other interest groups) better and
to save costs by making internal operations more efficient.


The use of ICT means in Governance has impact on the following aspects:

24/7 Service Model Systems and processes have to be adapted to a completely new
service model. Intake processes are made self-service and even in the middle of the
night a citizen should get an immediate (automated) response about the status of the
application. Citizen’s expectations towards government’s response times will change
because of the new communication medium. E-mail should be seen a new but serious
channel besides the traditional channels such as telephone, physical counter, post and

Need for Content

Websites consist of content (information). Governments will have to collect (buy),
produce and update content daily. In phase 1 content will be static, but in phase 2
content will be changing every day. Content managers in each (large) department are
responsible for the information on the website.
Human Resources
Effective use of ICTs in an organisation requires training of people. People should feel
comfortable with the tools they can use otherwise they will return to their old working
patterns and habits. Maintaining technological infrastructure requires IT skilled
resources. Governments will have to compete with the private (commercial) sector to
recruit the necessary IT skilled people.

Just about any computer system is vulnerable to external attacks. As the government
moves its core processes (information, communication and transactions) to the Internet
it is becoming far more vulnerable. Internet increases the number of entry points
exponentially. Protection is possible with anti-virus software, firewall at gateways,
encryption technology, and authentic identification tools.

In phases 3 and 4 governments possess detailed information about citizens and
businesses, which is often held in multiple offices on many different computer systems
(or still in paper files). The integration of data can result in situations where the privacy
of individual citizens is in danger. It is the responsibility of the government to restrict the
utilisation of private information, and secure such information from access by
unintended parties. Due to public concern regarding privacy several countries have
already passed data protection laws.

IT Department
With the implementation of e-governance IT is becoming more and more important in
government operations. The need for a professional IT department will inevitable
increase, not only during implementation, but also for maintenance of software,
hardware and infrastructure.
Literature review
Defining E-governance
Many definitions exist for e-governance. Before presenting an overall definition of
egovernance, the relation between governance, e-democracy and e-government is

E-democracy refers to the processes and structures that encompass all forms of
electronic interaction between the Government (elected) and the citizen (electorate).

E-government is a form of e-business in governance and refers to the processes and

structures needed to deliver electronic services to the public (citizens and businesses),
collaborate with business partners and to conduct electronic transactions within an
organisational entity.

The term interaction stands for the delivery of government products and services,
exchange of information, communication, transactions and system integration.

Government consists of levels and branches. Government levels include central,

national, regional, provincial, departmental and local government institutions. Examples
of government branches are Administration, Civil Service, Parliament and Judiciary

Government operations are all back-office processes and inter-governmental

interactions within the total government body.


The strategic objective of e-governance is to support and simplify governance for all
parties - government, citizens and businesses. The use of ICTs can connect all three
parties and support processes and activities. In other words, in e-governance uses
electronic means to support and
Stimulate good governance. Therefore the objectives of e-governance are similar to the
objectives of good governance. Good governance can be seen as an exercise of
economic, political, and administrative authority to better manage affairs of a country at
all levels, national and local.

It is useful here to present objectives for e-democracy and e-government. The two main
objectives of e-democracy are

1. To provide citizens access to information and knowledge about the political process,
about services and about choices available
2. To make possible the transition from passive information access to active citizen
participation by:

• Informing the citizen

• Representing the citizen

• Encouraging the citizen to vote

• Consulting the citizen

• Involving the citizen

Regarding e-government, the distinction is made between the objectives for internally
focused processes (operations) and objectives for externally focused services.

External strategic objectives. The external objective of e-government is to satisfactorily

fulfill the public’s needs and expectations on the front-office side, by simplifying their
interaction with various online services. The use of ICTs in government operations
facilitates speedy, transparent, accountable, efficient and effective interaction with the
public, citizens, business and other agencies.

Internal strategic objectives. In the back-office, the objective of e-government in

government operations is to facilitate a speedy, transparent, accountable, efficient and
effective process for performing government administration activities. Significant cost
savings (per transaction) in government operations can be the result.
It can be concluded that e-governance is more than just a Government website on the
Internet. Political, social, economic and technological aspects determine e-governance
According to Gartner, e-governance will mature according the four-phase e-
governance maturity model. These phases have been defined based on
experiences with e-commerce and e-governance in Europe and other Western
E-Governance Maturity Model (Gartner)

Early 90’s Information  P resence

Mid 90’s Interaction Intake process

Present Transaction C
 omplete transaction

Future Transformation Integration and organisational changes

In each of the four phases, the delivery of online services and use of ICTs in
government operations serve one or more of the aspects of e- governance: democracy,
government, business.

Primary data: none

Secondary data: websites, books
Secondary Data. Secondary data means data that are
already available i.e. this refers to the data which has
already been collected and analyzed by someone else.
Secondary data can also be published data.
Data collection, analysis,
Web site Interface
LAN Connectivity:
LAN has been extended to almost all the computers in the Ministry & Jaisalmer House.
Leased line connection for Internet is available to provide problem free access to

Ministry’s Website and public interaction:

Efforts are on to revamp the Ministry’s website with the help of NIC so as to make it
more dynamic and interactive. A separate window has already been opened on the
website for receiving grievances & feedback from public directly.

Computerization of Industrial Relations Division:

Computerization of Industrial Relations Division is already in advanced stage and

software is being given final touches to make it more integrated & comprehensive.

Computerization of Child Labour Section:

Software is also being developed for the Child Labour Section so as to capture reports
directly from the Project Societies,
Which would not only help in speedy updating of data but help in more effective

Employee ware Software:

‘Employee ware’ Software package is being implemented to put up all the service
records including GPF accounts on the Ministry’s internet so as to make it accessible to
all the officers & staff of the Ministry directly and automate the functioning of
Administration & Accounts Section. By January, we intend to complete requisite data
loading and computerize this area fully.


Officers as well as staff are being provided regular training in appropriate computer
skills with the help of NIC. We plan to cover all officers at the level of Director/DS for
developing Power Point presentation skills and Assistant level staff in basic computer
skills within this financial year.

Procurement of Computer Hardware/ Software:

Computer hardware/software are being procured for the use in the offices of
officers/sections for the smooth & speedy disposal of official work as and when required.

Upgrading presentation infrastructure:

Plasma screens have been installed in the Ministry’s Conference/Committee rooms or a
more effective presentation.

When ease of navigation, information dissemination, online support, and service
delivery are well designed and executed, service quality is high and a favorable EGEC
develops, which results in increasing citizens' loyalty. Improved navigation leads to a
decrease in citizens' support costs and service improvement. Citizens and businesses
expect to be able to navigate around a website quickly and easily to find the information
they need. That translates to lower support costs and increased quality of service.

On the other hand, if navigation is poor or difficult, and the required information is not
readily available, online users will require customer support. If extensive reliance on
customer support is required to conclude e-government transactions, two negative
consequences will result.

First, customer support costs including training, direct labor, and managerial costs will
significantly increase. Second, customers will thwart at using e-government services
and return to bricks-and-mortar installations to conduct their business. Clearly, design
and effective operation of these elements in the service delivery system are crucial to
success of any e-government operation.
Three key elements of user-centered evaluations of e-government web portals are
primarily: functionality, usability and accessibility.
Functionality testing is used to assess the performance of Web site in a desired way
that the site is meant to fulfill.

These functions can include basic search functions, filling forms, document delivery,
multiple languages, and any other operational elements of the site that users need to
employ. It has been noticed that even if a wide range of information and services are
available on a site, there might be no search function, flawed instructions, poor design
and layout, missing navigation and orientation elements, no contact information,
inaccurate or incomplete search results thus preventing users from accessing and using
the available information and services.

Specific issues explored include:

• navigation and orientation are intuitive;
• elements of the site perform as users anticipate;
• elements of the site are clearly labeled;
• instructions are meaningful and easy to follow; and
• content is presented in a manner that is logical, clear, and understandable.
Analysis of state portals has been done on a theoretical framework in this paper. The
criteria of analysis have been explained above through five parameters (Usefulness of
information, adequacy of information, usability, accessibility and ease of interaction). In
the process we have cognized some added features, like contextual factors which are
beyond technology, and various referent domains and ideas with much diversity. It has
been observed that the delivery of service is dependent on the system quality of a
particular state in India considerably. E-readiness report by Department of Information
Technology shows that states and union territory like Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu,
Karnataka, Kerala, Chandigarh and Maharashtra are in leading positions. The plot of
Information quality and egovernment readiness shown in the study also shows similar
trend for the States and Union territory. Kerala shows a variance as the information
quality does not fulfil the criteria of the model taken in the study. States and Union
territories like Uttar Pradesh, Pondicherry, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Chattisgarh,
Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Jharkhand show a
good achievement from both information quality and e-government readiness point of
view followed by Assam, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Lakshadweep, Jammu & Kashmir and
Bihar. The latter have shown advancements in e-readiness but still lag behind in
information service quality. Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Andaman & Nicobar ,
Nagaland, Tripura, Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman& Diu distinctly are in the initial
phase of development of e-government and thus do not show an appreciable quality of
service. This research is mainly a theoretical work that can impart practical guidance for
better delivery of e-governance. It has been observed during the study that there is a
lack of clarity and lack of rigor about methods for improvement and is taken as a
general approach.

• Strengthening and upgrading the present infrastructure of IT.

• Extension of Ethernet LAN covering all the divisions/sections of Main Ministry (for
about 350 nodes).

• Procurement of servers and software to equip computer center with state-of-the-


• Procurement of software to run & manage the network and create & manage the

• Procurement of clients and software to make front end functional for the user.

• Upgrading the technical skills of the users.

• Bring transparency in the functioning by placing the information to the extent

possible on Internet in public domain.

• Creation of comprehensive database on the subjects dealt by the Ministry and

making accessible also to the field offices at remote locations out of Delhi, at all
hours of the day.

• Interlinking the functioning of the different offices to bring about decision-making.

• To free officials of the Ministry from routine and repetitive functions to increase
their usefulness and effectiveness.
• Development of Public Grievance & Complaint System.

• Availability of forms and information on the net and facility of filling of application
from remote locations at all hours.



• 1. Baum, C., and De Maio, A. (2000). Gartner’s

four phases of e-Government model.

• Gupta, M.P., Kumar P. and Bhattacharya J.

(2004) Government Online, New Delhi: Tata

McGraw-Hill, 2004