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Love encompasses a variety of different emotional and mental states, typically strongly and posit

ively experienced, ranging from the deepest interpersonal affection to the simplest pleasure. An
example of this range of meanings is that the love of a mother differs from the love of a spou
se differs from the love of food. Most commonly, love refers to a feeling of strong attraction a
nd personal attachment.[1] Love can also be a virtue representing human kindness, compassion,
and affection—"the unselfish loyal and benevolent concern for the good of another".[2] It may a
lso describe compassionate and affectionate actions towards other humans, one's self or animals.

Ancient Greek philosophers identified four forms of love: essentially, familial love (in Greek, storg
e), friendly love (philia), romantic love (eros), and divine love (agape). Modern authors have disti
nguished further varieties of love: infatuated love, self-love, and courtly love. Non-Western traditi
ons have also distinguished variants or symbioses of these states.[4][5] Love has additional religi
ous or spiritual meaning. This diversity of uses and meanings combined with the complexity of t
he feelings involved makes love unusually difficult to consistently define, compared to other emo
tional states.

Love in its various forms acts as a major facilitator of interpersonal relationships and, owing to i
ts central psychological importance, is one of the most common themes in the creative arts.[6]

Love may be understood as a function to keep human beings together against menaces and to
facilitate the continuation of the species.[7]

The word "love" can have a variety of related but distinct meanings in different contexts. Many
other languages use multiple words to express some of the different concepts that in English ar
e denoted as "love"; one example is the plurality of Greek words for "love" which includes agap
e and eros.[8] Cultural differences in conceptualizing love thus doubly impede the establishment
of a universal definition.[9]

Although the nature or essence of love is a subject of frequent debate, different aspects of the
word can be clarified by determining what isn't love (antonyms of "love"). Love as a general ex
pression of positive sentiment (a stronger form of like) is commonly contrasted with hate (or ne
utral apathy); as a less sexual and more emotionally intimate form of romantic attachment, love
is commonly contrasted with lust; and as an interpersonal relationship with romantic overtones, l
ove is sometimes contrasted with friendship, although the word love is often applied to close fri
endships. (Further possible ambiguities come with usages "girlfriend", "boyfriend", "just good frien
Abstractly discussed love usually refers to an experience one person feels for another. Love ofte
n involves caring for, or identifying with, a person or thing (cf. vulnerability and care theory of l
ove), including oneself (cf. narcissism). In addition to cross-cultural differences in understanding l
ove, ideas about love have also changed greatly over time. Some historians date modern conce
ptions of romantic love to courtly Europe during or after the Middle Ages, although the prior e
xistence of romantic attachments is attested by ancient love poetry.[10]

The complex and abstract nature of love often reduces discourse of love to a thought -terminati
ng cliché. Several common proverbs regard love, from Virgil's "Love conquers all" to The Beatles
' "All You Need Is Love". St. Thomas Aquinas, following Aristotle, defines love as "to will the go
od of another."[11] Bertrand Russell describes love as a condition of "absolute value," as oppose
d to relative value.[citation needed] Philosopher Gottfried Leibniz said that love is "to be delight
ed by the happiness of another."[12] Meher Baba stated that in love there is a "feeling of unity"
and an "active appreciation of the intrinsic worth of the object of love."[13] Biologist Jeremy Gri
ffith defines love as "unconditional selflessness".[14]