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Soil Mechanics Assist. Prof. Dr. Rafi' M. S.

CHAPTER 4
Seepage Through Soils
 Laplace's Equation of continuity
 Flow nets
 Safety of hydraulic structures against piping
 Filter design
 Seepage through earth dams

 Laplace’s Equation of Continuity


In many practical cases, the calculation of flow is generally made by use of graphs referred to as
flow nets. The concept of the flow net is based on Laplace’s equation of continuity, which describes
the steady flow condition for a given point in the soil mass. To derive this equation, consider an
elementary soil prism at point A (figure 4.1b) for the hydraulic structure shown in figure (4.1a).

𝒛 𝜕𝑣𝑧
(𝑣𝑧 + 𝑑 )𝑑 𝑑
𝜕𝑧 𝑧 𝑥 𝑦

𝜕𝑣𝑦
(𝑣𝑦 + 𝑑 )𝑑 𝑑
𝜕𝑦 𝑦 𝑧 𝑥
𝑑𝑦

𝜕𝑣𝑥
(𝑣𝑥 + 𝑑 )𝑑 𝑑
𝑣𝑥 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑧 𝜕𝑥 𝑥 𝑦 𝑧
𝒙
𝑑𝑧

𝑣𝑦 𝑑𝑧 𝑑𝑥
𝑑𝑥
𝒚 𝑣𝑧 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦

Figure (4.1): Derivation of continuity equation.

The flows entering the soil prism in the x, y and z directions can be given from Darcy’s law as:-

𝜕ℎ
𝑞𝑥 = 𝑣𝑥 𝐴𝑥 = 𝑘𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑧 ……………………………………….………….……(4.1)

𝜕ℎ
𝑞𝑦 = 𝑣𝑦 𝐴𝑦 = 𝑘𝑦 𝜕𝑦 𝑑𝑧 𝑑𝑥 ……………………………………….………….……(4.2)

𝜕ℎ
𝑞𝑧 = 𝑣𝑧 𝐴𝑧 = 𝑘𝑧 𝜕𝑧 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 …………………………………………..……………(4.3)
where:
𝑞𝑥 , 𝑞𝑦 , 𝑞𝑧 = flow entering in directions x, y, and z, respectively,
𝑘𝑥 , 𝑘𝑦 , 𝑘𝑧 = coefficients of permeability in directions x, y, and z, respectively,
ℎ = hydraulic head at point A.

The flows leaving the prism in the x, y and z directions are:-

𝑞𝑥 + 𝑑𝑞𝑥 = 𝑘𝑥 (𝑖𝑥 + 𝑑𝑖𝑥 )𝐴𝑥

𝜕ℎ 𝜕2 ℎ
= 𝑘𝑥 (𝜕𝑥 + 𝜕𝑥 2 )𝑑𝑦 𝑑𝑧 …………...………………………………….……(4.4)

𝜕ℎ 𝜕2 ℎ
𝑞𝑦 + 𝑑𝑞𝑦 = 𝑘𝑦 (𝜕𝑦 + 𝜕𝑦 2 )𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑧 …………….………………………………………(4.5)
𝜕ℎ 𝜕2 ℎ
𝑞𝑧 + 𝑑𝑞𝑧 = 𝑘𝑧 ( + )𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 …………………….………………………….……(4.6)
𝜕𝑧 𝜕𝑧 2

For steady flow through an incompressible medium, the flow entering the elementary prism is
equal to the flow leaving the elementary prism. So,

𝑞𝑥 + 𝑞𝑦 + 𝑞𝑧 = (𝑞𝑥 + 𝑑𝑞𝑥 ) + (𝑞𝑦 + 𝑑𝑞𝑦 ) + (𝑞𝑧 + 𝑑𝑞𝑧 ) …………………………(4.7)

Combining Eqs. (4.1– 4.7), gives

𝜕2 ℎ 𝜕2 ℎ 𝜕2 ℎ
𝑘𝑥 𝜕𝑥 2 + 𝑘𝑦 𝜕𝑦 2 + 𝑘𝑧 𝜕𝑧 2 = 0 …………………………………………………..……(4.8)

Equation (4.8) represents three-dimensional flow in anisotropic soil.

For two-dimensional flow in the x-z plane, Eq. (4.8) becomes:

𝜕2 ℎ 𝜕2 ℎ
𝑘𝑥 𝜕𝑥 2 + 𝑘𝑧 𝜕𝑧 2 = 0 ……………..……………………………………………...……(4.9)

And if the soil is isotropic with respect to permeability, 𝑘𝑥 = 𝑘𝑧 , then the continuity equation
simplifies to:-
𝜕2 ℎ 𝜕2 ℎ
+ = 0 …….………..……..……………………………………………..…(4.10)
𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑧 2

This is generally referred to as Laplace’s equation. This equation represents two families of
curves; named as "flow lines and equipotential lines" that intersecting each other at right angles.

 Flow Nets
A set of flow lines and equipotential lines is called a flow net. A flow line is a line along which a
water particle will travel. An equipotential line is a line joining the points that show the same
piezometric elevation (i.e., hydraulic head = h (x, z) = const). Examples of flow nets are shown in
figures (4.2 - 4.3) for flow through permeable isotropic soil; i.e. with, 𝑘𝑥 = 𝑘𝑧 = k. Note that the
solid lines are the flow lines and the broken lines are the equipotential lines.

2
U/S water level

D/S water level

A B E F

C D

Permeable
layer

G H
Impermeable layer

Figure (4.2): Flow nets around sheet pile structures.

U/S water level Determine maximum exit U/S water level


gradient from this element.

D/S water level D/S water level

Permeable layer Toe filter

Permeable layer

Impermeable layer Impermeable layer

Figure (4.3): Flow nets under dams.

3
In drawing a flow net, there are 4 boundary conditions for any seepage problem, for example, in
figure (4.2b):-

1. AB is an equipotential line
2. EF is an equipotential line
3. BCDE (i.e., the sides of the sheet pile) is a flow line
4. GH is a flow line

Drawing a flow net is a trial-and-error process. The


flow and equipotential lines are usually intersect each other
at right angles and drawn in such a way that the flow
elements are approximately squares. Therefore, first
attempt of flow net sketching may not be satisfactory, and
Mistake – Redraw !
some revisions are required. Once a satisfactory flow net
Figure (4.4): Mistakes in drawing Flow nets.
has been drawn, it can be traced out.

 Seepage Calculation from a Flow Net


A flow channel is the strip located between two adjacent flow lines. To calculate the seepage
under a hydraulic structure, consider a flow channel as shown in figure (4.5).

Figure (4.5): Flow through a flow channel.

The equipotential lines crossing the flow channel are also shown, along with their corresponding
hydraulic heads. Let (q) be the flow through the flow channel per unit length of the hydraulic
structure (i.e., perpendicular to the section shown). According to Darcy’s law,

ℎ1 −ℎ2 ℎ2 −ℎ3 ℎ3 −ℎ4


∆𝑞 = 𝑘. 𝑖. 𝐴 = 𝑘 ( ) (𝑏1 𝑥1) = 𝑘 ( ) (𝑏2 𝑥1) = 𝑘 ( ) (𝑏3 𝑥1) = ….(4.11)
𝑙1 𝑙2 𝑙3

If the flow elements are drawn as squares, then

𝑙1 = 𝑏1
𝑙2 = 𝑏2
𝑙3 = 𝑏3

4
So, from Eq. (4.11), we get


ℎ1 − ℎ2 = ℎ2 − ℎ3 = ℎ3 − ℎ4 = ⋯ = ∆ℎ = …..………….………………….(4.12)
𝑁𝑑
where ∆h = drop in piezometric elevation between two consecutive equipotential lines,
h = total hydraulic head = difference in elevation of water between the upstream and
downstream side
Nd = number of potential drops

Equation (4.12) demonstrates that the loss of head between any two consecutive equipotential
lines is the same. Combining Eqs. (4.11) and (4.12) gives


∆𝑞 = 𝑘 𝑁 ..………….…………………………………………………………….(4.13)
𝑑

If there are 𝑁𝑓 flow channels in a flow net, the rate of seepage per unit length of the hydraulic
structure is
𝑁
𝑞 = 𝑁𝑓 ∆𝑞 = 𝑘 ℎ 𝑁𝑓 ..…………………………………………………………….(4.14)
𝑑

Although flow nets are usually constructed in such a way that all flow elements are
approximately squares, that need not always be the case. We could construct flow nets with all the
flow elements drawn as rectangles. In that case the width-to-length ratio of the flow nets must be a
constant, i.e.,

𝑏1 𝑏2 𝑏3
= = = ⋯ = 𝑛 ..…………………………………………………….(4.15)
𝑙1 𝑙2 𝑙3

For such flow nets the rate of seepage per unit length of hydraulic structure can be given by
𝑁𝑓
𝑞=𝑘ℎ 𝑛 ..…………….…………………………………………………….(4.16)
𝑁𝑑

Example (4.1): For the flow net under a dam shown in figure:-
(a) How high would water rise if a piezometer is placed at (i) A, (ii) B, (iii) C ?
(b) If k=0.01mm/s, determine the seepage loss of the dam in m3/(day·m).

U/S water level

10 m
D/S water level

B
Permeable layer

Impermeable layer
10 m
Scale
5
Solution:

The maximum hydraulic head h is 10 m. From figure, 𝑁𝑑 = 12, ∆ℎ = ℎ/𝑁𝑑 =10/12 =0.833.

Part a (i):
To reach A, water must go through three potential drops. So head lost is equal to
3(0.833)=2.5m. Hence the elevation of the water level in the piezometer at A will be 10 −2.5 =
7.5m above the ground surface.

Part a (ii):
The water level in the piezometer above the ground level is 10 − 5(0.833)= 5.84m.

Part a (iii):
Points A and C are located on the same equipotential line. So water in a piezometer at C will
rise to the same elevation as at A, i.e., 7.5m above the ground surface.
Part b:
The seepage loss is given by q = k h Nf /Nd . From figure, Nf = 5 and Nd = 12. Since k =
0.01mm/s = (0.01/1000) (60×60×24) = 0.864 m/day
q = 0.864 (10)(5/12) = 3.6m3/(day ·m)

 Hydraulic Uplift Force Under a Structure


Consider the dam section shown in Figure (4.3a), the cross-section of which has been replotted
in Figure (4.6). To find the pressure head at point D; from the flow net shown in Figure (4.3a), the
pressure head is equal to (10 + 3.34m) minus the hydraulic head loss. Point D coincides with the
third equipotential line beginning with the upstream side, which means that the hydraulic head loss
at that point is 2(h/Nd) = 2(10/12) = 1.67m. So, pressure head at D = 13.34 − 1.67 = 11.67m

3.34m
F 1.67m G
D E H I
1.67m 1.67m 18.32m 1.67m 1.67m
Pressure head, m

5.84

5.00
4.56
10.84

8.75
11.67

Figure (4.6): Pressure head under the dam section shown in figure (4.3).

Similarly,
Pressure head at E = (10 + 3.34) − 3(10/12) = 10.84m
Pressure head at F = (10 + 1.67) − 3.5(10/12) = 8.75m
(Note that point F is approximately midway between the fourth and fifth equipotential lines
starting from the upstream side.)

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Pressure head at G = (10+1.67) − 8.5(10/12) = 4.56m
Pressure head at H = (10+3.34) − 9(10/12) = 5.84m
Pressure head at I = (10+3.34) − 10(10/12) = 5m

The pressure heads calculated above are plotted in Figure (4.6). Between points F and G, the
variation of pressure heads will be approximately linear.
The hydraulic uplift force per unit length of the dam, U, can now is calculated as:

U = γω (area of the pressure head diagram)(1)

11.67 + 10.84 10.84 + 8.75 8.75 + 4.56


= 9.81 [( ) (1.67) + ( ) (1.67) + ( ) (18.32)
2 2 2
4.56+5.84 5.84 + 5
+( ) (1.67) + ( ) (1.67)]
2 2

= 9.81 (18.8 +16.36 +121.92 + 8.68 + 9.05) = 1714.9 kN/m.

 Flow Nets in Anisotropic Material


For plotting flow nets of two-dimensional flow problems such as seepage through soils that
show anisotropy with respect to permeability (i.e., 𝑘ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 ≠ 𝑘𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 ). Referring to Eq. (4.9):-

𝜕2 ℎ 𝜕2 ℎ
𝑘𝑥 + 𝑘𝑧 = 0 …………..………...………………………………………...(4.9)
𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑧 2

where 𝑘𝑥 = 𝑘ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 and 𝑘𝑧 = 𝑘𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 . this equation can be rewritten as:

𝜕2 ℎ 𝜕2 ℎ
+ = 0 ……………….…..………………………..……...……(4.17)
(𝑘𝑧 /𝑘𝑥 )𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑧 2

Let 𝑥́ = √𝑘𝑧 /𝑘𝑥 x, then

𝜕2 ℎ 𝜕2 ℎ
= …………..…….…..…………………………………...……(4.18)
(𝑘𝑧 /𝑘𝑥 )𝜕𝑥 2 𝜕𝑥́ 2

Substituting Eq.(4.18) into Eq.(4.17), gives

𝜕2 ℎ 𝜕2 ℎ
+ = 0 …………..…….……...…………………………….……...……(4.19)
𝜕𝑥́ 2 𝜕𝑧2

Equation (4.19) is of the same form as Eq. (4.10), which governs the flow in isotropic soils and
represents two sets of orthogonal lines in the 𝑥́ – z plane.

The steps for construction of a flow net in an anisotropic medium are as follows:
1. Adopt a vertical scale.
𝑘𝑧 𝑘𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙
2. Determine √ =√
𝑘𝑥 𝑘ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙

7
𝑘𝑧
3. Adopt a horizontal scale such that; 𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒ℎ𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 = √ (𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 )
𝑘𝑥
4. With the scales adopted in steps 1 and 3, plot the cross-section of the hydraulic structure.

5. Draw the flow net for the transformed section plotted in step 4 in the same manner as is done
for seepage through isotropic soils.

6. Calculate the rate of seepage as:

Nf
q = √k x k z h .........…………………………………………………...……(4.20)
Nd

Comparing Eqs. (4.14 and 4.20), you see that both equations are similar except that (k) in Eq.
(4.14) is replaced by √𝒌𝒙 𝒌𝒛 in Eq. (4.20).

(a) Transformed section

(b) True section.

Figure (4.7): Example for flow net under a sheet pile for anisotropic soil.

8
Example (4.2): A dam section is shown in Figure (a). The coefficients of permeability of the
permeable layer in the vertical and horizontal directions are 2×10−2 mm/s and 4×10−2
mm/s, respectively. Draw a flow net and calculate the seepage loss of the dam in
m3/(day·m).

𝒙 =?

𝒌
𝒙́ = 𝒙. √𝒌𝒛
𝒙

Horizontal scale = 12.5 x √𝟐 = 17.68 m

Vertical scale = 12.5 m

Figure (4.8): Construction of flow net under a dam for anisotropic soil.
Solution:

From the given data:


𝑘𝑧 = 2×10−2 mm/s =1.728 m / day, 𝑘𝑥 = 4×10−2 mm/s = 3.456 m /day , and h =10 m.

For drawing the flow net:

2 𝑥 10 −2 1
(𝐻𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒) = √ (𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒) = (𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒)
4𝑥 10 −2 √2

On the basis of these scales, the dam section is replotted, and the flow net is drawn as shown
in Figure (4.8b), from it, 𝑁𝑑 = 8 and 𝑁𝑓 = 2.5 (the lower most flow channel has a width-to-
length ratio of 0.5).
𝑁𝑓
The rate of seepage is given by 𝑞 = √𝑘𝑥 𝑘𝑧 ℎ .
𝑁𝑑

= √(1.728)(3.456) (10) (2.5/8) = 7.637 m3/(day·m)

9
Example (4.3): A single row of sheet pile structure is shown in Figure (4.9a). Draw a flow net for the
transformed section. Replot this flow net in the natural scale also. The relationship
between the permeabilities is given as 𝒌𝒙 = 𝟔 𝒌𝒛

Solution:

For the transformed section,


𝑘𝑧 1
(𝐻𝑜𝑟𝑖𝑧𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒) = √ (𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒) = (𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑠𝑐𝑎𝑙𝑒)
𝑘𝑥 √6
The transformed section and the corresponding flow net are shown in figure (4.9b).

Figure (4.9c) shows the flow net constructed to the natural scale. One important fact to be
noticed from this is that when the soil is anisotropic with respect to permeability, the flow and
equipotential lines are not necessarily orthogonal.

(a)

10 m

(b)

Figure (4.9): Sheet pile structure problem.

10
 Flow Nets for Hydraulic Structures on Non-homogeneous Subsoils
Figure (4.10) shows a general condition where a flow channel crosses the boundary of two soils
with 𝑘1 and 𝑘2 permeabilities, respectively. The dashed lines drawn across the flow channel are the
equipotential lines.
Let h be the loss of hydraulic head between two consecutive equipotential lines. Considering a
unit length perpendicular to the section shown, the rate of seepage through the flow channel is:
∆ℎ ∆ℎ
∆𝑞 = 𝑘1 𝑙1
(𝑏1 𝑥1) = 𝑘2 𝑙2
(𝑏2 𝑥1)

or
𝑘1 𝑏2 /𝑙2
= .....………………………………………………………...……(4.21)
𝑘2 𝑏1 /𝑙1

where 𝑙1 and 𝑏1 are the length and width of the flow elements in soil layer 1 and 𝑙2 and 𝑏2 are the
length and width of the flow elements in soil layer 2.

Soil (1) Soil (2)


𝑘1 𝜃2 𝑘2
𝛼1
∆𝑞 𝑙2
A
𝑏1 𝛼2
𝜃1
𝑏2 ∆𝑞

𝑙1
B
𝑙1
C 𝑙2

Figure (4.10): Transfer condition.

Referring again to Figure (4.10),

𝑙1 = 𝐴𝐵 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃1 = 𝐴𝐵 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝛼1 .….……………………………………………...……(4.22a)

𝑙2 = 𝐴𝐵 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃2 = 𝐴𝐵 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝛼2 .………………………….……………………...……(4.22b)

𝑏1 = 𝐴𝐶 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃1 = 𝐴𝐶 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝛼1 .……………………….………………………...……(4.22c)

𝑏2 = 𝐴𝐶 𝑐𝑜𝑠 𝜃2 = 𝐴𝐶 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝛼2 ….…………………….………………………...……(4.22d)

From Eqs. (4.22a and 4.22c),

𝑏1 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝜃1 sin 𝛼1
= =
𝑙1 𝑆in 𝜃1 cos 𝛼1
or
𝑏1 1
= = 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝛼1 ....….…………………………………………...……(4.23)
𝑙1 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜃1

11
Also, from Eqs. (4.22b and 4.22d),

𝑏2 𝐶𝑜𝑠 𝜃2 sin 𝛼2
= =
𝑙2 𝑆in 𝜃2 cos 𝛼2
or
𝑏2 1
= = 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝛼2 .....….…………………………………………...……(4.24)
𝑙2 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜃2

Combining Eqs. (4.21), (4.23), and (4.24),

𝑘1 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜃1 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝛼2
= = ....……………………………………………...……(4.25)
𝑘2 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝜃2 𝑡𝑎𝑛 𝛼1

This relation is used for constructing flow nets in non-homogeneous subsoils. It is useful to
keep the following points in mind while constructing the flow nets:

(1) If 𝑘1 > 𝑘2 , plot square flow elements in layer 1. This means that 𝑙1 = 𝑏1 in Eq.(4.20). So
𝑘1 /𝑘2 = 𝑏2 /𝑙2 . Thus the flow elements in layer 2 will be rectangles and their width-to-length
ratios will be equal to 𝑘1 / 𝑘2 . This is shown in figure (4.11a).

(2) If 𝑘1 < 𝑘2 , plot square flow elements in layer 1 (i.e., 𝑙1 = 𝑏1 ). From Eq. (4.20), 𝑘1 /𝑘2 = 𝑏2 /𝑙2 .
So the flow elements in layer 2 will be rectangles. This is shown in figure (4.11b).

Square elements Square elements 15 m


𝑙1 = 𝑏1 𝑙1 = 𝑏1
= =

6.3 m
Soil (1) Soil (1)
𝛼1 𝑘1 𝛼1
𝑘1 Layer (1)
𝑘1 = 5 𝑥 10−2 5m
𝛼2 𝛼2
𝑚𝑚/𝑠𝑒𝑐
𝑏2
Soil (2) Soil (2) 𝑙2
𝑘2 𝑘2
𝑙2
𝑏2
𝑘1 > 𝑘2 𝑘1 < 𝑘2 Layer (2) 10 m
𝑘2 = 2.5 𝑥 10−2
𝑏2 𝑏2 𝑚𝑚/𝑠𝑒𝑐
>1 𝑙2
<1
𝑙2

Figure (4.11): Flow channel at the boundary between Figure (4.12): Flow net under a dam resting
two soils with different permeabilities. on a two-layered soil deposit.

An example of the construction of a flow net for a dam section resting on a two-layered soil
deposit is given in figure (4.12). Note that 𝑘1 = 5×10−2 mm/s and 𝑘2 = 2.5×10−2 mm/s. So,

In soil layer 1, the flow elements are plotted as squares, and since 𝑘1 / 𝑘2 =2, the length-to-width
ratio of the flow elements in soil layer 2 is 1/2.

12
 Piping
High 𝑖𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 can cause erosion of soil at the point of exit of the flow line (at downstream), and
gradually the erosion may progress towards the upstream. This backwards erosion of soil is the
condition called "piping". If piping is not checked, it can lead to collapse of the structure.

Stone Pitching

U/S Water

Large 𝑖𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡
U/S D/S water comes out vertically
Shell Shell upwards at the exit surface
Clay
Core

Progressive soil erosion


Causing vertical piping

Impervious

Figure (4.13): Piping condition.

If water comes out vertically upwards at the exit surface, the condition is called vertical piping.
Also, sometimes horizontal piping can occur, such as in earth dam body when the phreatic line
emerges on downstream slope and saturation leads to sloughing.

 Remedial Measures for Piping

(a) Reduce 𝑖𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 by increasing the length of flow lines and lengthening the floor of the hydraulic
structure, such as providing upstream impervious blanket, or upstream and downstream
cutoffs. However, using a sheet pile at the downstream is most effective cutoff location for
reducing 𝑖𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 , but it also gives greater uplift pressure on the floor compared with case of
upstream sheet pile (See pages 271 – 273 Lamb & Whiteman, 1969).

(b) Prevent erosion by providing suitably designed graded filters. In addition to, providing
additional weight to resist uplift pressures they prevent washing out of fine soil material
from the foundation soil.

 Filter Design
When seepage water flows from a soil with relatively fine grains into a coarser material, there is
a danger that the fine soil particles may wash away into the coarse material. Over a period of time,
this process may clog the void spaces in the coarser material. Such a situation can be prevented by
the use of a protective filter between the two soils as shown in (figure 4.14).
Also if upward flow occurs through sandy soil and (i) at the surface becomes greater than unity,
a quick condition is created and the foundation soil will wash out if boiling is not prevented.

For the proper selection of the filter material, two conditions should be satisfied:-
(a) The size of the voids in the filter material should be small enough to hold the larger particles
of the protected material in place.

13
(b) The filter material should have a high permeability to prevent buildup of large seepage
forces and hydrostatic pressures in the filters. However, based on the experimental
investigation of protective filters, Terzaghi and Peck (1948) suggested the following criteria:
𝐷15(𝐹)
1. ≤ 4−5 (To satisfy condition 1)
𝐷85(𝐵)

𝐷15(𝐹)
2. ≥ 4−5 (To satisfy condition 2)
𝐷15(𝐵)

𝐷50 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑖𝑙𝑡𝑒𝑟
3.
𝐷50 𝑜𝑓 𝑠𝑜𝑖𝑙
< 25

𝐷85 𝑜𝑓 𝑓𝑖𝑙𝑡𝑒𝑟
4. In case of use perforated pipe: ℎ𝑜𝑙𝑒 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑝𝑖𝑝𝑒
> 2.0

where D15, D50, D85 are determined from the P.S.D. curve as the size in (mm) than which 15%, 50%,
85%, respectively of the filter or soil is finer than by weight.

Filter

Rock toe
Soil to be protected

Figure (4.14): Use of filter at the toe of an earth dam.

𝟓𝑫𝟖𝟓(𝑩) =
𝑫𝟖𝟓(𝑩) = 0.11 mm
0.55 mm
Percent finer %

Curve a Soil to be
protected
Range of Curve b
good filter

Curve c 𝟓𝑫𝟏𝟓(𝑩) = 𝑫𝟏𝟓(𝑩) =


0.045 mm 0.009 mm

Grain size distribution (mm)

Figure (4.15): Determination of grain-size distribution of soil filters.

For example, consider the soil used for the construction of the earth dam shown in Figure (4.14).
If the grain-size distribution of this soil be given by curve (a) in Figure (4.15), then determine
5D85(B) and 5D15(B) and plot them as shown in Figure (4.15). The acceptable grain-size distribution
of the filter material will have to lie in the shaded zone.

14
 Safety of hydraulic structures against piping
(a) Harza (1935) Method:
When upward seepage occurs and the hydraulic gradient i be equal to 𝑖𝑐𝑟 , piping originates in
the soil mass. The factor of safety against piping can be defined as:
𝑖𝑐𝑟
F.S.= ....……..…………………………………………...……(4.26)
𝑖𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡
where
(𝐺𝑠 +𝑒) 𝛾𝜔
𝛾́ 𝛾𝑠𝑎𝑡 − 𝛾𝜔 − 𝛾𝜔
𝑖𝑐𝑟 = 𝛾 = = 1+𝑒
𝜔 𝛾𝜔 𝛾𝜔

𝛾́ 𝐺𝑠 − 1
So, 𝑖𝑐𝑟 = 𝛾 = .....……………………...………………...……(4.26a)
𝜔 1+𝑒

for typical values of 𝐺𝑠 and e encountered in soils, 𝑖𝑐𝑟 varies within a range (0.85 – 1.10).

𝑖𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 = the maximum exit gradient; obtained by any of the following formulas:-

(1) From Flow Nets ( see figure 4.3):


𝑖𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 = .....……..…………………………………………...……(4.26b)
𝐿

where h = the head lost between the last two equipotential lines, and
l = the length of the flow element.

(2) Harr, 1962 solution (for a single row of sheet pile structures; see figure 4.2):
1 𝑚𝑎𝑥𝑖𝑚𝑢𝑚 ℎ𝑦𝑑𝑟𝑎𝑢𝑙𝑖𝑐 ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑
𝑖𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 = 𝜋 𝑑𝑒𝑝𝑡ℎ 𝑜𝑓 𝑝𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑜𝑓 𝑠ℎ𝑒𝑒𝑡 𝑝𝑖𝑙𝑒
………………..…...……(4.26c)

(3) Harza Charts (for dams constructed over deep homogeneous deposits; see figure 4.16):


𝑖𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 = 𝐶 𝐵 ….……………………………………………...……(4.26d)

1.5

Toe sheeting only


h
1.0

Heel and toe sheeting


C

d 0.5

𝑖𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 = 𝐶
B 𝐵
0
Deep homogeneous soil 0 5 10 15
B/d
Figure (4.16): Critical exit gradient (after Harza, 1935).

A factor of safety of (3– 4) is considered adequate for the safe performance of the structure.

15
(b) Lane (1935) Method:
Lane defined the factor of safety by a term called the weighted creep ratio. For a structure to be
safe against piping, this ratio should be ≥ the safe values shown in Table (4.1).

𝐿𝑤
weighted creep ratio = ….…………………………...……(4.27)
𝐻1 − 𝐻2
where
∑ 𝐿ℎ
𝐿𝑤 = weighted creep length = + ∑ 𝐿𝑣 (see figure 4.17),
3

∑ 𝐿ℎ = 𝐿ℎ1 + 𝐿ℎ2 + … … … . . … = sum of horizontal distance along shortest flow path,

∑ 𝐿𝑣 = 𝐿𝑣1 + 𝐿𝑣2 + … … … . . … = sum of vertical distances along shortest flow path,

If the cross-section of a given structure is such that the shortest flow path has a slope steeper
than 45o, it should be taken as a vertical path. If the slope of the shortest flow path is less than
45o, it should be considered as a horizontal path.

Table (4.1): Safe values for the weighted creep ratio.


𝐻1
𝐻2
Material Safe weighted creep ratio
Very fine sand or silt 8.5
∑ ℎ1 ∑ ℎ2
Fine sand 7.0
∑ 𝑣1 ∑ 𝑣2 Medium sand 6.0
Coarse sand 5.0
Permeable layer
Fine gravel 4.0
Coarse gravel 3.0
Impermeable layer
Soft to medium clay 2.0 – 3.0
Hard clay 1.8
Hard pan 1.6
Figure (4.17): Calculation of weighted creep distance.

(c) Terzaghi (1922) Method:


(i) For safety against piping around sheet pile structure as shown in figure (4.18a), the
failure due to piping takes place within a distance of D/2 from the sheet piles. Therefore, the
factor of safety against piping is:-
1
́
𝑊 𝛾́ 𝐷2 𝐷 𝛾́
2
F.S.= =1 = ......…….……………………...……(4.28)
𝑈 𝛾 𝐷ℎ𝑎 ℎ𝑎 𝛾𝜔
2 𝜔

where 𝑊́ = submerged weight of the soil prism (D × D/2) acting vertically downwards,
𝑈 = hydraulic uplifting pressure can be determined from the flow net,
D = the depth of penetration of the sheet pile, and
ℎ𝑎 = average hydraulic head at the base of the soil prism,

A factor of safety of about (4.0) is generally considered adequate.

16
(ii) For safety against piping under a dam as shown in figure (4.18b):-

 Terzaghi (1943) recommended that the stability of several soil prisms of size (D/2 × 𝐷́ × 1)
be investigated to find the minimum factor of safety. Note that (0 < 𝐷́ ≤ D).

 Harr (1962) suggested that a factor of safety of (4–5) with (𝐷́ =D) should be sufficient for
safe performance of the structure.

𝐻1
𝑫/𝟐 𝑫/𝟐
𝐻2
Possible failure
zone Soil
𝑫 wedge 𝑫́
𝑾 𝑫
Permeable layer Permeable layer
ℎ𝑜

𝑼 𝑼

Impermeable layer Impermeable layer

(b) flow a round a sheet pile. (a) flow under a dam.

Figurer (4.18): Safety against piping.

 Safety of hydraulic structures against heaving


𝐷 𝛾́
𝐹. 𝑆. = ……………..………………………………..(4.29)
𝐶0 𝛾𝜔 (𝐻1 − 𝐻2 )

Figurer (4.19): Safety against heaving.

D/T 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

Co 0.385 0.365 0.359 0.353 0.347 0.339 0.327 0.309 0.274

17
Example (4.4): A flow net for a single row of sheet piles is given in Figure (4.20).
(a) Determine the factor of safety against piping by Harza’s method.
(b) Determine the factor of safety against piping by Terzaghi’s method. Assume 𝛾́ = 10.2 kN/m3.

U/S water level Constant hydraulic


Head along an equipotential line
D/S water
3m level
h
B E 0.5 m
A F
1.5 m 0.82 m

C D
Permeable
6m
layer

G H
Impermeable layer
1m
Scale

Solution: Figure (4.20): Flow net around a single row of sheet pile structures.
Part (a):
𝛾́ 10.2
𝑖𝑐𝑟 = = = 1.04
𝛾𝜔 9.81

∆ℎ 3−0.5 3−0.5
𝑖𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 = , ∆ℎ = = = 0.417 m
𝐿 𝑁𝑑 6
L = the length of the last flow element scaled out of figure (4.20) and is approximately 0.82 m.

0.417
So, 𝑖𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 = = 0.509
0.82

𝑖𝑐𝑟 1.04
The factor of safety against piping is: F.S. = = = 2.04
𝑖𝑒𝑥𝑖𝑡 0.509

Part (b):
A soil prism of cross-section D×D/2 where D = 1.5m, on the downstream side adjacent to the
sheet pile is plotted in figure (4.21). The approximate hydraulic heads at the bottom of the prism
can be evaluated by using the flow net. Referring to figure (4.20), (note that Nd = 6),

Filter
Soil 3m
D = 1.5m Prism
0.5m

A B C
Permeable layer
0.75m 𝒉𝒐 = 0.917m
0.833m
1.25m
Impermeable layer

(a) (b)
Figure (4.21): Factor of safety calculation by Terzaghi’s method.

18
3
ℎ𝐴 = (3 − 0.5) = 1.25𝑚
6

2
ℎ𝐵 = (3 − 0.5) = 0.833𝑚
6

1.8
ℎ𝐶 = (3 − 0.5) = 0.75𝑚
6

1.25+0.75
( + 0.833)
2
ℎ𝑎 = = 0.917𝑚
2
𝐷 𝛾́ 1.5(10.2)
𝐹. 𝑆. = = = 1.7
ℎ𝑎 𝛾𝜔 0.917(9.81)

The factor of safety calculated here is rather low. However, it can be increased by placing some
filter material on the downstream side above the ground surface, as shown in figure above. This
will increase the weight of the soil prism.

Example (4.5): A dam section is shown in Figure (4.22). The subsoil is fine sand. Using Lane’s
method, determine whether the structure is safe against piping.

Solution:

∑ Lh
Lw = weighted creep length = + ∑ Lv
3

∑ 𝐿ℎ = 𝐿ℎ1 + 𝐿ℎ2 + … … … . . … = 6 + 10 = 16m,

∑ 𝐿𝑣 = 𝐿𝑣1 + 𝐿𝑣2 + … … … . . … = 1 + (8 + 8) + 1 + 2 = 20m

16
Lw = + 20 = 25.33m
3
Lw
weighted creep ratio = = 25.33 / (10 – 2) = 3.17
H1 − H2
From Table (4.1), the safe weighted creep ratio for fine sand is about 7.0. Since the calculated
weighted creep ratio is 3.17< 7.0, the structure is unsafe.

Upstream
10m apron
2m
1m 2m
1m
6m

8m

10m

Figure (4.22): Safety against piping under a dam by Lane's method.

19
 Seepage Through a Homogeneous Earth Dams with (𝒌𝒙 = 𝒌𝒛 )
 Dupuit’s Solution
Figure (4.23) shows the section of an earth dam in which ab is the phreatic surface, i.e., the
uppermost line of seepage. The quantity of seepage through a unit length at right angles to the
cross-section can be given by Darcy’s law as q = k i A. z

a Phreatic line
𝑑𝑧
𝑑𝑥
H1 b
z
H2
x
Impermeable base
d

Figure (4.23): Dupuit’s solution for flow through an earth dam.

Dupuit (1863) assumed that the hydraulic gradient i is equal to the slope of the free surface
and is constant with depth, i.e., i = dz/dx. So

𝑑𝑧 𝑑𝑧
𝑞 = 𝑘 𝑑𝑥 [(𝑧)(1)] = 𝑘 𝑑𝑥 𝑧

𝑑 1 𝐻 𝑘
∫0 𝑞. 𝑑𝑥 = ∫𝐻 𝑘. 𝑧. 𝑑𝑧 or 𝑞 𝑑 = 2 (𝐻12 − 𝐻22 )
2

𝑘
or 𝑞 = 2 𝑑 (𝐻12 − 𝐻22 ) .....….…………………........………………………...……(4.30)

This equation represents a parabolic free surface. However, in the derivation of the equation,
no attention has been paid to the entrance or exit conditions. Also note that if 𝐻2 = 0, the
phreatic line would intersect the impervious surface.

 Schaffernak’s Solution
According to this solution the phreatic surface will intersect the downstream slope at a
distance l from the impervious base and the seepage per unit length of the dam can be
determined by considering the triangle bcd in figure (4.24): z

a
𝑑𝑧
𝑑𝑥
H
Parabolic b
free surface l
𝜃
x
Impermeable base d c

Figure (4.24): Schaffernak’s solution for flow through an earth dam.


20
𝑞 = 𝑘. 𝑖. 𝐴 ̅̅̅̅ )(1) = 𝑙. 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛽
𝐴 = (𝑏𝑑

From Dupuit’s assumption, the hydraulic gradient is given by i = dz/dx = tan 𝛽. So,

𝑑𝑧
𝑞 = 𝑘. 𝑧 = (𝑘)(𝑙. 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛽)(𝑡𝑎𝑛𝛽)
𝑑𝑥
𝐻 𝑑
or ∫𝑙.𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛽 𝑧. 𝑑𝑧 = ∫𝑙.𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽(𝑙. 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛽)(𝑡𝑎𝑛𝛽)𝑑𝑥

1
(𝐻 2 − 𝑙 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝛽) = (𝑙. 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛽)(𝑡𝑎𝑛𝛽)(𝑑 − 𝑙. 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽)
2

1 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝛽
(𝐻 2 − 𝑙 2 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝛽) = 𝑙 (𝑑 − 𝑙. 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽)
2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽

𝐻 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽 𝑙 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽
− = 𝑙. 𝑑 − 𝑙 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽
2 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝛽 2

𝐻 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽
𝑙 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽 − 2. 𝑙. 𝑑 + =0
𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝛽

2𝑑 ± √4𝑑 2 − 4[(𝐻 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 2 𝛽)/𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝛽]


𝑙=
2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽

𝑑 𝑑2 𝐻2
So 𝑙= −√ − .....….………………….......……………………...……(4.31)
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽 𝑐𝑜𝑠2 𝛽 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝛽

Once the value of l is known, the rate of seepage can be calculated from (q = kl sin𝛽 tan𝛽).

 Schaffernak’s Graphical Procedure To Determine the Value of (l). This procedure is explained
with the aid of figure (4.25) below as follows:-

f
h

a g

H Phreatic line
b

x
e Impermeable base c

Figure (4.25): Graphical construction for Schaffernak’s solution.

21
1. Extend the downstream slope line bc upward.
2. Draw a vertical line ae through the point a. This will intersect the projection of line bc (step1)
at point f .
3. With fc as diameter, draw a semicircle fhc.
4. Draw a horizontal line ag.
5. With c as the center and cg as the radius, draw an arc of a circle, gh.
6. With f as the center and fh as the radius, draw an arc of a circle, hb.
7. Measure bc = l.

Casagrande's Correction: The parabola ab shown in figure (4.23) should actually start from the
point 𝑎́ as shown in figure (4.26) with 𝒂́ 𝒂= 0.3∆. So, the value of (d) for use in Eq. (4.31) will be the
horizontal distance between points 𝑎́ and c.

0.3∆
𝑎́ 𝑎

H b

x
Impermeable base c
d

Figure (4.26): Modified distance (d) for use in Eq. (4.31).

 L. Casagrande’s Solution
According to this solution, the distance (l) at which the phreatic surface will intersect the
downstream slope as shown in figure (4.27) is approximated as:

𝑙 = √𝑑2 + 𝐻 2 − √𝑑2 − 𝐻 2 𝑐𝑜𝑡 2𝛽 ……….......……………………...……(4.32)

Once the value of l is known, the rate of seepage can be calculated from (q = kl 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝛽).
z
0.3∆
𝑎́ 𝑎
𝑑𝑠
𝑑𝑧
𝑑𝑥
H b
phreatic
surface l
𝛽
x
Impermeable base d c
d

Figure (4.27): L. Casagrande’s solution for flow through an earth dam


(Note: length of the curve 𝑎́ 𝑏𝑐 = 𝑆).

22
A solution that avoids the approximation introduced in Eq. (4.32) was given by Gilboy (1934)
and in graphical form by Taylor (1948), as shown in Figure (4.28). To use the graph,
1. Determine d/H.
2. For given values of d/H and 𝛽 , determine m.
3. Calculate l = mH/sin 𝛽 .
4. Calculate q = k l 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝛽. 0.3∆

H
𝜷 𝒍 𝒔𝒊𝒏𝜷 = 𝒎 𝑯
x
d c

90

80
𝜷 (𝒅𝒆𝒈𝒓𝒆𝒆)

60 m=

40

20

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
d/H

Figure (4.28): Chart for solution by L. Casagrande’s method based on Gilboy's solution.

 Seepage Through Earth Dams with (𝒌𝒙 ≠ 𝒌𝒛 )


If the soil in a dam section shows anisotropic behavior with respect to permeability, the dam
section should first be plotted according to the transformed scale, such that
𝑥́ = 𝑥√𝑘𝑧 /𝑘𝑥
All calculations should be based on this transformed section. Also, for calculating the rate of
seepage, the term k in the corresponding equations should be equal to√𝑘𝑥 𝑘𝑧 .

Example (4.6): The cross-section of an earth dam is shown in Figure (4.29). Calculate the rate of
seepage through the dam [q in m3/(min·m)] by:
(a) Dupuit’s method; (b) Schaffernak’s method; and (c) L. Casagrande’s method.

0.3x 50
=15m 5m
𝒂́ 𝒂
1
30m 2
25m 1 b
2 k = 3 x 10-4 m/min.
c
x
Impermeable base 50m 15m 60m

Figure (4.29): Seepage through an earth dam.

23
Solution:

Part (a), Dupuit’s method:

𝑘
𝑞 = 2 𝑑 (𝐻12 − 𝐻22 )

From given data; 𝐻1 = 25m, 𝐻2 = 0, and, d (the horizontal distance between points a and c) is
equal to 60 + 5 + 10 = 75 m. hence

3 𝑥 10−4
𝑞= (25)2 = 𝟏𝟐. 𝟓 𝒙 𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝑚3 /(𝑚𝑖𝑛. 𝑚)
(2)(75)

Part (b), Schaffernak’s method:


𝑑 𝑑2 𝐻2
q = kl sin𝛽 tan𝛽; and 𝑙 = −√ −
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽 𝑐𝑜𝑠2 𝛽 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝛽

Using Casagrande's correction (fig. 4.26), d (the horizontal distance between points 𝑎́ and c)
is equal to 60 + 5 + 10 + 15 = 90 m. Also
1
𝛽 = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 2 = 26.57𝑜 , h = 25m

90 90 2 25 2
𝑙 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠 26.57 − √(𝑐𝑜𝑠 26.57) − (𝑠𝑖𝑛 26.57) = 100.63 − √(100.63)2 − (55.89)2 = 16.95𝑚

𝑞 = (3𝑥10−4 )(16.95)(sin 26.57)(tan 26.57) = 𝟏𝟏. 𝟑𝟕 𝒙 𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝑚3 /(𝑚𝑖𝑛. 𝑚)

Part (c), L. Casagrande’s method:

d = 90m , H= 25m,
From figure (4.28), for 𝛽 = 26.57𝑜 and d/H = 90/25 = 3.6 , m = 0.34 and

𝑚𝐻 0.34(25)
𝑙= = = 19.0𝑚
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝛽 sin 26.57

q = kl 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝛽 = (3𝑥10−4 )(19.0)(sin 26.57)2 = 𝟏𝟏. 𝟒 𝒙 𝟏𝟎−𝟒 𝑚3 /(𝑚𝑖𝑛. 𝑚)

 Plotting of Phreatic Line for Seepage Through Earth Dams


For construction of flow nets for seepage through earth dams, the phreatic line needs to be
established first. This is usually done by Casagrande's method as shown in Figure (4.30a). Note
that aefb in Figure (4.30a) is the actual phreatic line. The curve 𝒂́ ef𝒃́𝒄́ is a parabola with its focus
at 𝒄́ ; the phreatic line coincides with this parabola, but with some deviations at the upstream and
the downstream faces. At a point (a), the phreatic line starts at an angle of 90o to the upstream face
of the dam and 𝒂𝒂́ = 𝟎. 𝟑∆.

24
z

d Directrix
0.3∆
z
𝑎́ a Directrix
e A(x, z)
f 𝑏́ D
∆𝑙
H
Coefficient of b
l
permeability k 𝛽
x x
c 𝑐́ c 𝑐́
∆ (0, 0)

p
p p
p

(a) (b)

Figure (4.30): Determination of phreatic line for seepage through an earth dam.

The parabola 𝒂́ ef𝒃́𝒄́ can be constructed as follows:

(1) Let the distance c𝒄́ = 𝒑. Now referring to fig. (4.30b), Ac = AD (based on the properties of a
parabola), Ac = √𝑥 2 + 𝑧 2 , and AD = 2p + x, Thus,

√𝑥 2 + 𝑧 2 = 2p + x ….…….....………………………………………..…...……(4.33)

At point (𝒂́ ); x = d, and z = H, substituting these conditions into Eq. (4.33) and rearranging
gives:
1
𝑝 = 2 (√𝑑2 + 𝐻 2 − 𝑑) .…...........…………………………………..…….……(4.34)

Since d and H are known, the value of p can be calculated.

(2) Now by squaring both sides of Eq. (4.33) gives:

𝑥 2 + 𝑧 2 = 4𝑝2 + 𝑥 2 + 4𝑝𝑥

𝑧 2 −4𝑝2
𝑥= …..…….......….…………………………………………..…….……(4.35)
4𝑝

With (p) known, the values of (x) for various values of (z) can be calculated from Eq. (4.35)
and the parabola can be constructed.

To complete the phreatic line, the portion ae has to be approximated and drawn by hand.

The rate of seepage through earth dam can be estimated according to Kozeny's formula as:

𝑞 = 2𝑘 𝑝.……....................…………………………………………..…….……(4.36)

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 When (𝜷 < 𝟑𝟎𝒐 ), the value of l can be calculated from Eq. (4.31) as:

𝑑 𝑑2 𝐻2
𝑙= −√ −
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝛽 𝑐𝑜𝑠2 𝛽 𝑠𝑖𝑛2 𝛽
Note that l = ab in figure (4.30a). Once point b has been located, the curve fb can be
approximately drawn by hand.
 If (𝜷 ≥ 𝟑𝟎𝒐 ), the value of l can be determined from the following table as:
𝛽𝑜 30 60 90 120 150 180

∆𝐿
0.375 0.320 0.260 0.185 0.095 0.00
𝐿 + ∆𝐿

In figure (4.30a), 𝒃́𝒃 = ∆𝒍 , and bc = l. Once point b has been located on the downstream
face, the curve fb can be approximately drawn by hand.

 Types of Entrance, Exit and Transfer Conditions of Seepage Line


Figure (4.31) shows various entrance, exit, and transfer conditions for the line of seepage
through earth dams (after Casagrande,1937) that are helpful to know the nature of the phreatic
lines for various types of earth dam sections.

Entrance Conditions:- 𝛽 < 90𝑜 𝛽 = 90𝑜 𝛽 > 90𝑜

A horizontal A horizontal

𝛽 𝛽

𝛽 𝛽
𝛽 𝛽
B B

(a) (b) (c) (d)

90𝑜 < 𝛽 < 180𝑜 𝛽 = 90𝑜 𝑜𝑟 𝛽 = 180𝑜


Exit Conditions:- 𝛽 < 90𝑜
vertical vertical

Discharge face Discharge face Toe drain


Toe drain

(e) (f) (g)

Transfer Conditions:- 𝛼2 horizontal


𝛼2
𝛼1 𝛼1 𝛽

𝛽 𝛽 𝛽

𝑘1 < 𝑘2 𝑘1 > 𝑘2 𝑘1 > 𝑘2


𝛼2 = 270𝑜 − 𝛼1 − 𝛽 𝛼2 = 270𝑜 − 𝛼1 − 𝛽 𝛼2 = 𝛼1 = 𝛽

(h) (i) (j)

Figure (4.31): Entrance, exit, and transfer conditions (after Casagrande, 1937).

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 Flow Net Construction for Earth Dams
(a) For isotropic earth dams (𝑘𝑥 = 𝑘𝑧 = 𝑘); (see figure 4.32):
1. Draw the phreatic line according to Casagrande's method as explained before.
2. Note that ag is an equipotential line and that gc is a flow line.
3. It is important to realize that the pressure head at any point on the phreatic line is zero;
hence the difference of total head between any two equipotential lines should be equal to
the difference in elevation between the points where these equipotential lines intersect the
phreatic line. Since loss of hydraulic head between any two consecutive equipotential lines
is the same, determine the number of equipotential drops, 𝑁𝑑 , the flow net needs to have
and calculate ∆ℎ = ℎ/𝑁𝑑 .
𝑵𝒇 = 2.3
𝑵𝒅 = 10

Impermeable layer

Figure (4.32): Flow net construction for homogeneous earth dam.

4. Draw the headlines for the cross-section of the dam. The points of intersection of the
headlines and the phreatic lines are the points from which the equipotential lines should
start.
5. Draw the flow net, keeping in mind that the equipotential lines and flow lines must
intersect at right angles.
𝑁𝑓
6. Calculate the rate of seepage through the earth dam from Eq. (4.14) as: 𝑞 = 𝑘 ℎ
𝑁 𝑑
In figure (4.32), 𝑁𝑓 = 2.3 (the top two flow channels have square flow elements, and the
bottom flow channel has elements with a width-to-length ratio of 0.3) and 𝑁𝑑 =10. Figure
(4.33) shows some typical flow nets through earth dam sections.

Note: Flow net is for isotropic case Phreatic line for (𝒌𝒉 = 𝒌𝒗 )
(𝒌𝒉 = 𝒌𝒗 )
Partial flow channel Phreatic line for (𝒌𝒉 = 𝟏𝟔𝒌𝒗 )
(Transposed back from transformed section)

∆𝒉

Impermeable layer Drain


(a): With blanket drain.

27
𝑁𝑓 = 1.5
𝑁𝑓 = 2
𝑁𝑑 = 6
𝑁𝑑 = 5

Impermeable layer Impermeable layer

(b): With rock toe filter. (c): With chimney drain.

Figure (4.33): Typical flow nets through earth dams.

(b) For anisotropic earth dams (𝑘𝑥 ≠ 𝑘𝑧 ):


If the dam section is anisotropic with respect to permeability, a transformed section should
first be prepared. The flow net can then be drawn on the transformed section, and the rate of
seepage obtained from Eq. (4.20) as:
𝑁𝑓
𝑞 = √𝑘𝑥 𝑘𝑧 ℎ
𝑁𝑑
(c) For zoned earth dams:
A flow net for seepage through a zoned earth dam section is shown in Figure (4.34). The soil
for the upstream half of the dam has a permeability 𝑘1 , and the soil for the downstream half
of the dam has a permeability 𝑘2 = 5𝑘1 . The phreatic line must be plotted by trial and error.
As shown, here the seepage is from a soil of low permeability (upstream half) to a soil of high
permeability (downstream half). From Eq. (4.21),
𝑘1 𝑏2 /𝑙2
=
𝑘2 𝑏1 /𝑙1

If 𝑏1 = 𝑙1 and 𝑘2 = 5𝑘1 , then 𝑏2 /𝑙2 = 1/5. For that reason, square flow elements have been
plotted in the upstream half of the dam, and the flow elements in the downstream half have a
width-to-length ratio of 1/5. The rate of seepage can be calculated by using the following
equation:
ℎ ℎ
𝑞 = 𝑘1 𝑁𝑓(1) = 𝑘2 𝑁
𝑁𝑑 𝑁𝑑 𝑓(2)

where 𝑁𝑓(1) is the number of full flow channels in the soil having a permeability 𝑘1 , and
𝑁𝑓(2) is the number of full flow channels in the soil having a permeability 𝑘2 .

28
Impermeable layer ℎ ℎ
𝑞 = 𝑘1 𝑁 𝑞 = 𝑘2 𝑁
𝑁𝑑 𝑓(1) 𝑁𝑑 𝑓(2)
𝑁𝑓(1) = 8/3 𝑁𝑓(2) = 8/15
Figure (4.34): Flow net for seepage through a zoned earth dam.

 Control of Seepage Losses


The losses due to seepage can be controlled through the following factors:-
1. the permeability of soil,
2. the differential head ,∆ℎ , across the flow path
3. the length of the flow path, and
4. number of flow channels.
Figure (4.35) shows some solutions for controlling the seepage losses.

Crest
Impermeable upstream
blanket

Chimney drain

Shoulder Shoulder
Grout Curtain

Figure (4.35): Some solutions for controlling the seepage losses.

29