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# Chapter Five

## Analysis and Synthesis of Combinational Logic Circuits

✓ The digital system consists of two types of circuits, namely
I. Combinational circuits and
II. Sequential circuits
✓ A combinational circuit consists of logic gates, where outputs are at any instant and
are determined only by the present combination of inputs.
✓ Sequential circuits contain logic gates as well as memory cells.
✓ Their outputs depend on the present inputs and also on the states of memory elements.
✓ A combinational circuit consists of input variables, logic gates, and output variables.
✓ The logic gates accept signals from inputs and output signals are generated
according to the logic circuits employed in it
✓ Figure below shows a block diagram of a combinational logic circuit.
✓ There are n number of input variables coming from an electric source and m number of
output signals go to an external destination.

## Digital logic design by Nigatu A

DESIGN PROCEDURE
✓ Any combinational circuit can be designed by the following steps of design
procedure.
1. The problem is stated.
2. Identify the input variables and output functions.
3. The input and output variables are assigned letter symbols.
4. The truth table is prepared that completely defines the relationship between the
input variables and output functions.
5. The simplified Boolean expression is obtained by any method of minimization—
algebraic method, Karnaugh map method, or tabulation method.
6. A logic diagram is realized from the simplified expression using logic gates.

✓ The output Boolean functions from the truth table are simplified by any available method,
such as algebraic manipulation, the map method, or the tabulation procedure.
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✓ Usually, there will be a variety of simplified expressions from which to choose.
✓ However, in any particular application, certain restrictions, limitations, and criteria will
serve as a guide in the process of choosing a particular algebraic expression.

## A practical design method would have to consider such constraints as

a. Minimum number of gates,
b. Minimum number of inputs to a gate,
c. Minimum propagation time of the signal through the circuit,
d. Minimum number of interconnections, and
e. Limitations of the driving capabilities of each gate.
▪ Since all these criteria cannot be satisfied simultaneously, and since the importance of
each constraint is dictated by the particular application, it is difficult to make a general
statement as to what constitutes an acceptable simplification.
▪ In most cases, the simplification begins by satisfying an elementary objective, such
as producing a simplified Boolean function in a standard form, and from that
proceeds to meet any other performance criteria.
Example 1: Design a logic circuit that has three inputs, A, B, and C, and whose output
will be HIGH only when a majority of the inputs are HIGH.
Example 2: Design a combinational circuit with four inputs and four outputs. The
output generates the 2's complement of the input binary number.
Example 3: Design a combinational circuit with three inputs, x, y, and z, and three
outputs, A, B, and C. When the binary input is 0, 1, 2, or 3, the binary output is one greater
than the input. When the binary inputs is 4, 5, 6, or 7, the binary output is one less than
the input.
Example 4:- Design a logic circuit whose output is HIGH whenever A and B are both
HIGH as long as C and D are either both LOW or both HIGH.
Example 5: Develop a logic circuit with four input variables that will only produce a 1
output when exactly three input variables are 1s.
Example 6: Design a combinational circuit, which convert a 4-bit binary to Gray
Example 7: Design a combinational circuit, which convert a 4-bit Gray to binary
Example 8: Design a combinational circuit, which convert BCD-to-Seven-Segment decoder

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Example 9:The main stairway in a block of flats has three switches for controlling
the lights. Switch A is located at the top of the stairs, switch B is located
halfway up the stairs and switch C is positioned at the bottom of the stairs.
Design a logic network to control the lights on the staircase.
Example 10: Design a circuit to enable a chemical additive to be introduced into the fluid
through another inlet only when the temperature is not too cold or too hot and the fluid
is above the high- level sensor.

## THE UNIVERSAL PROPERTY OF NAND AND NOR GATES

The NAND Gate as a Universal Logic Element
• The NAND gate is a universal gate because it can be used to produce the NOT, the AND,
the OR, and the NOR functions.

## The NOR Gate as a Universal Logic Element

✓ Like the NAND gate, the NOR gate can be used to produce the NOT, AND. OR and
NAND functions.

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Digital logic design
Nigatby
uA
COMBINATIONAL LOGIC USING NAND AND NOR GATES
NAND Implementation
➢ The NAND gate is said to be a universal gate because any digital system can
be implemented with it.
➢ To facilitate the conversion to NAND logic, it is convenient to use the two
alternate graphic symbols shown in Figure below.

## FIGURE. Two graphic symbols for a NAND gate

➢ The AND-invert graphic symbol consists of an AND graphic symbol followed by a small
circle.
➢ The invert-OR graphic symbol consists of an OR graphic symbol that is preceded by small
circles in all the inputs.
➢ Either symbol can be used to represent a NAND gate.

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To obtain a multilevel NAND diagram from a Boolean expression, proceed as follows:
a. From the given Boolean expression, draw the logic diagram with AND, OR, and
inverter gates. Assume that both the normal and complement inputs are
available.
b. Convert all AND gates to NAND gates with AND-invert graphic symbols.
c. Convert all OR gates to NAND gates with invert-OR graphic symbols.
d. Check all small circles in the diagram. For every small circle that is not
compensated by another small circle along the same line, insert an inverter
(one-input NAND gate) or complement the input variable.
➢ In general, the number of NAND gates required to implement a Boolean expression
is equal to the number of AND-OR gates except for an occasional inverter.
➢ Example: implement using only NAND gates.

## a. F = A + (B’ + C)(D’ + BE’)

b. F = (CD + E)(A + B’)
c. F = BC’ + A(B + CD)
d. F = (AB' + CD')E + BC(A + B)
e. F = w(x + y + z) + xy;

NOR implementation

The two graphic symbols for the NOR gate are shown in Fig. below.

## ➢ The OR-invert symbol defines the NOR operation as an OR followed by a complement.

➢ The invert-AND symbol complements each input and then performs an AND operation.
➢ The two symbols designate the same NOR operation and are logically identical because
of DeMorgan's theorem.
➢ The procedure for implementing a Boolean function with NOR gates is similar to the
procedure outlined in the previous section for NAND gates.
a. Draw the AND-OR logic diagram from the given algebraic expression Assume that
both the normal and complement inputs are available.
b. Convert all OR gates to NOR gates with OR-invert graphic symbols.
c. Convert all AND gates to NOR gates with invert-AND graphic symbols.

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d. Any small circle that is not compensated by another small circle along the same line
needs an inverter or the complementation of the input variable.

Example: implement the following Boolean function using only NAND gates.
a. F = (AB + E)(C + D)
b. F = A + (B’ + C)(D’ + BE’)
c. F = (CD + E)(A + B’)
d. F = [(C + D)B' + A](B + C')
e. F = (AB' + CD')E + BC(A + B)
f. F = w(x + y + z) + xy;
• Convert the logic diagram the following to a multiple-level NAND and NOR circuit

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Chapter Six
Design of combinational logic circuits

➢ The half-adder accepts two binary digits on its inputs and produces two binary digits on
its outputs, a sum bit and a carry bit.
➢ The Sout represents the least significant bit of the sum.
➢ The Cout represents the most significant bit of the sum.
➢ The Boolean functions for the two output from the truth table:
𝑆 =𝑥∙𝑦+𝑥∙𝑦 =𝑥⊕𝑦
𝐶 =𝑥∙𝑦

➢ The full-adder accepts two input bits and an input carry and generates a sum output and
an output carry.
an input carry.
➢ The Boolean functions for the two outputs from the truth table:
𝑆 =𝑥∙𝑦∙𝑧+𝑥∙𝑦∙𝑧+𝑥⋅𝑦∙𝑧+𝑥∙𝑦∙𝑧 =𝑥⊕𝑦⊕𝑧
𝐶 = 𝑥 ∙ 𝑦 ∙ 𝑧 + 𝑥 ∙ 𝑦 ∙ 𝑧 + 𝑥 ⋅ 𝑦 ∙ 𝑧 + 𝑥 ∙ 𝑦 ∙ 𝑧 = 𝑥 ∙ 𝑦 + (𝑥 ⊕ 𝑦) ∙ 𝑧

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Implementation of Full Adder with Two Half Adders and an OR Gate

Half-Subtractor
➢ A half-subtractor is a combinational circuit that subtracts two bits and produces their
difference. It also has an output to specify if a 1 has been borrowed.
➢ The Boolean functions for the two outputs of the half-subtractor are derived directly from
the truth table:

𝑫=𝑥∙𝑦+𝑥∙𝑦 =𝑥⊕𝑦
𝐵 =𝑥∙𝑦
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Full-Subtractor
➢ A full-subtractor is a combinational circuit that performs a subtraction between
two bits, taking into account that a 1 may have been borrowed by a lower
significant stage.
➢ This circuit has three inputs and two outputs.
➢ Exercise: - design the full-subtractor combinational logic ckt.??

➢ A binary parallel adder is a digital circuit that produces the arithmetic sum of two binary
numbers in parallel.
➢ It consists of full-adders connected in a chain, with the output carry from each full
adder connected to the input carry of the next full-adder in the chain.

➢ Figure below shows the interconnection of four full-adder (FA) circuits to provide a 4-bit

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➢ Example:
a. What are the sum outputs when 111 and 101 are added by the 3-bit parallel
b. What are the sum outputs when 1110 and 1011 are added by the 4-bit parallel
c. What are the sum outputs when 011110 and111011 are added by the 5-bit

➢ The subtraction of binary numbers can be done most conveniently by means of
complements, as discussed before.
➢ Remember that the subtraction A - B can be done by taking the 2's complement of
B and adding it to A.
➢ The 2's complement can be obtained by taking the 1’s complement and adding
one to the least significant pair of bits.
➢ The addition and subtraction operations can be combined into one circuit
➢ This is done by including an exclusive-OR gate with each full adder.
➢ A 4-bit adder-subtractor circuit is shown in Figure below.
➢ The mode input M controls the operation.

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➢ When M = 0, the circuit is an adder, and when M = 1, the circuit becomes a subtractor.
➢ Each exclusive-OR gate receives input M and one of the inputs of B.
➢ When M = 0, we have 𝐵 ⊕ 0 = 𝐵
➢ When M = 1, we have 𝐵 ⊕ 1 = 𝐵 (to find 2’s complement)

Magnitude Comparator
The comparison of two numbers is an operation that determines if one number is greater than,
less than, or equal to the other number. A magnitude comparator is a combinational circuit that
compares two numbers, A and B, and determines their relative magnitudes.
➢ The outcome of the comparison is specified by three binary variables that
indicate whether A > B, A = B, or A < B.
➢ Algorithm

• 𝐴 = 𝐴3 𝐴2 𝐴1 𝐴0 ; 𝐵 = 𝐵3 𝐵2 𝐵1 𝐵0

• A = B if 𝐴3 = 𝐵3 , 𝐴2 = 𝐵2 , 𝐴1 = 𝐵1 , 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐴0 = 𝐵0

• Equality: 𝑥𝑖 = 𝐴𝑖 ⋅ 𝐵𝑖 + 𝐴𝑖 ⋅ 𝐵𝑖

• (𝐴 = 𝐵) = 𝑥3 ⋅ 𝑥2 ∙ 𝑥1 ∙ 𝑥0
• If the corresponding digit of A is 1 and that of B is 0, we conclude that A > B.
• If the corresponding digit of A is 0 and that of B is 1, we have that A < B.

• (𝐴 > 𝐵) = A3 ∙ B3 + 𝑥3 ∙ A2 ∙ B2 + 𝑥3 ⋅ 𝑥2 ∙ A1 ∙ B1 + 𝑥3 ⋅ 𝑥2 ∙ 𝑥1 ∙ A0 ∙ B0

• (𝐴 < 𝐵) = A3 ∙ B3 + 𝑥3 ∙ A2 ∙ B2 + 𝑥3 ⋅ 𝑥2 ∙ A1 ∙ B1 + 𝑥3 ⋅ 𝑥2 ∙ 𝑥1 ∙ A0 ∙ B0
➢ Implementation

➢ 𝑥𝑖 = (𝐴𝑖 ⋅ 𝐵𝑖 + 𝐴𝑖 ⋅ 𝐵𝑖 )

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Decoders

➢ A decoder is a combinational circuit that converts binary information from n input lines
to a maximum of 2n unique output lines.
➢ If the n-bit decoded information has unused or don't-care combinations, the decoder
output will have fewer than 2n output.
➢ The decoders presented here are called n-to-m-line decoders, where m <= 2n.
➢ Their purpose is to generate the 2n (or fewer) minterms of n input variables.
➢ The name decoder is also used in conjunction with some code converters such as a BCD-
to seven segment decoder.
➢ Only one output can be active (high) at any times.

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Combinational Logic Implementation using decoder

➢ A decoder provides the 2n minterms of n input variables. Since any Boolean function can
be expressed in sum of minterms canonical form, one can use a decoder to generate the
minterms and an external OR gate to form the sum.
➢ In this way, any combinational circuit with n inputs and m outputs can be implemented
with an n-to-2n- line decoder and m OR gates.
➢ The procedure for implementing a combinational circuit by means of a decoder and OR
gates requires that the Boolean functions for the circuit be expressed in sum of minterms.
➢ Example:-Implement a full-adder circuit with a decoder and two OR gates.

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S(x, y, z) = ∑ (1, 2, 4, 7)
C(x, y, z) = ∑ (3, 5, 6, 7)
From the truth table of the full-adder, we obtain the functions for this combinational
circuit in sum of minterms:

Example: A combinational circuit is defined by the following three Boolean functions. Design
the circuit with a decoder and external gates.
𝐹1 = 𝑥 ∙ 𝑦 ∙ 𝑧 + 𝑥 ∙ 𝑧
𝐹2 = 𝑥 ∙ 𝑦 ∙ 𝑧 + 𝑥 ∙ 𝑦
𝐹3 = 𝑥 ∙ 𝑦 ∙ 𝑧 + 𝑥 ∙ 𝑦

## Decoder with enable input

➢ Normally every commercially available decoder ICs have a special input other than
normal working input variables called ENABLE.
➢ The use of this ENABLE input is that when activated the complete IC comes to the
working condition for its normal functioning.
➢ If ENABLE input is deactivated the IC goes to sleep mode, the normal functioning is
suspended, and all the outputs become logic 0 irrespective of normal input variables
conditions.
➢ Its function is build higher decoder from lower decoders. 

E A B
D0 D1 D2 D3
0 X X 0 0 0 0
1 0 0 0 0 0

## 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 Figure: 2-to-4 decoder with enable input E

1 1 0 0 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 0 0 1

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Example:- Construct a 3-to-8 line decoder with the use of a 2-to-4 line decoder.

Example:- Construct a 4-to-16 line decoder with the use of a 2-to-4 line decoder.
Example:- Construct a 5-to-32 line decoder with the use of a 3-to-8 line decoder.

Encoders
➢ An encoder is a digital circuit that performs the inverse operation of a decoder.
➢ An encoder has 2n (or fewer) input lines and n output lines.
➢ The output lines generate the binary code corresponding to the input value.
➢ It is assumed that only one input has a value of 1 at any given time; otherwise the
circuit has no meaning.
➢ The encoder can be implemented with OR gates whose inputs are determined directly
from the truth table.
➢ These conditions can be expressed by the following output Boolean function

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Multiplexers Or Data Selectors
➢ A digital multiplexer is a combinational circuit that selects binary information from one
of the 2n input channels and transmits to a single output line.
➢ That is why the multiplexers are also called data selectors.
➢ The selection of the particular input channel is controlled by a set of select inputs.
➢ Select binary information from one of many input lines and direct it to a single output
line
➢ 2n input lines, n selection lines and one output line

## Example: a logic circuit, for 4x1 multiplexer

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➢ As in decoders, multiplexer ICs may have an enable input to control the operation of the
unit.
➢ When the enable input is in a given binary state, the outputs are disabled, and when it
is in the other state (the enable state), the circuit functions as a normal multiplexer.
➢ The enable input (sometimes called strobe) can be used to expand two or more
multiplexer ICs to a digital multiplexer with a larger number of inputs
Example:- Construct a 8-to-1 multiplexer with the use of a 4-to-1 line multiplexer and external
gate.

Example: - Construct a 16-to-1 multiplexer with the use of only a 4-to-1 line multiplexer.

Demultiplexer
➢ A demultiplexer is a circuit that receives information from a single line and directs it to
one of 2n possible output lines.
➢ The selection of a specific output is controlled by the bit combination of n elected lines.
➢ The term “demultiplexer” means one into many.

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Parity Generator And Checker

## ➢ Whenever information is transmitted from one device (the transmitter) to

another device (the receiver), there is a possibility that errors can occur such that
the receiver does not receive the identical information that was sent by the
transmitter.
➢ One of the simplest and most widely used schemes for error detection is the parity
method.
➢ Parity Bit: - A parity bit is an extra bit that is attached to a code group that is being
transferred from one location to another.
➢ The parity bit is made either 0 or 1, depending on the number of is that are
contained in the code group. Two different methods are used. ✓
The even-parity method, and ✓ The odd-parity method.
➢ In the even-parity method, the value of the parity bit is chosen so that the total
number of 1s in the code group (including the parity bit) is an even number.

➢ In the odd-parity method, the value of the parity bit is chosen so that the total
number of 1s in the code group (including the parity bit) is an odd number.

➢ A parity generator is a combination logic system to generate the parity bit at the
transmitting side.
➢ Parity Checker:- The message bits with the parity bit are transmitted to their
destination, where they are applied to a parity checker circuit.
➢ The circuit that checks the parity at the receiver side is called the parity checker.
➢ The parity checker circuit produces a check bit and is very similar to the parity
generator circuit.
➢ If the check bit is 1, then it is assumed that the received data is incorrect. The check
bit will be 0 if the received data is correct.

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Chapter 7
Latches and flip flops
➢ The logic circuits whose outputs at any instant of time depend on the present inputs as
well as on the past outputs are called sequential circuits.
➢ In sequential circuits, the output signals are fed back to the input side. A block diagram
of a sequential circuit is shown in Figure below.

➢ Sequential circuits are broadly classified into two main categories, known as synchronous
or clocked and asynchronous or unclocked sequential circuits, depending on the timing
of their signals.
➢ A synchronous sequential circuit is a system whose behavior can be defined from the
knowledge of its signals at discrete instants of time.
➢ The behavior of an asynchronous sequential circuit depends upon the order in which its
input signals change and can be affected at any instant of time.

Latches

➢ The latch is a type of temporary storage device that has two stable states (bistable) and
is normally placed in a category separate from that of flip-flops.
➢ Latches are similar to flip-flops because they are bistable devices that can reside in either
of two states using a feedback arrangement, in which the outputs are connected back to
the opposite inputs.
➢ The main difference between latches and flip-flops is in the method used for changing
their state.

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The S-R (SET-RESET) Latch

## ➢ A latch is a type of bistable logic device or multivibrator.

➢ An active-HIGH input S-R (SET- RESET) latch is formed with two cross-coupled NOR gates,
as shown in Figure (a);
➢ An active-LOW input S-R latch is formed with two cross-coupled NAND gates, as shown
in Figure (b).

## Truth table for an active-LOW input S-R latch.

➢ Notice that the output of each gate is connected to an input of the opposite gate.
➢ This produces the regenerative feedback that is characteristic of all latches and flip-
flops.
Summary of NAND Latch
The operation described above can be conveniently placed in a truth table (Figure5-
6) and is summarized as follows:
1. SET = CLEAR = 1. This condition is the normal resting state, and it has no effect on
the output state. The Q and Q’ outputs will remain in whatever state they were in
prior to this input condition.
2. SET = 0, CLEAR = 1. This will always cause the output to go to the Q = 1 state, where it
will remain even after SET returns HIGH. This is called setting the latch.
3. SET = 1, CLEAR = 0. This will always produce the Q = 0 state, where the output will
remain even after CLEAR returns HIGH. This is called clearing or resetting the latch.

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4. SET = CLEAR = 0. This condition tries to set and clear the latch at the same time
and can produce ambiguous results. It should not be used.

## Two cross-coupled NOR gates can be used as a NOR gate latch.

➢ The arrangement, shown in Figure below, is similar to the NAND latch except that the Q
and Q’ output save reversed positions.

➢ The analysis of the operation of the NOR latch can he performed in exactly the same
manner as for the NAND latch.

## Summary of NOR Latch

The results are given in the truth table in Figure above(a) and are summarized as follows:
1. S = R = 0. This is the normal resting state for the NOR latch, and it has no effect on the
output state. Q and Q’ will remain in whatever state they were in prior to the occurrence
of this input condition.
2. S = 1, R = O. This will always set Q = 1, where it will remain even after SET returns to 0.
3. S = 0, R = 1. This will always clear Q = 0. Where it will remain even after CLEAR returns to
0.
4. S = 1, R = 1. This condition tries to set and clear the latch at the same time, and it
produces Q = Q’ = 0. If the inputs are returned to 0 simultaneously, the resulting output
state is unpredictable. This input condition should not be used.
➢ The NOR gate latch operates exactly like the NAND latch except that the SET and CLEAR
inputs are active-HIGH rather than active-LOW, and the normal resting state is S = R = 0.
➢ Q will be set 1 by a HIGH pulse on the SET input, and it will he cleared LOW by a HIGH
pulse on the CLEAR input.
➢ The simplified block symbol for the NOR latch in Figure above(c) is shown with no bubbles
on the S and R inputs; this indicates that these inputs are active-HIGH.
Example: - Assume that Q = 0 initially, and determine the Q waveform for the NOR

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latch inputs of Figure below.

Example: - The waveforms of Figure below are applied to the inputs of the NAND latch.
Assume that initially Q = 0, and determine the Q waveform.

## The Gated S-R Latch

➢ A gated latch requires an enable input, EN.
➢ The logic diagram and logic symbol for a gated S-R latch are shown in Figure below.
➢ The S and R inputs control the state to which the latch will go when a HIGH level is
applied to the EN input.
➢ The latch will not change until EN is HIGH; but as long as it remains HIGH, the output
is controlled by the state of the S and R inputs.
➢ In this circuit, the invalid state occurs when both S and R are simultaneously HIGH.

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Example:-Determine the Q output waveform if the inputs shown in Figure below
are applied to a gated S-R latch that is initially RESET.

## The Gated D Latch

➢ Another type of gated latch is called the D latch. It differs from the S-R latch because it
has only one input in addition to EN.
➢ This input is called the D (data) input. Figure below contains a logic diagram and logic
symbol of a D latch.
➢ When the D input is HIGH and the EN input is HIGH, the latch will set.
➢ When the D input is LOW and EN is HIGH, the latch will reset. Stated another way, the
Output Q follows the input D when EN is HIGH.

➢ Example:-Determine the Q output waveform if the inputs shown in Figure below are
applied to a gated D latch, which is initially RESET.

EDGE-TRIGGERED FLIP-FLOPS
➢ Flip-flops are synchronous bistable devices.
➢ In this case, the term synchronous means that the output changes state only at a
specified point on the triggering input called the clock (CLK).
➢ An edge-triggered flip-flop changes state either at the positive edge (rising edge) or
at the negative edge (falling edge) of the clock pulse and is sensitive to its inputs
only at this transition of the clock.
➢ Three types of edge-triggered flip-flops are covered in this section: S-R, D, and J-K.
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➢ Although the S-R flip-flop is not available in IC form, it is the basis for the D and J-K flip-
flops.
➢ The logic symbols for all of these flip-flops are shown in Figure 7-13.
➢ Notice that each type can be either positive edge-triggered (no bubble at C input)
or negative edge triggered (bubble at C input).
➢ The key to identifying an edge triggered flip-flOp by its logic symbol is the small
triangle inside the block.

## The Edge-Triggered S-R Flip-Flop

➢ The S and R inputs of the S-R flip-flop are called synchronous inputs because data on these
inputs are transferred to the flip-flop's output only on the triggering edge of the clock
pulse.
➢ When S is HIGH and R is LOW, the Q output goes HIGH on the triggering edge of the clock
pulse, and the flip-flop is SET.
➢ When S is LOW and R is HIGH, the Q output goes LOW on the triggering edge of the clock
pulse, and the flip-flop is RESET
➢ When both S and R are LOW, the output does not change from its Prior state. An invalid
condition exists when both S and R are HIGH.

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➢ This basic operation of a positive edge-triggered flip-flop is illustrated in Figure below,
and Table is the truth table for this type of flip-flop.
➢ Remember, the flip-flop cannot change state except on the triggering edge of a clock
pulse

➢ The operation and truth table for a negative edge-triggered S-R flip-flop are the same as
those for a positive edge-triggered device except that the falling edge of the clock pulse
is the triggering edge.

Example:- Determine the Q and Q’ output waveforms of the flip-flop in Figure below for the S,
R, and CLK inputs in Figure (a). Assume that the positive edge-triggered flip-flop is initially
RESET.

Example:-Determine Q and Q’ for the S and R inputs in Figure above (a) if the flip-
flop is a negative edge-triggered device.

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Internal Circuitry of the Edge-Triggered S-R Flip-Flop

## ➢ The circuit contains three sections:

1. A basic NAND latch formed by NAND-3 and NAND-4
2. A pulse-steering circuit formed by NAND-1 and NAND-2
3. An edge-detector circuit

➢ As shown in Figure (a) above, the edge detector produces a narrow positive-going spike
(CLK*) that occurs coincident with the active transition of the CLK input pulse.
➢ The pulse-steering circuit “steers” the spike through to the SET or the CLEAR input of the
latch in accordance with the levels present at S and R.
➢ The internal circuitry of edge detector is look as follow.

## Figure: Implementation of edge-detector circuits used in edge-triggered flip-flops :( a) PGT; (b)

NGT.
➢ Similarly, the result is a narrow pulse at CLA*, which occurs on the PGT of CLK.
➢ The arrangement of Figure (b) likewise produces CLK* on the NGT of CLK for FFs that
are to trigger on a NGT.
➢ Since the CLK* signal is HIGH for only a few nanoseconds, Q is affected by the levels at S
and R only for a short time during and after the occurrence of the active edge of CLK*
This is what gives the FF its edge-triggered property.
➢ A simplified implementation of an edge-triggered S-R flip-flop is illustrated in Figure above and
is used to demonstrate the concept of edge-triggering.

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➢ Actually, the D flip-flop and the J-K flip-flop are available in IC form and more widely
used than the S-R type.
➢ However, understanding the S-R is important because both the D and the J-K flip-
flops are derived from the S-R flip-flop.
➢ Notice that the S-R flip-flop differs from the gated S-R latch only in that it has a
pulse transition detector.
➢ As with the gated latch, an invalid condition exists if a clock pulse occurs when both S
and R are HIGH at the same time.
➢ This is the major drawback of the S-R flip-flop.

## The Edge-Triggered D Flip-Flop

➢ The D flip-flop is useful when a single data bit (I or 0) is to be stored.
➢ The addition of an inverter to an S-R flip-flop creates a basic D flip-flop, as in Figure
below, where a positive edge-triggered type is shown.
➢ The logical operation of the positive edge-triggered D flip-flop is summarized in Table
below.

➢ The operation of a negative edge-triggered device is, of course, the same, except that
triggering occurs on the falling edge of the clock pulse.
➢ Remember, Q follows D at the active or triggering clock edge.

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The Edge-Triggered J-K Flip-Flop
➢ The J-K flip-flop is versatile and is a widely used type of flip-flop.
➢ The functioning of the J-K flip-flop is identical to that of the S-R flip-flop in the SET,
RESET, and no- change conditions of operation.
➢ The difference is that the J-K flip-flop has no invalid state as does the S-R flip-flop.
➢ Figure below shows the basic internal logic for a positive edge-triggered J-K flip-flop.
➢ It differs from the S-R edge-triggered flip-flop in that the Q output is connected back
to the input of gate G2 and the Q’ output is connected back to the input of gate G1.
➢ The two control inputs are labeled J and K in honor of Jack Kilby, who invented the
integrated circuit.
➢ A J-K flip-flop can also be of the negative edge-triggered type, in which case the clock
input is inverted.

## b)Block diagram of J-K FF for PT

Table below summarizes the logical operation of the edge-triggered j-K flip-flop in truth table
form.

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➢ Notice that there is no invalid state as there is with an S-R flip-flop.
➢ The truth table for a negative edge-triggered device is identical except that it is triggered
on the falling edge of the clock pulse.

Example:-The waveforms in Figure below (a) are applied to the J, K, and clock inputs as indicated
(NET).Determine the Q output, assuming that the flip-flop is initially RESET. (Do it for PET J-K FF
also.)

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Example:-The waveforms in Figure below (a) are applied to the flip-flop as shown (PET).
Determine the Q output, starting in the RESET state.

Example:- Interchange the J and K inputs of the above J-K FF and determine the resulting Q
output.
Example:- The waveforms in Figure above(a) are applied to the flip-flop that is NET. Determine
the Q output, starting in the RESET state.

## Asynchronous Preset and Clear Inputs

➢ For the flip-flops just discussed, the S-R, D, and j-K inputs are called synchronous inputs
because data on these inputs are transferred to the flip-flop's output only on the
triggering edge of the clock pulse: that is, the data are transferred synchronously with
the clock.
➢ Most integrated circuit flip-flops also have asynchronous inputs.
➢ These are inputs that affect the state of the flip-flop independent of the clock. They are
normally labeled preset (PRE) and clear (CLR).
➢ These asynchronous inputs can be used to set the FF to the 1 state or clear the FF to the
0 state at any time, regardless of the conditions at the other inputs.
➢ Stated in another way, the asynchronous inputs are override inputs, which can be used
to override all the other inputs in order to place the FF in one state or the other.
➢ An active level on the preset input will set the flip-flop, and an active level on the clear
input will reset it. A logic symbol for a J-K flip-flop with preset and clear inputs is shown
in Figure below.
➢ These inputs are active-LOW, as indicated by the bubbles. These preset and clear inputs
must both be kept HIGH for synchronous operation.

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EXAMPLE: - For the positive edge-triggered J-K flip-flop with preset and clear inputs in Figure
below.

Determine the Q output for the inputs shown in the timing diagram in part (a) if Q is initially
RESET

EXAMPLE:-For the negative edge-triggered J-K flip-flop with preset and clear inputs in Figure
below. Determine the Q output for the inputs shown in the timing diagram below if Q is
initially LOW.

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