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c  (476±550 CE) was the first in the line of greatmathematician-astronomers from the classical

age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy. His most famous works are the c  (499 CE,
when he was 23 years old) and the c  
.?Ô While there is a tendency to misspell his name as
"Aryabhatta" by analogy with other names having the "bhatta" suffix, his name is properly spelled Aryabhata:
every astronomical text spells his name thus,[1] including Brahmagupta's references to him "in more than a
hundred places by name".[2] Furthermore, in most instances "Aryabhatta" does not fit the metre either.[1]
Aryabhata mentions in the c  that it was composed 3,600 years into the Kali Yuga, when he was 23
years old. This corresponds to 499 CE, and implies that he was born in 476 CE. Aryabhata provides no
information about his place of birth. The only information comes from Bhāskara I, who describes Aryabhata
as r , "one belonging to the   country." While   was originally situated in the northwest of
India, it is widely attested that, during the Buddha's time, a branch of the Aśmaka people settled in the region
between the Narmada and Godavari rivers, in the South GujaratʹNorth Maharashtra region of central India.
Aryabhata is believed to have been born there.[1][3] However, early Buddhist texts describe Ashmaka as being
further south, in 
   or the Deccan, while other texts describe the Ashmakas as having fought Alexander,
which would put them further north.[3]  

    The place-value system, first
seen in the 3rd century Bakhshali Manuscript, was clearly in place in his work. While he did not use a symbol for
zero, the French mathematician Georges Ifrah argues that knowledge of zero was implicit in Aryabhata's place-
value system as a place holder for the powers of ten with null coefficients[10]However, Aryabhata did not use the
brahmi numerals. Continuing the Sanskritic tradition from Vedic times, he used letters of the alphabet to denote
numbers, expressing quantities, such as the table of sines in a mnemonic form.[11]]    Aryabhata
worked on the approximation for Pi (´), and may have come to the conclusion that ´ is irrational. In the second
part of the c  (ga itapāda10), he writes:!        

 ?"Add four to 100, multiply by eight, and then

add 62,000. By this rule the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 20,000 can be approached."[12] This implies
that the ratio of the circumference to the diameter is ((4+100)×8+62000)/20000 = 62832/20000 = 3.1416, which is
accurate to five significant figures.It is speculated that Aryabhata used the word r
  (approaching), to mean
that not only is this an approximation but that the value is incommensurable (orirrational). If this is correct, it is
quite a sophisticated insight, because the irrationality of pi was proved in Europe only in 1761 by Lambert).[13]
After Aryabhatiya was translated into Arabic (ca. 820 CE) this approximation was mentioned in Al-Khwarizmi's
book on algebra.[3]     In Ganitapada 6, Aryabhata gives the area of a triangle as
  that translates to: "for a triangle, the result of a
perpendicular with the half-side is the area Aryabhata discussed the concept of
  in his work by the name
of  . Literally, it means "half-chord". For simplicity, people started calling it . When Arabic writers
translated his works from Sanskrit into Arabic, they referred it as . However, in Arabic writings, vowels are
omitted, and it was abbreviated as . Later writers substituted it with , meaning "cove" or "bay." (In
Arabic,  is a meaningless word.) Later in the 12th century, when Gherardo of Cremonatranslated these writings
from Arabic into Latin, he replaced the Arabic  with its Latin counterpart,

, which means "cove" or "bay".
And after that, the

  in English. j   A problem of great interest to Indian
mathematicians since ancient times has been to find integer solutions to equations that have the form ax + b = cy,
a topic that has come to be known as diophantine equations. This is an example from Bhāskara's commentary on
Aryabhatiya:Find the number which gives 5 as the remainder when divided by 8, 4 as the remainder when divided
by 9, and 1 as the remainder when divided by 7That is, find N = 8x+5 = 9y+4 = 7z+1. It turns out that the smallest
value for N is 85. In general, diophantine equations, such as this, can be notoriously difficult. They were discussed
extensively in ancient Vedic text Sulba Sutras, whose more ancient parts might date to 800 BCE. Aryabhata's
method. -  means "pulverizing" or "breaking into small pieces", and the method involves a recursive
algorithm for writing the original factors in smaller numbers. Today this algorithm, elaborated by Bhaskara in 621
CE, is the standard method for solving first-order diophantine equations and is often referred to as the Aryabhata
algorithm.[16] The diophantine equations are of interest in cryptology, and the RSA Conference, 2006, focused on
the   method and earlier work in the Sulvasutras. c  In c  Aryabhata provided elegant results
for the summation of series of squares and cubes:[17]

Î c   FRS, better known as Î j     (22 December 1887 ʹ 26
April 1920) was an Indian mathematician and autodidact who, with almost no formal training in pure
mathematics, made substantial contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, infinite
series and continued fractions.Born and raised in Erode, Tamil Nadu, India, Ramanujan first encountered
formal mathematics at age 10. He demonstrated a natural ability, and was given books on
advanced trigonometry written by S L Loney. He had mastered them by age 12, and even
discovered theorems of his own. He demonstrated unusual mathematical skills at school, winning accolades and
awards. By 17, Ramanujan conducted his own mathematical research on Bernoulli numbers and the Euler±
Mascheroni constant. He received a scholarship to study at Government College in Kumbakonam, but lost it
when he failed his non-mathematical coursework. He joined another college to pursue independent mathematical
research, working as a clerk in the Accountant-General's office at the Madras Port Trust Office to support
himself. In 1912ʹ1913, he sent samples of his theorems to three academics at the University of Cambridge.
Only G. H. Hardy recognized the brilliance of his work, subsequently inviting Ramanujan to visit and work with
him at Cambridge. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society and a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, dying
of illness, malnutrition and possibly liver infection in 1920 at the age of 32.
  He met deputy collector V. Ramaswamy Aiyer, who had recently founded the
Indian Mathematical Society. Ramanujan, wishing for a job at the revenue department where Iyer worked,
showed him his mathematics notebooks. As Iyer later recalled:I was struck by the extraordinary mathematical
results contained in it [the notebooks]. I had no mind to smother his genius by an appointment in the lowest rungs
of the revenue department.[34]Iyer sent Ramanujan, with letters of introduction, to his mathematician friends in
Madras. Some of these friends looked at his work and gave him letters of introduction to R. Ramachandra Rao,
the district collector for Nellore and the secretary of the Indian Mathematical Society.[35][36][37] Ramachandra Rao
was impressed by Ramanujan's research but doubted that it was actually his own work. Ramanujan mentioned a
correspondence he had with Professor Saldhana, a notable Bombay mathematician, in which Saldhana expressed a
lack of understanding for his work but concluded that he was not a phony.[38] Ramanujan's friend, C. V.
Rajagopalachari, persisted with Ramachandra Rao and tried to quell any doubts over Ramanujan's academic
integrity. Rao agreed to give him another chance, and he listened as Ramanujan discussed elliptic
integrals, hypergeometric series, and his theory of divergent series, which Rao said ultimately "converted" him to a
belief in Ramanujan's mathematical brilliance. When Rao asked him what he wanted, Ramanujan replied that he
needed some work and financial support. Rao consented and sent him to Madras. He continued his mathematical
research with Rao's financial aid taking care of his daily needs. Ramanujan, with the help of V. Ramaswamy Aiyer,
had his work published in the  ??  ??. One of the first problems he posed in the
journal was:

He waited for a solution to be offered in three issues, over six months, but failed
to receive any. At the end, Ramanujan supplied the solution to the problem himself. On page 105 of his first
notebook, he formulated an equation that could be used to solve the infinitely nested radicals problem.

Using this equation, the answer to the question posed in the   was simply 3.[40] Ramanujan wrote his first
formal paper for the   on the properties ofBernoulli numbers. One property he discovered was that the
denominators (sequence A027642 in OEIS) of the fractions of Bernoulli numbers were always divisible by six. He
also devised a method of calculating  based on previous Bernoulli numbers. One of these methods went as
follows It will be observed that if is even but not equal to zero,

(i)  is a fraction and the numerator of in its lowest terms is a prime number,
(ii) the denominator of  contains each of the factors 2 and 3 once and only once,

(iii) is an integer and consequently is an  integer.

In his 17ʹpage paper, "Some Properties of Bernoulli's Numbers", Ramanujan gave three proofs, two corollaries and
three conjectures.[41] Ramanujan's writing initially had many flaws. As   editor M. T. Narayana Iyengar noted:
Mr. Ramanujan's methods were so terse and novel and his presentation so lacking in clearness and precision, that
the ordinary [mathematical reader], unaccustomed to such intellectual gymnastics, could hardly follow him.[42]
Ramanujan later wrote another paper and also continued to provide problems in the  .[43]
  Spring, Narayana Iyeru, Ramachandra Rao and E. W. Middlemast tried to
present Ramanujan's work to British mathematicians. One mathematician, M. J. M. Hill of University College
London, commented that Ramanujan's papers were riddled with holes.[48] He said that although Ramanujan had "a
taste for mathematics, and some ability", he lacked the educational background and foundation needed to be
accepted by mathematicians.[49] Although Hill did not offer to take Ramanujan on as a student, he did give
thorough and serious professional advice on his work. With the help of friends, Ramanujan drafted letters to
leading mathematicians at Cambridge University.[50] The first two professors, H. F. Baker and E. W. Hobson,
returned Ramanujan's papers without comment. On 16 January 1913, Ramanujan wrote to G. H. Hardy. Coming
from an unknown mathematician, the nine pages of mathematical wonder made Hardy originally view
Ramanujan's manuscripts as a possible "fraud".[52] Hardy recognized some of Ramanujan's formulae but others
"seemed scarcely possible to believe." One of the theorems Hardy found so incredible was found on the bottom
of page three (valid for 0 <  <  + 1/2):

Hardy was also impressed by some of Ramanujan's other work relating to infinite series:

The first result had already been determined by a mathematician named Bauer. The second one was
new to Hardy. It was derived from a class of functions called a hypergeometric series which had first
been researched by Leonhard Euler and Carl Friedrich Gauss. Compared to Ramanujan's work
on integrals, Hardy found these results "much more intriguing".[54] After he saw Ramanujan's theorems
on continued fractions on the last page of the manuscripts, Hardy commented that the "[theorems]
defeated me completely; I had never seen anything in the least like them before."[55] He figured that
Ramanujan's theorems "must be true, because, if they were not true, no one would have the
imagination to invent them."[55] Hardy asked a colleague, J. E. Littlewood, to take a look at the papers.
Littlewood was amazed by the mathematical genius of Ramanujan. After discussing the papers with
Littlewood, Hardy concluded that the letters were "certainly the most remarkable I have received" and
commented that Ramanujan was "a mathematician of the highest quality, a man of altogether
exceptional originality and power In mathematics, there is a distinction between having an insight and having a proof.
Ramanujan's talent suggested a plethora of formulae that could then be investigated in depth later. It is said that Ramanujan's
discoveries are unusually rich and that there is often more in it than what initially meets the eye. As a by-product, new
directions of research were opened up. Examples of the most interesting of these formulae include the intriguing
infinite series for ʋ, one of which is given below

This result is based on the negative fundamental discriminant = о4×58

with class number ( ) = 2 (note that 5×7×13×58 = 26390) and is related to the fact that

Compare to Heegner numbers, which have class number 1 and yield similar formulae. Ramanujan's series for ʋ converges
extraordinarily rapidly (exponentially) and forms the basis of some of the fastest algorithms currently used to calculate ʋ.

Truncating the sum to the first term also gives the approximation for ʋ, which is correct to six decimal
places. One of his remarkable capabilities was the rapid solution for problems. He was sharing a room with P. C.
Mahalanobis who had a problem, "Imagine that you are on a street with houses marked 1 through n. There is a house in
between (x) such that the sum of the house numbers to left of it equals the sum of the house numbers to its right. If n is
between 50 and 500, what are n and x." This is a bivariate problem with multiple solutions. Ramanujan thought about it and
gave the answer with a twist: He gave a continued fraction. The unusual part was that it was the solution to the whole class of
problems. Mahalanobis was astounded and asked how he did it. "It is simple. The minute I heard the problem, I knew that the
answer was a continued fraction. Which continued fraction, I asked myself. Then the answer came to my mind", Ramanujan
replied. His intuition also led him to derive some previously unknown identities, such as

for all Õ, where X is the gamma function. Equating coefficients of Õ, Õ, and Õ gives some deep identities for the hyperbolic
secant. In 1918, Hardy and Ramanujan studied the partition function A( ) extensively and gave a non-convergent asymptotic
series that permits exact computation of the number of partitions of an integer. Hans Rademacher, in 1937, was able to refine
their formula to find an exact convergent series solution to this problem. Ramanujan and Hardy's work in this area gave rise to a
powerful new method for finding asymptotic formulae, called the circle method.[83] He discovered mock theta functions in the
last year of his life. For many years these functions were a mystery, but they are now known to be the holomorphic parts of
harmonic weak Maass forms.
     !"A common anecdote about Ramanujan relates to the number 1729. Hardy
arrived at Ramanujan's residence in a cab numbered 1729. Hardy commented that the number 1729 seemed to be
uninteresting. Ramanujan is said to have stated on the spot that it was actually a very interesting number
mathematically, being the smallest number representable in two different ways as a sum of two cubes:

?Ñ  ?? 598±668) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer. Brahmagupta wrote
important works on mathematics and astronomy. In particular hewrote Ñ    
Established Doctrine of Brahma), in 628. The work was written in 25 chapters and Brahmagupta tells us
in the text that he wrote it at Bhillamal which today is the city of Bhinmal. Mathematics Brahmagupta's most
famous work is his Ñ    
. It is composed in elliptic verse, as was common practice in Indian
mathematics, and consequently has a poetic ring to it. As no proofs are given, it is not known how Brahmagupta's
mathematics was derived. ]Algebra Brahmagupta gave the solution of the general linear equation in chapter
eighteen of Ñ    
, 18.43 The difference between , when inverted and divided by the
difference of the unknowns, is the unknown in the equation. The  are [subtracted on the side] below that from

which the square and the unknown are to be subtracted.[4] Which is a solution equivalent to ,
where  represents constants. He further gave two equivalent solutions to the general quadratic equation, 18.44.
Diminish by the middle [number] the square-root of the  multiplied by four times the square and increased by the
square of the middle [number]; divide the remainder by twice the square. [The result is] the middle [number]. 18.45.
Whatever is the square-root of the  multiplied by the square [and] increased by the square of half the unknown,
diminish that by half the unknown [and] divide [the remainder] by its square. [The result is] the unknown.[4] Which are,
respectively, solutions equivalent to,

He went on to solve systems of simultaneous indeterminate equations stating that the desired variable must
first be isolated, and then the equation must be divided by the desired variable's coefficient. In particular, he
recommended using "the pulverizer" to solve equations with multiple unknown 18.51. Subtract the colors
different from the first color. [The remainder] divided by the first [color's coefficient] is the measure of the
first. [Terms] two by two [are] considered [when reduced to] similar divisors, [and so on] repeatedly. If there
are many [colors], the pulverizer [is to be used].[4]Like the algebra of Diophantus, the algebra of
Brahmagupta was syncopated. Addition was indicated by placing the numbers side by side, subtraction by
placing a dot over the subtrahend, and division by placing the divisor below the dividend, similar to our
notation but without the bar. Multiplication, evolution, and unknown quantities were represented by
abbreviations of appropriate terms. The extent of Greek influence on this syncopation, if any, is not known
and it is possible that both Greek and Indian syncopation may be derived from a common Babylonian
source. ºArithmetic In the beginning of chapter twelve of his Ñ    
, entitled ! 
Brahmagupta details operations on fractions. The reader is expected to know the basic arithmetic operations
as far as taking the square root, although he explains how to find the cube and cube-root of an integer and
later gives rules facilitating the computation of squares and square roots. He then gives rules for dealing with

??   ??   ? ? ? ? ?

 ? ººSeries Brahmagupta then goes on to give the sum of the squares and cubes

of the first
integers. 12.20. The sum of the squares is that [sum] multiplied by twice the [number of] step[s]
increased by one [and] divided by three. The sum of the cubes is the square of that [sum] Piles of these with
identical balls [can also be computed]. It is important to note here Brahmagupta found the result in terms of
the  of the first
integers, rather than in terms of
as is the modern practice. He gives the sum of the
squares of the first n natural numbers as n(n+1)(2n+1)/6 and the sum of the cubes of the first n natural
numbers as (n(n+1)/2)². Zero Brahmaguptasiddhanta is the very first book that mentions zero as a number.
hence Brahmagupta is considered as the man who found zero. He gave rules of using zero with other
numbers. Zero plus a positive number is the positive number etc. Brahmagupta made use of an important
concept in mathematics, thenumber zero. The Ñ    
 is the earliest known text to treat
zero as a number in its own right, rather than as simply a placeholder digit in representing another number
as was done by the Babylonians or as a symbol for a lack of quantity as was done by Ptolemy and
the Romans. In chapter eighteen of his Ñ    
, Brahmagupta describes operations on
negative numbers. He first describes addition and subtraction, 18.30. [The sum] of two positives is positives,
of two negatives negative; of a positive and a negative [the sum] is their difference; if they are equal it is
zero. The sum of a negative and zero is negative, [that] of a positive and zero positive, [and that] of two
zeros zero. 18.32. A negative minus zero is negative, a positive [minus zero] positive; zero [minus zero] is
zero. When a positive is to be subtracted from a negative or a negative from a positive, then it is to be
added. He goes on to describe multiplication, 18.33. The product of a negative and a positive is negative,
of two negatives positive, and of positives positive; the product of zero and a negative, of zero and a
positive, or of two zeros is zero.[4]But his description of division by zero differs from our modern
understanding, 18.34. A positive divided by a positive or a negative divided by a negative is positive; a zero
divided by a zero is zero; a positive divided by a negative is negative; a negative divided by a positive is
[also] negative. 18.35. A negative or a positive divided by zero has that [zero] as its divisor, or zero divided
by a negative or a positive [has that negative or positive as its divisor]. The square of a negative or of a
positive is positive; [the square] of zero is zero. That of which [the square] is the square is [its] square-root

Here Brahmagupta states that and as for the question of where he did not commit
himself. His rules for arithmetic on negative numbers and zero are quite close to the modern
understanding, except that in modern mathematics division by zero is left undefined.
?  ?
In?chapter twelve of his Ñ    
, Brahmagupta finds
Pythagorean triples, 12.39. The height of a mountain multiplied by a given multiplier is the distance to a city; it is not
erased. When it is divided by the multiplier increased by two it is the leap of one of the two who make the same
journey.  ? ?
?  ? ?? 
?m? ? ?    ? 
?? ?mx? ?b = m + mx/(x +

?m?a? ?b? ??
  ?Brahmagupta went on to give a recurrence
relation for generating solutions to certain instances of Diophantine equations of the second degree such asÔ   
  (called Pell's equation) by using the Euclidean algorithm. The Euclidean algorithm was known to him as the
"pulverizer" since it breaks numbers down into ever smaller pieces??The nature of squares: 18.64. [Put down] twice
the square-root of a given square by a multiplier and increased or diminished by an arbitrary [number]. The product
product of the first [pair], multiplied by the multiplier, with the product of the last [pair], is the last computed. 18.65.
The sum of the thunderbolt products is the first. The additive is equal to the product of the additives. The two square-
[4] [11]
roots, divided by the additive or the subtractive, are the additive . The key to his solution was the identity,

which is a generalization of an
identity that was discovered by Diophantus,

Using his identity and the fact that

if (^1, 1) and (^2, 2) are solutions to the equations ^ о  = 1 and ^ о 2 = 2, respectively,
2 2 2

then (^1^2 + 12,^12 + ^21) is a solution to ^2 о 2 = 12, he was able to find integral solutions to the Pell's equation
through a series of equations of the form^2 о 2 = . Unfortunately, Brahmagupta was not able to apply his solution
uniformly for all possible values of Ô, rather he was only able to show that if^2 о 2 =  has an integral solution for k =
1, 2, or 4, then ^2 о 2 = 1 has a solution. The solution of the general Pell's equation would have to wait
forBhaskara II in c. 1150 CE. Brahmagupta's formula The approximate area is the product of the halves of the
sums of the sides and opposite sides of a triangle and a quadrilateral. The accurate [area] is the square root from the
product of the halves of the sums of the sides diminished by [each] side of the quadrilateral. So given the
lengths , , and  of a cyclic quadrilateral, the approximate area is while, letting the exact area is

Although Brahmagupta does not explicitly state that these

quadrilaterals are cyclic, it is apparent from his rules that this is the case.[12] Heron's formula is a special
case of this formula and it can be derived by setting one of the sides equal to zero. Triangles Brahmagupta
dedicated a substantial portion of his work to geometry. One theorem states that the two lengths of a
triangle's base when divided by its altitude then follows, 12.22. The base decreased and increased by the
difference between the squares of the sides divided by the base; when divided by two they are the true
segments. The perpendicular [altitude] is the square-root from the square of a side diminished by the square
of its segment.[7] Thus the lengths of the two segments 
? ?He further gives a
theorem on rational triangles. A triangle with rational sides , , ! and rational area is of the form:

for some rational

numbers , , and .
Mathematics Some of Ñ   contributions to mathematics include the following: A proof of the Pythagorean
theorem by calculating the same area in two different ways and then canceling out terms to get ² + ² = !².
In , solutions of quadratic, cubic and quartic indeterminate equations. Solutions of indeterminate quadratic
equations (of the type ² +  = ²). Integer solutions of linear and quadratic indeterminate equations (  ). The
rules he gives are (in effect) the same as those given by the RenaissanceEuropean mathematicians of the 17th
century A cyclic Chakravala method for solving indeterminate equations of the form ² +  + ! = . The solution to
this equation was traditionally attributed to William Brouncker in 1657, though his method was more difficult than
the !  method The first general method for finding the solutions of the problem ² í
² = 1 (so-called "Pell's
equation") was given by Bhaskara II.[10] Solutions of Diophantine equations of the second order, such as 61² + 1
= ². This very equation was posed as a problem in 1657 by the Frenchmathematician Pierre de Fermat, but its
solution was unknown in Europe until the time of Euler in the 18th century. Solved quadratic equations with more than
one unknown, and found negative and irrational solutions. Preliminary concept of mathematical analysis. Preliminary
concept of infinitesimal calculus, along with notable contributions towards integral calculus. Conceived differential
calculus, after discovering the derivative and differential coefficient. Stated Rolle's theorem, a special case of one of
the most important theorems in analysis, the mean value theorem. Traces of the general mean value theoremare also
found in his works. Calculated the derivatives of trigonometric functions and formulae. (See Calculus section below.)
, Bhaskara developed spherical trigonometry along with a number of
other trigonometric results. (See Trigonometry section below.) c 
 ?Bhaskara's arithmetic text  covers
the topics of definitions, arithmetical terms, interest computation, arithmetical and geometrical progressions, plane
geometry, solid geometry, the shadow of the gnomon, methods to solve indeterminate equations, and combinations.
 is divided into 13 chapters and covers many branches of mathematics, arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and a
little trigonometry and mensuration. More specifically the contents include: Definitions. Properties
of zero (including division, and rules of operations with zero) Further extensive numerical work, including use
of negative numbers and surds. Estimation of ʌ. Arithmetical terms, methods of multiplication, and squaring.
Inverse rule of three, and rules of 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11. Problems involving interest and interest computation. Arithmetical
and geometrical progressions. Plane (geometry). Solid geometry. Permutations and combinations
.Indeterminate equations (Kuttaka), integer solutions (first and second order). His contributions to this topic are
particularly important, since the rules he gives are (in effect) the same as those given by the renaissance European
mathematicians of the 17th century, yet his work was of the 12th century. Bhaskara's method of solving was an
improvement of the methods found in the work of Aryabhata and subsequent mathematicians. His work is
outstanding for its systemisation, improved methods and the new topics that he has introduced. Furthermore
the  contained excellent recreative problems and it is thought that Bhaskara's intention may have been that a
student of 'Lilavati' should concern himself with the mechanical application of the method. c
His Ñ
 ("c  ") was a work in twelve chapters. It was the first text to recognize that a positive number has
two square roots (a positive and negative square root). His work Ñ
 is effectively a treatise on algebra and
contains the following topics:Positive and negative numbers. Zero. The 'unknown' (includes determining unknown
quantities).Determining unknown quantities. Surds (includes evaluating surds).    (for solving indeterminate
equations and Diophantine equations). Simple equations (indeterminate of second, third and fourth degree). Simple
equations with more than one unknown. indeterminate quadratic equations (of the type ax² + b = y²). Solutions of
indeterminate equations of the second, third and fourth degree. Quadratic equations. Quadratic equations with more
than one unknown. Operations with products of several unknowns. Bhaskara derived a cyclic, !  method for
solving indeterminate quadratic equations of the form ax² + bx + c = y. Bhaskara's method for finding the solutions of
the problem Nx² + 1 = y² (the so-called "Pell's equation") is of considerable importance. He gave the general
solutions of:Pell's equation using the !  method.The indeterminate quadratic equation using
the !  method. He also solved [Cubic equations Quartic equations. Indeterminate cubic equations.,
Indeterminate quartic equations,.Indeterminate higher-order polynomial equations?

 (written in 1150) demonstrates Bhaskara's knowledge of trigonometry, including the sine table and
relationships between different trigonometric functions. He also discovered spherical trigonometry, along with other
interesting trigonometrical results. In particular Bhaskara seemed more interested in trigonometry for its own sake
than his predecessors who saw it only as a tool for calculation. Among the many interesting results given by
Bhaskara, discoveries first found in his works include the now well known results for
and :?  ?His work, the  
, is an astronomical treatise and contains many
theories not found in earlier works. Preliminary concepts of infinitesimal calculus and mathematical analysis, along
with a number of results in trigonometry, differential calculus and integral calculus that are found in the work are of
particular interest. Evidence suggests Bhaskara was acquainted with some ideas of differential calculus. It seems,
however, that he did not understand the utility of his researches, and thus historians of mathematics generally neglect
this achievement. Bhaskara also goes deeper into the 'differential calculus' and suggests the differential coefficient
vanishes at an extremum value of the function, indicating knowledge of the concept of 'infinitesimals'. There is
evidence of an early form of Rolle's theorem in his work: j? ?
? ? ?

? ? ? He gave the result that if
then , thereby finding the derivative of sine, although he never
developed the notion of derivatives. Bhaskara uses this result to work out the position angle of the ecliptic, a
quantity required for accurately predicting the time of an eclipse.In computing the instantaneous motion of a planet,
the time interval between successive positions of the planets was no greater than a  , or a 1»33750 of a second,
and his measure of velocity was expressed in this infinitesimal unit of time.He was aware that when a variable attains
the maximum value, its differential vanishes.He also showed that when a planet is at its farthest from the earth, or at
its closest, the equation of the centre (measure of how far a planet is from the position in which it is predicted to be,
by assuming it is to move uniformly) vanishes. He therefore concluded that for some intermediate position the
differential of the equation of the centre is equal to zero. In this result, there are traces of the general mean value
theorem, one of the most important theorems in analysis, which today is usually derived from Rolle's theorem.
The mean value theorem was later found by Parameshvara in the 15th century in the Ñ, a commentary
on Bhaskara's .Madhava (1340±1425) and the Kerala School mathematicians (including Parameshvara) from
the 14th century to the 16th century expanded on Bhaskara's work and further advanced the development
of calculus in India