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System Effects

Matthew Spink, P.E.


Product Manager
Centrifugal, Vane Axial, and Industrial Products
Greenheck Fan Corporation

1
Design Airflow
6.0
Design System Curve
5.0
4.0
Ps

3.0
Catalog Fan Curve
2.0
1.0
0.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
CFM x 1000
Fan Curves
• Show how a fan will operate in any system
(installation)

• Based on standardized tests


– AMCA 210

• Tested under ideal conditions


System Effects Defined:
•Anything you place in close
proximity before or after the
fan that effects the cataloged
performance.

5
System Effects
Actual Airflow
6.0
5.0 System Curve

4.0
Ps

3.0 Catalog Fan Curve

2.0
1.0
Actual Fan Curve
0.0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14
CFM x 1000
Why System Effect is Important

• Can decrease performance


• Can cause excess vibration
• Can cause excess noise
• Can require more energy (HP) to achieve
rated performance
• Takes time to determine and understand

8
Three most common causes of deficient
performance of a fan/system are:

• Improper outlet connections

• Non-uniform inlet flow

• Swirl at the inlet

9
Fan Outlet Velocity Profiles
Blast Area
Outlet Discharge
Cut off
Area Duct

25%

Centrifugal Fan
50%

75%

100% Effective Duct Length

Axial Fan

Adapted from AMCA Publication 201-202, Fans and Systems.

1
0
Effective Duct Length

Effective Duct Length = 2.5 Duct Diameters for


2,500 FPM or less

Add 1 duct diameter for each additional 1,000 FPM

For rectangular ducts, the equivalent duct diameter is


(4 x width x length / 3.14) ^ 0.5

1
1
System Effect
1
Curve

2
2
Adapted from AMCA Publication 201-202, Fans and Systems.

1
2
Blast Area Discharge

System Effect
Outlet
Area Duct
Cutoff

Curves for
Outlet Ducts -
Centrifugal 100% Effective Duct Length

Fans No 12% 25% 50% 100%


Duct Effective Effective Effective Effective
Duct Duct Duct Duct

Blast Area
System Effect Curve
Outlet Area
0.4 P R-S U W --
0.5 P R-S U W --
0.6 R-S S-T U-V W-X --
0.7 S U W-X -- --
0.8 T-U VW X -- --
0.9 W-W W-X -- -- --
1.0 -- -- -- -- --

Adapted from AMCA Publication 201-202, Fans and Systems.

1
3
System Effect
Curve 1

+0.45 in w.g. 3

2
Adapted from AMCA Publication 201-202, Fans and Systems.

1
4
Outlet Conditions

Good Poor
Outlet Elbows

Better Poor

1
6
Outlet Elbows - Centrifugal Fans

Position C

Position D

Position B

Inlet
Position A
Adapted from AMCA Publication 201-202, Fans and Systems.

1
9
Example:
•22-BISW
•12,000 CFM (4,200 fpm)
•2 in w.g.
•blast/outlet ratio = 0.7
•2016 rpm
•12.35 bhp (15 hp motor)
Outlet System Effect?
System Effect Curves for SWSI Fans
Outlet No 12% 25% 50% 100%
Blast Area Elbow Outlet Effective Effective Effective Effective
Outlet Area Position Duct Duct Duct Duct Duct
A N O P-Q S
0.4 B M-N N O-P R-S
C L-M M N Q
D L-M M N Q
A O-P P-Q R T
N P o s i tio n C
0.5 B N-O O-P Q S-T
C M-N N O-P R-S O
D M-N N O-P R-S P o s itio n D
A Q Q-R S U S
0.6 B P Q R T Y
C N-O O Q S S
D N-O O Q S T P o s it io n B
A R-S S T V E
0.7 B Q-R R-S S-T U-V M
C P Q R-S T
D P Q R-S T E
A S S-T T-U W F
0.8 B R-S S T V F
C Q-R R S U-V E I n le t
P o s iti o n A
D Q-R R S U-V C
A T T-U U-V W T
0.9 B S S-T T-U W
C R S S-T V F
D R S S-T V A
A T T-U U-V W C AMCA International Publication
1 B S-T T U W T 201-90
C R-S S T V O
D R-S S T V R
Adapted from AMCA Publication 201-202, Fans and Systems.

2
1
System Effect
Curve

Adapted from AMCA Publication 201-202, Fans and Systems.

2
2
System Effect Curves for SWSI Fans
Outlet No 12% 25% 50% 100%
Blast Area Elbow Outlet Effective Effective Effective Effective
Outlet Area Position Duct Duct Duct Duct Duct
A N O P-Q S
0.4 B M-N N O-P R-S
C L-M M N Q
D L-M M N Q
A O-P P-Q R T
N P o s i tio n C
0.5 B N-O O-P Q S-T
C M-N N O-P R-S O
D M-N N O-P R-S P o s itio n D
A Q Q-R S U S
0.6 B P Q R T Y
C N-O O Q S S
D N-O O Q S T P o s it io n B
A R-S S T V E
0.7 B Q-R R-S S-T U-V M
C P Q R-S T
D P Q R-S T E
A S S-T T-U W F
0.8 B R-S S T V F
C Q-R R S U-V E I n le t
P o s iti o n A
D Q-R R S U-V C
A T T-U U-V W T
0.9 B S S-T T-U W
C R S S-T V F
D R S S-T V A
A T T-U U-V W C AMCA International Publication
1 B S-T T U W T 201-90
C R-S S T V O
D R-S S T V R
Adapted from AMCA Publication 201-202, Fans and Systems.

2
3
System Effect
Curve

Adapted from AMCA Publication 201-202, Fans and Systems.

2
4
Outlet Elbows - Centrifugal Fans

Position C

+2 in w.g.
Position D

+2 in w.g.

+1.3 in w.g.
Position B

Inlet
Position A
+1 in w.g.

2
5
Three most common causes of deficient
performance of a fan/system are:

• Improper outlet connections

• Non-uniform inlet flow

• Swirl at the inlet

2
6
Inlet Conditions

Length
of D uct

Inlet with 3-piece Inlet with rectangular Inlet with special


elbow inlet Duct designed inlet box

2
7
System Effect - Square elbow and turning vanes
S ys tem E ff ec t C ur ve s S y stem E ffe ct C urv es S ys tem E ffec t C ur ve s

R /D No 2D 5D R /D No 2D 5D R /D No 2D 5D
D u ct D uc t D uc t D uc t Du ct D uc t D uc t D uc t D uc t
0.5 O Q S 0 .5 S T- U V 0.5 S T -U V

0.7 5 P R S -T 1 .0 T U -V W 1.0 T U -V W

1.0 R S- T U -V 2 .0 V V- W W -X 2.0 V V -W W -X

2.0 S T- U V

H H H
Sq ua re S q ua re S qu ar e

L en g th Le n gt h Le ng t h
o f D u ct of D uc t of D uc t

R R R

Square elbow - Square elbow - Square elbow -


no turning vanes long turning vanes short turning vanes
Adapted from AMCA Publication 201-202, Fans and Systems.

2
9
System Effect
Curve

Adapted from AMCA Publication 201-202, Fans and Systems.

3
0
System Effect on round inlet ducts
System Effect Curves System Effect Curves

R/D No 2D 5D R/D No 2D 5D
Duct Duct Duct Duct Duct Duct
0.5 O Q S 0.5 P-Q R-S T
System Effect Curves
0.75 Q R-S T-U 0.75 Q-R S U
R/D No 2D 5D
Duct Duct Duct 1.0 R S-T U-V 1.0 R S-T U-V
-- N P R-S 2.0 R-S T U-V 2.0 R-S T U-V
3.0 S T-U V 3.0 S-T U V-W

D D D

Length Length Length


of Duct of Duct of Duct

R R
R

2 piece mitered 3 piece mitered 4 or more piece


round section round section mitered round section
Adapted from AMCA Publication 201-202, Fans and Systems.

3
1
System Effect
Curve

Adapted from AMCA Publication 201-202, Fans and Systems.

3
2
Three most common causes of deficient
performance of a fan/system are:

• Improper outlet connections

• Non-uniform inlet flow

• Swirl at the inlet

3
3
Inlet Swirl
Pre-Rotation Counter-Rotation

3
4
Inlet Swirl
Best solution for inlet swirl is turning vanes.

3
5
The CALL !!!
“My fan isn’t performing, come fix it.”

“I ordered 3,000 cfm at 1 inch


Balancer said I have 2,500 at 3/4 inch.”

3
6
What's the PROBLEM?
• Fan?
• Motor?
• Inlet conditions?
• Outlet conditions?
Let's Look at Installation!!!
Back to The CALL!
Givens:
•Centrifugal Fan
•3,000 cfm at 1 inch static pressure
•13 by 13 inch fan discharge / duct size
•9 by 13 inch blast area
•NO duct length after discharge

• 3,000 cfm / (13 x 13) = 2556 FPM

• Equiv. Duct Dia. = (4 x 13 x 13 / 3.14)^0.5 = 14.5 inches


Effective duct length = 2.5 + 1 = 3.5 ducts = 3.5 x 14.5 inches = 4 ft

•Blast Area / Outlet Area = (9 x 13) / (13 x 13) = 0.7

3
8
Blast Area Discharge

System Effect
Outlet
Area Duct
Cutoff

Curves for
Outlet Ducts -
Centrifugal 100% Effective Duct Length

Fans No 12% 25% 50% 100%


Duct Effective Effective Effective Effective
Duct Duct Duct Duct

Blast Area
System Effect Curve
Outlet Area
0.4 P R-S U W --
0.5 P R-S U W --
0.6 R-S S-T U-V W-X --
0.7 S U W-X -- --
0.8 T-U VW X -- --
0.9 W-W W-X -- -- --
1.0 -- -- -- -- --

Adapted from AMCA Publication 201-202, Fans and Systems.

3
9
System Effect
Curve S

System Effect Factor


(no duct) ~ 0.3 inches

2556 FPM
Adapted from AMCA Publication 201-202, Fans and Systems.

4
0
Solution?
Increased BHP
BHP
Ps
Expected

Actual
Increased RPM
Final

CFM
Back to The CALL!
Givens:
•Centrifugal Fan
•3,000 cfm at 1 inch static pressure
•13 by 13 inch fan discharge / duct size
•9 by 13 inch blast area

•What if they placed a 12 inch duct after the discharge?


(1 ft of duct length = 25% of the effective length)

4
2
Blast Area Discharge

System Effect
Outlet
Area Duct
Cutoff

Curves for
Outlet Ducts -
Centrifugal 100% Effective Duct Length

Fans No 12% 25% 50% 100%


Duct Effective Effective Effective Effective
Duct Duct Duct Duct

Blast Area
System Effect Curve
Outlet Area
0.4 P R-S U W --
0.5 P R-S U W --
0.6 R-S S-T U-V W-X --
0.7 S U W-X -- --
0.8 T-U VW X -- --
0.9 W-W W-X -- -- --
1.0 -- -- -- -- --

Adapted from AMCA Publication 201-202, Fans and Systems.

4
3
System Effect
Curve

No system effect with


25% effective duct
length
W-X

2556 FPM
Adapted from AMCA Publication 201-202, Fans and Systems.

4
4
Nice Work!
Flow Probe System Effect

Plenum Fan
Typical Flow Probes
• Mounted into the smallest
diameter of the fan inlet
venturi
• Use 3/8" to 3/4" tubing
that is designed to
measure total and static
pressure components of
airflow
Flow Probe System Effect Video
General Rules of Thumb

• Minimum 2.5 duct diameters on Outlet


• Minimum 5 to 8 duct diameters on Inlet
• Avoid inlet swirl

– If any of these general rules are broken, be


aware of the system effect results

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0
Thank You for your Time

Matthew Spink, P.E.


Greenheck Fan Corporation